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A Journal of Religion, Politics, Literature
No. 5.—Vol. I.]
· [PRICE THREEPENCE.
THE REPORT OF THE ROYAL COMMISSION ON cannot be too much or too often brought under the eyes of the VIVISECTION.
public. When we hear physicists or surgeons now-a-days
asserting that discoveries useful to man have been, or may be, C o deeply was the country moved by the sickening and made by means of vivisecting animals, it must be of infinite
horrible details concerning the secret practices of service to oppose to their dicta the authority of such men as N scientific doctors and enquiring philosophers, which Sir Charles Bell, who declared, as to anatomy and physiology, were made public some months ago, that a Royal Commission that 'experiments (Vivisections) have never been the means was instituted, which has frequently sat, discussed the subject, of discovery; and a survey of what has been attempted of heard evidence, and duly reported. The persons selected late years in physiology will prove that the opening of living were not those who ought to bave sat upon it--as several of animals has done more to perpetuate error than to confirm them are, or have been, notorious Vivisectors themselves. As the just views taken from the study of anatomy and natural a Commission, it was exceedingly unfair and one-sided. The motions.' formal Blue Book, now before us, deserves some general « With a mass of evidence from the highest surgical notice. Those who desire to have details should procure it authorities of the utter uselessness of these terrible sufferings, and study it for themselves. After all the doctoring that it to inflict them under any circumstances, or any official sanchas undergone-a fact to which Mr. G. R. Jesse bears witness tion, is base, cowardly, and brutal. Such perpetrations are -it more than suffices to reveal a state of things, too horrible | nothing less than devilish, and most disgraceful to any people to describe, which ought at once to be promptly and totally which tolerates them. The numerous authorities of the soppressed (without any exception whatsoever) by Act of highest grade, whose dicta, or whose conflicting experimente, Parliament. When first the Report was issued, the most confirm the verdict of their uselessness and their debasing influential newspapers,—guided by the people who style influence on the moral character of those who practise them, themselves “ leaders of science”-had cleverly endeavoured call on us to put an absolute end to them. There can be no to blunt the force of the sickening details revealed in it. ' compromise on the subject in any sound or humano mind. And, to a certain extent, they have been successful. Yet, Delenda est Cartbago ! thanks to various organizations, which have judiciously and | “Could there possibly be any compromise, it could only be efficiently circulated damning proofs of cultured barbarism in reference to human subjects. Longet says, “No Vivisecand demoniacal cruelty,—the feelings of the people of tions can be beneficial to man except they are made on man !' England bave been deeply stirred.
But with all the zealous assertions of Vivisectors of their We regret to say that the Society for Preventing Cruelty object in such awful atrocities being the good of humanity, to Animals has adopted a most half-hearted and feeble policy. where is the magnanimous Vivisector who would submit bis Such a Society, well-endowed and most influentially supported, sensitive frame to the knife, the forceps, the red-hot iron ought to have stood forth at once to unravel the diabolical which he applies with such diabolical indifference, and often mysteries, and act boldly in opposition to the vile and wicked with long and oft-repeated savagery, to his bound and helpperpetrators of those revolting horrors. We cannot maintain | less victim? As, therefore, it is declared by high professional that this has been done. There seems to us to have been an authority that nothing but human Vivisection can throw utter want of principle manifest in its policy-feebleness, light on the human organism, and as we are sure not to have half-heartedness, and most inadequate language were the offered us any human martyr of science-away with the order of the day.
whole useless and detestable system of universal Vivisection Hence it came to pass that Mr. G. R. Jesse stood forward under any regulations, sanctions, or circumstances whatever. to found a “Society for the Total Abolition and Suppression Delenda est Vivisectio! of Vivisection ;” and, although we know nothing of him but “On these grounds I subscribe absolutely to the principle as a public man, we are free to confess that he first took up his of the Society for the Abolition of Vivisection,' a system of stand on a sound and solid principle, and has worked most tortures worse than those of the infamous Inquisition, and nobly, with an energy, a devotion, and a consistency wortby the details of which the stoutest stoic cannot read but as a of all honour and praise. He alone was the man whom the stern and terrible duty. Yet the Society which issued the Vivisectors feared; for his literature was forcible, the evidence prize essay of Mr. Fleming, with strange inconsistency, in an he produced was most conclusive, and his influence for good article in the Animal World for December (1875) advocates very considerable. As it was impossible to attack an outo the perpetuation of this most odious barbarity, which by its spoken and honest man like Mr. Jesse with success, face to own publication is proved to be not only horrible, but useless, face-for he declined to turn tail and run away-his adroit full of confusion, and degrading to the operator. True, it enemies changed their tactics, and adopted quite another would perpetuate the abomination under legal regulations, game. Mischief, no doubt, they have done ; but we trust licensed performers, and anæsthetics. But who shall guarantee they are now foiled in their artful opposition.
the observance of these conditions, seeing the rabid passion The case against the Vivisectors has never been better, or of Vivisectors for these cruelties, their anxiety for the secrecy more ably, put, than in the following letter from the pen of of their horrible practices, and their habit of severing the Mr. William Howitt, which we reproduce in this prominent vocal nerves of their victim to render their cries impossible ? place for the special instruction of our readers :
Professor Schiff, at Florence, when he had horrified the sur“In addressing to you my sentiments on the odious subject rounding neighbourhood of his school of Vivisection by the of Vivisection, I was intending to call attention to the mass shrieks and groans of his victims, stoutly asserted that he of conclusive evidence adduced against the practice. I see. only operated under the effect of anæsthetics. But he now however, with pleasure that you bave recently done that I cuts the vocal nerves of his victims and they die in silence. yourself in a printed paper addressed to the supporters and
“The abomination admits of no tampering with. It must friends of the Society for the Abolition of Vivisection.' be rooted out utterly, and with the sternest penalties of the Little more would seem therefore requisite for me to do than law; and England can never pause in its demand for this, till to add my voice to those of so many both professional and it is accomplished by the rigour of statute and the infamy of unprofessional persons of far higher pretensions in condemna- | indignant public opinion. tion of this horrible practice, and in bidding God-speed to a Thus we see that Mr. Howitt's position-identical with Society which aims at its utter extinction. Yet such evidence that of Mr. Jesse-is very evident and very secure. Now, if
all those who deplore the existence in England of this same objection lies against the controversial lectures, corredevilish cruelty-people like Mr. G. Hoggan, Miss F. Power spondence, sermons, and articles of the present day : they Cobbe, Mr. Hutton of the Spectator, and their earnest and are more or less valueless, because they are ex parte, and there influential followers had combined for the " total abolition " is no check upon misrepresentation or error, except the conof the illegal horrors in question, the public would have science and the intelligence of the controversialist. Thus it responded, and Parliament would have been certainly forced comes to pass that old worn-out fallacies, which have been to act. As it is, the friends of the dumb animals are unhappily exposed times out of number, are trotted out again and again, divided in policy ; Jermyn-street is silent; Mr. Hutton grows like ghosts which have been imperfectly laid, or like so many ambiguous; Miss Cobbe is for • restriction ;” and so opposition figures or springs which are no sooner shut down in a box, is weakened, and the cbances of doing good decrease.
than they spring up with a "here we are again.” We have A careful study of the Blue Book of 388 pages would often speculated upon the use of making quotations in a book convince any rational being that the absurd and obviously intended for general readers ; how are they to verify the false conclusion at which the Royal Commissioners have arrived quotation to get at the context ? to know the circumstances ? is wholly unwarranted by the evidence which was either They can only take what the writer says upon trust ; their tendered or obtained. How Lord Winmarleigh and Mr. faith remains unshaken until they hear from another Hutton could have signed it is puzzling. Many men amongst author of equal, or nearly equal, authority, that the quotathe witnesses could not speak out: others would not. Yet tions really mean the exact opposite of that which the first the actual revelations made by men of the highest repute, as writer deduced from them, that the facts are garbled, the well as the glimpses caught of other and darker atrocities logic defective ; and then the puzzled reader can only take perpetrated, are enough to fill tbe mind with deepening refuge in the sceptical reflection that where doctors differ he horror, and to haunt the consciences of all humane people is not able to decide. like bad and sickening dreams. The Commissioners, however, ! There is much evil in all this : it is its inconsequential in the teeth of evidence which they dared not suppress,-- character which has brought controversy into reproach ; though some of them quietly bullied Mr. Jesse, a witness, which has made busy men look upon truth as a thing out of with some tact, much scorn, and considerable impatience, their reach, and as a will-o'-the-wisp which it is but waste of have the rank hardihood (notwithstanding Klein's evidence) | time to attempt to overtake. It is a common saying that to write thus:-" We have great satisfaction in assuring your | truth has nothing to fear from free discussion; and nothing Majesty that at the present time a general sentiment of humanity can be more true, if by free discussion is meant the rigid and on this subject appears to pervade all classes of society."
im partial comparison and examination of facts and opinions in Those of our readers who are anxious that the vile practices open court,-in a “contentious conference"-in a conference, of German scientific men should not spread here; that, as a that is, where the representatives of opposite opinions are nation, we should still be noted for our batred of both refined forced to look one another in the face, to acknowledge and brutal cruelty :-those who are prepared to speak or act/ undoubted facts, and to repudiate detected errors. But free for the poor suffering animals-put by God under man's discussion in the false sense in which that term is generally dominion, to be used mercifully, and not cut up alive,- used, as meaning the unbridled liberty of publishing, either should procure the Report and study it. And if they wish intentionally or ignorantly, what are only ex parte statements to aid in the crusade against scientific demonism, Mr. G. R. of error,-guch free discussion is no more a help to the Jesse, of Henbury, near Macclesfield, will cheerfully and ascertaining of the trath than are the wreckers' fires a guide cordially co-operate with them in this benevolent and sacred to the ship making for port. object.
We believe it would be a great advantage to the cause of
truth, and a great step towards the re-union of Christians in A CONTENTIOUS CONFERENCE.
the only unity worth having unity based upon Truth, if a
"contentious conference," such as we have described, could N the Fourth of May, A.D. 1600, a Conference was be organized on a large scale in the present day. Suppose,
inaugurated at Fontainebleau between Du Perron and for instance, that some of the main points in controversy
others on the Catholic side, and Duplessis, Morray, between the Roman and the Anglican Communions were made Casaubon, and de Fresne on the Huguenot side. The object the subject for a public discussion before a sufficiently select and was to investigate the accuracy of certain quotations and influential audience by disputants chosen to represent the statements made in behalf of the Huguenot opinions by best points of both sides. The result must surely be a gain Dople sig. "Commissioners," says Fervis, in his History of to the cause of truth, and to that cause only ; nor could such the Church of France. “ were appointed to superintend the a course be objected to as undignified, if only the proceedings proceedings, and the king and a large number of notables were conducted with due decorum and courtesy, and if the were present as spectators. After the first day's proceedings occasion was invested by those in authority with sufficient the Protestant champion retired beaten and disgraced from solemnity and importance. The present day is, undoubtedly, the contest. It was conclusively shown that the Huguenot a day of enquiry; it is also, undoubtedly, a day of much tenets rested on misquotations and misapprehensions, and frivolity and of much indifference to truth ; but these latter many fallacies and heresies, which otherwise might have are due in no small measure to the difficulty which each prevailed extensively, were finally disposed of; many Hugue individual feels in ascertaining for bimself, or herself, what is nots returned to the Catholic Faith, and the triumph of the truth. We want a national investigation of controverted latter was complete.
topics, and it is not Catholic truth which, in our opinion, This was “a contentious Conference :" a Conference, that should fear the result of such an investigation. is, in which the parties concerned met to argue fairly, albeit courteously and charitably, against each other in the presence of an audience sufficiently intelligent to appreciate the argu
WHAT IS CONSERVATISM? NO. V. ments adduced, and sufficiently numerous to make the result final. Such a Conference differs widely in character from THE Catholic Christian, we see, finds himself under the some which bave been recently held in which the main object
conscientious obligation of conforming to human laws, has been the invention of ambiguities with a view, not to 1 and to this he is led, not only by reflection upon the removing, but rather to concealing, difficulties. We have arrangements of Divine Providence, by which he learns that referred to the discussion at Fontainebleau because we think man as a social being has evidently the power and right of that it is a precedent which might be conveniently followed enacting laws for the common good which claim his obedience ; at the present time in England.
but also in submission to a positive revealed command. This, Our modern methods of controversy are eminently unreal we say, must be the foundation-truth of a Christian's view of and inconclusive. A book is written on one side, to be politics. That we “must obey God rather than man,” we well followed by another on the other side ; each is conclusive know, and in these times we may be specially called upon until the other is read. Most people read only one, accept to do so. But then we must also obey man for God's sake. the author's facts, quotations, and inferences without hesita- | And one thing that God Himself commands us to do is to tion or investigation, and mankind, or that portion of man- submit to the powers that be. This is tbe very essence of kind which takes an interest in the subject-matter, becomes Conservatism. divided into two antagonistic and irreconcileable campe. The ! The expression “powers that be " is notable; not "the
powers that should be," but the powers actually in operation preservation of the characteristic features of our polity is are here indicated. A Catholic Christian in the United recognized as a necessity of the first importance, and that the States of America would as naturally find a Conservative maintenance of the balance of our constitution will scarcely standpoint as an English Catholic. But, then, there are addi be lost sight of in our generation. tional ties which bind him as an Englishman to the side of Thus we see that change may be beneficial, nay necessary, obedience and order, and impel him to resist innovation and or it may be the reverse, and this view is evidently in accordance confusion, even when disguised under the specious pretence of with Conservative principles. In order to judge more particu. liberty. And now let us pause awhile to remark upon two | larly as to the tendency of any one change, and its conformity fresh notions we have just lighted upon—we mean Change with the principles of Christian right and duty, it will be and Liberty.
necessary to examine, from another point of view, the Change, says Dr. Newman, is the very principle of life : question of changes in human laws. true. Change must therefore be a good thing : quite true, again, but here we must draw a distinction. Material change is necessary to life. Formal change is destructive of it.
ARCHBISHOP TAIT AT KEBLE COLLEGE. Life, we are beginning to discover afresh, (after the old schoolmen had for the most part discussed the thing fully) depends
THE presence of the Archbishop of Canterbury at the upon a constant motion and change of material atoms. But
dedication of the chapel of Keble College was one of throughout this incessant revolution of ators, the form of the
I those incidents which indicate how loosely men hold body remains identically the same. Supposing it not to have
to their principles, and how social and politic considerations arrived at maturity, it increases in bulk, but the members
altogether outweigh the claims of consistency. The Archretain their relative collocations; the features, their well-known
bishop's presence necessitated the adoption at the celebration espression. After maturity has been reached, development
of “the North End," although the occasion was a kind of ceases, (we are speaking of the body) but the same process of
demonstration on the part of those who, if they are comrevolution goes on unchecked; and then not only does the
mitted to anything at all, are obviously and notoriously relative position, but dimensions of parts remain fixed. Thus
committed to the Eastward Position. The Archbishop has are we enabled to recognize a person whom we may not have
said uncomplimentary things of the Oxford Professors, and seen for twenty years. And then what next? As soon as
hinted that they were corrupting the ecclesiastical integrity any noticeable change occurs in the bodily form we know well
and innocence of the youth of Oxford; while, on their part, what it portends. It is a sign of coming decay, which
| the Oxford Professors have denounced the Archbishop's inevitably creeps on and on-until it passes into “second
Church Reforms on public platforms, and otherwise indicated childishness and mere oblivion,' and thence into decease and
their belief-a belief which we honestly share with them dissolution of this well-known body.
that he is ruining the Church of England. Yet these gentleAll this equally applies to the body politic. States, as well
men all communicated together, prayed together, took lunas individuals, have their youth, maturity, and decline.
cheon together, and gave to the world, for the nonce, the Their material elements are constantly fluctuating. The
spectacle of a happy family. Under these circumstances, the formal elements are permanent, so long as a state of health is
World may almost be pardoned if it comes to look upon the preserved. And experience, alas! shows us that, like indi
points of difference between the Archbishop of Canterbury vidual men, there is a term beyond which their existence
and the High Church party as unimportant, and if it clings cannot be prolonged. But this term is an unknown one. In
to the belief that, however loudly they may talk at times, nearly all cases its limitation has been traceable to causes
neither side really means to push matters to extremities. No which are within our power to direct or avert. What, then,
doubt Keble College received an accession of publicity and do we learn from the comparison we have just instituted ?
popularity ; but the cause of Consistency, and therefore of Surely this most important lesson, that our business is, if we
Truth, was not benefited. Of course, however true, it would want to prolong the period of prime vigour in the common
have been a very unpleasant duty for the authorities of wealth, to preserve unchanged its characteristic form. Yea,
Keble College to have intimated to the Archbishop that they, and to do this so thoroughly, that even idiosyncrasies, which
and the majority of their guests, would have preferred his to some might appear to be blemishes, should be religiously
room to his company. And, no doubt, also it would have guarded and upheld. This is what a sensible physician would
been a great sacrifice on the part of the High Church notaaim at in the case of a person under his charge, and it is
bilities had they stayed away from what is always a most wh: t the enlightened politician will do, if he desires to prolong
tempting occasion, viz., a gala-day at Oxford. But the questhe vigour of the State.
tion is whether they ought not to have foregone the pleasure Again : health consists in a certain balance of functions.
or discharged the duty. The Archbishop so far strove to The human body has an inherent power of resisting adverse
make things pleasant as to say a few words of praise of the external influences which tend to upset this balance. The
venerable Dr. Newman, all reference to whom would have first accession of disease amounts in most cases to a distur
been better omitted by one of the "Four Tutors" who conbance of the balance ; in its earlier stages therefore it is not so |
ceived it to be their mission to purge Oxford of the great much the introduction of a new mode of action or of a new
Tractarian leader and his teaching. We were going to quote product, as the exaggeration of some one function or structure |
this allusion on his Grace's part to Dr. Newman, as the most already existing. We are now speaking more particularly of
striking instance recently afforded, of the firm belief which the British Constitution, which is well known to owe its
public men of the present day entertain in the shortness of excellences to a certain balance of power between different
memory of the British public; but, as we write, we find that estates of the realm. The same thing is however true, and
the Bishop of Exeter has been discoursing upon the absolute must needs be true, of every form of government, but it is
necessity of taking security as to the " loyalty” of the clergy conspicuously and admittedly true especially of ours. So
to the fundamental character and teaching of the Church that we may, in pursuance of the mode of illustration we are
before they can be allowed any extension of “liberty ;” and following out, argue with great confidence, that the first signs |
with the recollection of “Essays and Reviews," and all that of decay which will probably appear in it will consist, not so
grew out of them, not quite obliterated from our minds, we much in any violent departure from ordinary conditions, as a
are forced to admit that the Archbishop's assurance is from a gradual and abnormal exaggeration of powers or equalled, if
equalled, if not excelled, by that of his Suffragan. functions which should act in correlative subordination to other powers or functions. Never has there been a time in | TENNYSON'S “QUEEN MARY" AT THE LYCEUM. the history of our nation when such a mutual and correlative subordination has not been recognized and acted on. Of late THE Poet Laureate did well to adopt Mr. Irving's advice, years it has almost seemed as if there was a danger of its being
and permit marked changes to be made in his draforgotten; but we cannot doubt, from what we see passing matic poem before it was put upon the stage, otheraround us, that, as a nation, we are awakening to a sense of wise it would have "run" for a week. The alterations are this danger, and are determined to meet it, even if some considerable and judicious; but, after all, they do not either mistakes be made in the selection of instruments to carry into give it a plot or serve to arrange suitable dramatic climaxes. effect the national will. That is but a minor matter: the As a drama it is deficient in art, too cold and flat in lanintention exists; and it is abundantly manifest that the guage, uninteresting in plan and often tedious in dialogue. It all leads up to nothing. Moreover, we do not for one its meaning in the Creed,-as a falsehood and a heresy. They moment believe that it is either true or just in its historical would at first hear of nothing short of an absolute surrender aspect and teaching. Prejudiced throughout, there is an ad of the obnoxious passage in the Creed; and to this a section captandum vulgarity, quite unworthy of a refined poet, in of the Anglicans, led by Dean Howson, and all the American much of the artificial clap-trap introduced and put into the Episcopalians present, ied by Bishop Kerfoot and Dr. Nevins, mouths of some of the characters. National bounce and | (whose heretical animus was evidenced throughout) avowed British brag are all very well in their proper place, in a themselves more than willing to agree, except for considerahustings' speech or a popular leading-article; but quite out of tions of a purely accidental and temporary kind. The orthoposition in a dramatic poem, with an elevated and lofty aim. | dox party among the Anglicans, headed by Dr. Liddon, would Queen Mary and King Philip are painted too black to be not, of course, listen to this audacious proposal, but they patural or true. Tib and Joan are country politicians and fought under a terrible disadvantage; and hence the more than Islip prophets. Mr. Tennyson, usually so calm, bas here put ambiguous resolution, finally, though not unanimously passed, on the cap of Bigotry and rattled the bells of an abortive | ran in these words : “We agree that the way in which the Prejudice. By consequence he has not made a success. word Filioque was inserted into the Nicene Creed was illegal, “Queen Mary" as a poem is a failure. If Brown, Jones or and that, with a view to future peace and unity, it is much Robinson had written it, we doubt whether it would have | to be desired that the whole Church should set itself seriously found a publisher.
to consider whether the Creed could possibly be restored to Miss Bateman's acting was forcible, judicious and very true its primitive form, without the sacrifice of an: true doctrine to nature, as depicted by Mr. Tennyson. But she had a expressed in the present Western form.” The Easterns insisted difficult part to play ; was a little too loud in certain parts, on the interpolation of the word “true,” which we have and prolonged the death-scene too much. Miss Virginia italicised, into the last clause, with the distinctly avowed Francis also played her part with ease, gracefulness and dis- object of implying that there is no truth in the Western cretion; while Miss Isabel Bateman filled a very inferior part formula ; and the Anglicans weakly submitted to their dictawith unerring taste and ease.
tion. For a fuller account of the details we may refer our Mr. Irving was stately, cold, cynical as King Philip, -as readers to an article, evidently written by one who was Tennyson obviously intended him to be. But the character present at the meeting, in the Union Review for November, as drawn is so hateful and revolting that it must have been 1874. So matters were left till last year, when the question difficult and distasteful to pourtray. The actor's ideal, how- | again came under discussion, and when Dr. Liddon, as well as ever, was ably conceived, and consistently perfect and well some other supporters of the orthodox cause, whose wishes worked out. Mr. Carton played Lord Devon with taste and appear to us to have largely contributed to shape their ease, speaking plainly and acting with marked ability, and thoughts, flatter themselves that “the Eastern theologians without any artificial fuss. After him Mr. Beaumont did tacitly abandoned the position ” they had taken up the year well. As an elocutionist he is always admirable, and was, as before, it may be questioned, perhaps, whether tacitly usual, simple, polished and refined in his conception. Nor abandoning an heretical position is enough. But we do not see must we forget Mr. Brooke, who, as Simon Renard, occupied much proof of the Easterns having really abandoned it at all, a leading position in the play and filled it efficiently. He though their language was more guarded and courteous than owns considerable ability, and is quite at ease and unstagy. , on the former occasion. And, while we have no desire to The practice of standing back to back when people are disparage the importance of the ecclesiastical and political talking or altercating, known only on “ the boards," is "more consequences of the controversy, there is one remark in Dr. honoured in the breach than in the observance." The other | Liddon's preface which it is most essential for all who take chief characters were well filled by Messrs. Swinbourne, any part in it to bear constantly in mind :Walter Bentley, Mead, and Huntley—all of wbom, in their | Christians, indeed, who believe that God has really spoken will deem various parts, did well.
it exceedingly practical to ascertain as precisely as may be what He has As regards scenery, dresses and accessories, they were
said, simply because He has said it; and, even if nothing in the conduct,
whether of Churches or of individuals, can be shown to be affected by artistically and archæologically perfect. It is a thorough
the result. To a serious Christian, what God is in Himself, must be of "treat to know of a theatre where good taste in every parti much greater importance than any effect of a particular belief about cular always reigns. We strongly advise those of our readers Him upon the political or social fortunes of His creatures. who are coming to town this season to witness this, or one or | As a matter of fact, all the concessions of last year, as of two of the elaborate Shakesperian Revivals, which have 1874. were on the Western side, which again formally rendered the Lyceum so deservedly distinguished for the | admitted that “the addition of the Filioque was not made excellence and high character of the artistic performances to in a canonical manner,” and offered sundry "explanations be seen there. They will thank us for the recommendation. of it, on which we shall have a word to say presently,
while the Easterns on their part never admitted, and—80
far as we can gather from the Report and the Preface Reviews and Notices of New Books.
—were never asked to admit that with thosc explanations
the “ Filioque' is true. The agreement was, therefore, a REPORT OF THE PROCEEDINGS AT THE REUNION CONFERENCE | onegided one throughout. and, as far as the retention
AT Bonn, 1875. Translated from the German, with a land doctrinal truth of the disputed article in the Creed Preface, by H. P. Liddon, D.D. B. M. Pickering. 1876.
is concerned, all that can be said is that the Westerns OTTE are not going to enter here on any oriticism of the “had their own consent.” We shall not enter upon the
Old Catholic movement, but shall confine ourselves | canonical question here, about which such nigh Anglican
to what was the chief subject of discussion at the authorities as Dr. Pusey have expressed a different opinion Bonn Conference last August, as it is also of Dr. Liddon's from that sanctioned at the Conference, and defended with Preface to the English Translation of the Official Report of his usual vehemence--not to say insolence-of Protestant the Proceedings--the controversy between East and West, on declamation by Mr. Frederick Meyrick. But we must just the Double Procession. No one who yearns and prays for the observe in passing that Dr. Liddon's statement of the case is conReunion of Christendom can doubt that a great point would spicuously defective, when he argues that the disputed clause be gained if a satisfactory understanding on this vital has no ecclesiastical sanction which can be recognized as doctrine could be arrived at between the separated Churches, binding except on strictly Roman Catholic principles, because or would be otherwise than thankful for it. The question it rests either on Papal Infallibility or on the Council of before us at this moment is, whether the agreement, if such Trent. He must surely have forgotten the Councils of Lyons it can be called, effected last year at Bonn, is a satisfactory and Florence, where the Easterns agreed to it, and where, we one, even putting aside the further inquiry-on wbich space may add, the Western Church did not press on them the forbids us to enlarge here-as to what amount of representa insertion of the clause in their own form of the Creed, but tive weight attaches to the deputies from different countries merely required their acknowledgment of its doctrinal truth. who arranged it. It should be premised that the subject was That is precisely what was not asked of them at Bonn ; yet it brought forward, and hotly discussed, during three sessions of is difficult to see what less can be insisted upon if the incrimithe first Conference in 1874, when the Eastern divines, one nated article teaches—as Dr. Liddon, whose own belief is of and all, fiercely repudiated the Filioque in any and every course perfectly orthodox, expressly maintains that it does-sense-except that of Temporal Mission, which of course is not Iva revealed Truth of high importance.” And the inconsistency of their refusing to allow this—or rather the true have added that Lord Plunket-speaking for that highly explanation of their refusal, which springs from polemical tem respectable Communion, which is using the freedom of disper, not from fidelity to tradition—is made still clearer by establishment to disestablish as many surviving elements of his further statement that "the Filioque was already an Christian Doctrine as can be annually got rid of by what calls integral part of the Athanasian Creed before the age of itself a national Synod-urged the simple removal of the Photius,” without causing any offence in the East, when that Filioque" from the Creed, on the express ground that it is Creed was also in use.
desirable not to multiply dogmas, but to diminish them; and But the real importance of the admission extorted from the accordingly Dr. Howson and Mr. Meyrick distinctly rejected the Westerns as to the “illegal” or “uncanonical" (nicht in kirk- formula, proposed by Dr. Liddon, asserting the Double Proliceh rechtmässiger Weise) nature of the addition to the Creed, cession but explaining that it does not mean that there are without any corresponding admission of its doctrinal truth Two Principles or Causes in the Godhead-an explanation by the Easterns, has yet to be specified. Dr. Liddon, indeed, which Mr. Meyrick considered “insufficient"-while Master assures us that “it was made, not with an eye to any subse Brooke, another lay theologian of the Irish Disestablishment, quent concessions, but in deference to what was believed to roundly denied the Procession from the Son as unscriptural. be historical truth." He can speak, of course, for himself. And now we have a word to say on the six Articles accepted and for those who immediately followed his lead, but we see by the Conference. Not one of them asserts the doctrine of the no evidence in the proceedings of either the first or second | Double Procession, while the second in words denies it. It runs Conferences that his disclaimer would be accepted by the | thus: “ The Holy Ghost does not issue out of the Son, because Americans, or the Old Catholics, or the left of ihe Anglican in the Godhead there is but One Beginning, One Oause. contingent-still less that it expresses the mind and intentions through which all that is in the Godhead is produced.” of the Easterns in accepting the concession and much evi| This is a very different thing from saying that the Holy dence the other way. He himself allows that the Easterns Ghost proceeds from the Father and the Son tanquam ab uno thought “ the Filioque might be ejected from the Creed with. Principio, which is the true statement, and seems to deny it. out much ceremony," and " advocated ” its removal, and that
The third article, which approaches nearest to the Western "some American divines hinted that their Church might effect formula, and which Dr. Liddon treats as a virtual concession this change for itself.” All the American divines who spoke of the point at issue by the Greeks, carefully avoids any in 1874 did not hint, but openly avowed, their desire to get statement of the critical point:-"3. The Holy Ghost issues rid of it; and why not, when they have already made such out of the Father through the Son;" true, no doubt, but an a clean sweep of so much of the dogmatic and sacramental inadequate statement of the truth, especially when taken in contents of the English Prayer Book as fully to justify the connection with the second article, which must necessarily grave suspicion expressed by Dr. Pusey (in his Preface to govern its interpretation. Dr. Liddon argues, indeed, that "the Essays on the Reunion of Christendom) both of their orthodoxy Eternity of the Son of itself implies that a relation between and their orders ? Dr. Liddon states his own conviction, Him and the Eternal Spirit is itself Eternal. The Mission of in which all orthodox members of the English Church will the Spirit from the Son is only a temporal manifestation of heartily agree with him, that "to eject the Filioque from the an antecedent or rather eternal relationship in the inner Western Creed would entail on her certain and serious dis. Being of God." That is to say, the orthodox doctrine of the aster;" and we have no doubt at all that he would use the Double Procession is a necessary theological inference from the whole weight of his deservedly great influence to avert so second article. It is, unquestionably ; but so is the pooúolos suicidal an act of treachery. But the question before us is, not a necessary inference from principles which the Arians, and what he thinks, but what the Conference said and did. Now still more the semi-Arians professed to accept, but that was we find Dr. Döllinger himself (Report, p. 40) saying that not thought sufficient reason for allowing them to dispense with “the Germans do not attach much value to the words, and the formula, because it was well known that they did not admit would be willing to substitute for them the dià Toû Yioû, the inference. And so with the Greeks. It is notorious that which gives less offence to the Greeks.” If this is the lan- they have always maintained the Temporal Mission of the Holy guage of the President of the Conference, we cannot wonder Spirit from the Son, while denying the Eternal Procession, and that the small fry follow in his wake. Dean Howson did a passage from an official document signed by all the Eastern not believe that the removal of the Filioque would be at all Patriarcha of a former day, was read out at the Conference, dangerous to the faith," and laughed at the notion of waiting i expressly distinguishing the "one Procession of the Holy for an Ecumenical Council, " the possibility of which is not Spirit, natural, eternal, prior to time, according to which He of course to be dreamed of;' and he significantly added that proceeds from the Father alone :" and the other, “in time “ 56 American dioceses (how many dioceses are there in und deputative, according to which He is externally sent fortb, America ?) have commissioned their representatives to vote derived, proceeds and flows from both the Father and the for " this fresh mutilation of their already mutilated Liturgy. Son." No words could show more clearly that the Easterns The American Dr. Nevins, after an elaborate sneer at the very repudiate what Dr. Liddon justly states to be in itself a legiti. idea of an Ecumenical Council, equally creditable to his mate inference, and their admission of orthodox premisses orthodoxy and his good taste, observed that “the General offers therefore no guarantee whatever for their acceptance of Convention of the American Church"-a mixed assembly of the orthodox conclusion. To which it must be added that Bishops, Clergy and laity-was perfectly competent to perform they refused even to agree to this very ambiguous statement for itself the happy dispatch on one of the fundamental of the Procession of the Holy Spirit through (not from) doctrines of Revelation. He might have added that the the Son, without adding an extract from St. John of Damasuse of the Creed has always been optional in the Protestant cus, which rigidly confines it to His Temporal Mission. We Episcopal Church of America. Bishop Reinkens observed repeat, therefore, that while the Westerns conceded much, the that, the “illegality” of the Filioque being acknow Easterns really conceded nothing at all. The third article may ledged, it was “ removed from its place as a dogma, and give the real meaning of the Filioque," when rightly underthe controversy ought to be at an end,” whereupon the stood; but there is not merely no proof whatever that the Eastern divine, Janyschew, delivered himself of a theological | Easterns did so understand it, but pretty clear proof that they summary to the effect that “in regard to His working or did not. They kindly allowed the Westerns to sail as near manifestation " (viz., His Mission) the Holy Spirit proceeds the wind as they dared in explaining their own formula, and from the Son, as well as from the Father, but “by' Proces then, without even hinting that the formula so explained was sion” from the Father alone ; and another Eastern, Damalas, true, intimated that after so much explanation they had urged, consistently enough, that, after the concessions the much better drop it altogether. Westerns had made, as to the " illegitimate" character of the | We have probably said enough to show how little there is obnoxious clause, “the necessary preliminaries for further in the results of the Bonn Conference on the Filioque to examination and discussion are wanting, if you do not remove justify the jubilant satisfaction expressed in some quarters the Filioque from the Creed in accordance with your admis at the reconciliation supposed to have been achieved. We sion,” and he therefore “ prayed our Lord God" to enlighten may add, however, in further illustration of the hopeless them further. All this—and more might be quoted to the divergence of view between the Easterns and the Old same effect-does not quite bear out Dr. Liddon's somewhat Catholics even, who were the least disposed to lay any stress sanguine view that “the admission of irregularity was not on the disputed article, that Janyschew, the leading Eastern made with an eye to any future concessions." We should 'theologian present, maintained the startling thesis that "the