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the requirements of the great fast day of Christianity. The more widely slight projections to the east and to the north and south of the trapsept the “Three Hours' Office" is used the more fittiog does the service prove arms. It inay be well to remark in this place that the Novella Church is for filling, io a devotional inanner. tbe afternoon of a day which it is not built with an orientation, but stands north and south. But in the

present account, and to prevent needless confusion in terms, the usual avowedly difficult wholly to pass in sympathy with the event commemo

geographical lives are supposed to exist. rated. But the English churches in which the service has been restored

The levels of the pavement are threefold, and answer to divisions in may still learn something from the Communion whenco the restoration the church pot unfrequently met witb in conventual or monastic buildwas borrowed, and whose use they were led to follow.

ings. The second and third of these are severally two and four steps My attention having been early directed to the “Three Hours” at

above the lowest level, which latter includes nearly one-balf the available

flooring and two-thirds of the area of the pave. The nave consists of home, I availed myself of an opportunity when abroad to compare notes

six bays, each spanned by a wide and lofty gothic arch of the Italian between the original and the copy, at least in a single instance of both.

type. The breadth of the transept forms a seventh bay; and the Comparisons in such cases need not be avoided. Indeed, it is both wise chancel may be termed the eighth.' of these eight, nearly four bays and devout to avail ourselves of the experience of fellow Christians on occupy the lowest level of the church. At the third coluinn from the the Continent, living as Englishmen do live, in spite of their migratory

east end the nave pulpit is erected ; and during the Lenten Season of babits, and especially in religious matters, a life of intense jusularity.

ders, ne on intense josularity. preaching (wbich extends in this church into that of Easter), over two Hence, it is not without a hope of being able indirectly to suggest cer. of the bays and from three plllars of the nave is hung a thick covering tain outward additions to the service as conducted amongst ourselves, of a dark coloured stuff, to make a false ceiling to the huge expanse of that I venture to describe what may be seen in another religious the interior, for the benefit both of the preacher and audiouce. An obedience. I therefore will give some account of the externals of an ascent of two steps in the whole width of the church leads to the next Office in which I was privileged to join on Good Friday in the city of level, which rumour assigos to the use of the un-priested Frate, as the Florence. The Office was one of the most impressive which it bas been

lower level was of old devoted to the laity. my lot to witness. It was conducted in the grand old church-grand

The second level extends to the west end of the transept, and by two even in days of diseadowment and suppression of Santa Maria Novella.

more steps the level of the transept chapels is gained. The choir and Some words on the church itself, in the first place, will tend to make

chancel are reached by three more steps; and a platform is made in what may follow the more plain. They will also enable me, briefly, to

front of the altar by the last five steps being brought westward into the describe one of the parish churches in Florence the beautiful. Persons

body of the transept. Thus the aliar stands seven steps above the lowest at home are little aware of the grandeur of size and proportion, the

floor-level of tbe church; and well does it fill its place at the entrance of wealth of art treasure, and the number of services to be found even in a

the sanctuary, and immediately beneath the high pointed cbaocel arch sjogle parish church abroad. And the Novella is by no means the

which rises, at a hazırd-for dimensions are difficult to discover in Italy stateliest, or the most rich, or the best served, of the Florentine churches.

-eighty or ninety feet from the platform. The proportions of the Neither has it escaped successive and even recent spoliarion both by

altar are suitable to its position. With the addition of a handsomo friends and foes, of works of art, money, and priest-power. Yet the

modern screen of marble, which projects beyond its limits on either side, building is both a museum of art, of the architect, painter and staiper of

the altar conceals the choir; and the entrauces to it, both north and glass, aod a temple for constant prayer, specially in the season of Lent.

south, are further protected by heavy curtains-on Good Friday, of black Architecturally it is one of the most imposing and solemn fanes of

velvet materi.). The scieen is sone thirty feet long and fifteen higb. Gotbic character in this favoured city. In spite of the glories of its

It is made of white marble, banded with serpentine and red inarble, and frescos and the magnificence of its glass, I will confine myself to its

is ornamented with carving, statuary, inlaid work and mostics. It is architecture. This-by reason of your space and my object in writing.

flanked and supported by projecting columniar buttresses surmounted by With its outline I have become fairly familiar. I have lived for months

angels, one on either side, of about one-third tbe human size, in wbito almost under the shadow of the old church, and actually within bell-cally

marble. There is, of course, mid-altar, a tabernacle-a handsome domoof its services. The advantage of worshipping daily before its altars, at

sbaped receptacle, filly and elaborately ornamented. There are also altar. one of its many offerings of the Mass, has been mine; and I bave

ledges in marble for five or six rows of candles and flowers. On the top become attached to the now no longer new Church of St. Mary.

of the screen is constructed a narrow platform, on which stand twelve Santa Maria Novella takes rapk as the oldest and largest conventual

silvered six-foot candlesticks; above them soars towards the apex of tho foundalion of the Dominican Order in Florence. Wnen the brotherhood

arch, and high above lights and flowers, a plain muss.ve crucifix with a of preachers, within a few years of its establishment, obtained a perma.

Figure in bronze of more than life-size. The arms of the sacred tree are Deut footing in the city, the magistracy and people bestowed upon the

plainly trefoiled, without other appanage to detract from the cross' infant Society a large plot of land, which is now almost bounded by the

simple dignity. In short, though the altar is moderu, looks new, and is walls of the town on its north-west side. This occurred in A.D. 1222, and the piece of ground then stood without the city walls. Upon this

pot worked in the old elaborate way, it is, on ordinary occasions and plot were eventually built two large quadrangles, and several smaller

without adjuncts, a grand specimen of a Christian altar. cloisters, with cells for the friars, conventual offices, & refectory and

Bebind and above the altar-screen, to one standing in the nave, the light chapter house, chapels, a dispensary, a campanile, the sacristry of the

shines through three maguificent windows of aucieot Florentine glassproportions of many an English Church, and the present poble fane

wiodows too wide to be called laocet, and not wide enough to need the uoder the patronage of Mary. These buildings were erected gradually

| malign influence on this style of glass of tracery. The walls of the and with picturesque want of uniformity. The largest quadrangle is a

chancel, us every one koows who has, and many koow who have not, fioe cloister, rather more than one-fifth of a mile around: the convent,

visited Florence, are enriched by the master efforts in a nearly lost art, of being now to a large extent secularised, this cloister affords a grateful

Domenico Ghirlandaio, a fresco painter who, though he lived at the close retreat for those who care to enter for shelter and exercise in bad

of the fifteenth century, seldom (if ever) painted in oils. Of his works weather, for warmth and reverie in the winter sun, and for shade in the

in the Novella Church I will only say this much, in order to illustrate holter weather. Beneath the wide colonnade the lunettes of the arches

what follows, that the frescos coinpleiely cover the sanctuary, its walls are covered with somewhat damaged frescos, the more worthy having

on either side south and north, between the windows on the east, and been painted by Cigoli and Santi di Tito. Immediately without the

the vaulted roof; that they have both faded and blackened ; that their cloister arises the campanile, i he bells of which are musical to a degree

general effect, vieu ed from a distance, is soinbre and dark. seldom found in Italy, reminding one on a festa of sounds heard under Santa Maria Novella is one of the few churches in this city which the like circumstances in the heart of an English town parish.

modern vandalism of the last or preceding ceoturies has not, archiThe present church of the Novella was begun towards the close of the tectural's, entirely spoilt by adapting Gothic windows and altars to thirteenth century, and was completed some eighty years later--a lesson those of a classical or cinque-cento style. I speak of the nave only : for to those builders of the present day, who “run up” churches of the

the transepts have suffered much ; nor has the pave escaped scatheless, slightest possible construction in less than a quarter of the same number For, though twelve modern and monotonously uniform altars, with of months. It was 'entirely raised under ihe direction of successive nearly valueless pictures, bave replaced the old altars and probably architects of the Order of St. Dominic. It has a nave length of nearly valuable paintings, yet the Gothic windows of a like cbaracter with 330 feet, and is upwards of 200 feet in breadth, between the walls of the those in the chancel have been preserved. It is true, they have been transept chapels—the length alone of a huge London church. The shortened by a few feet, as may be perceived from without the church, sacred edifice is built upon a plan common, with more or less variety, to allow the altar-piece to be placed at a suitable elevation. But otherto many Florentine churches, and to other temples of the same order in | wise they are intact, and only need restoring to the extent of removing other cities, amongst which may be named Santa Maria sopra Minerva ill-painted modern glass and replacing it by colourless glass, which will in Rome. Along wiite pave and aisles, without externally projectiog let in pure light and not conceal the blue Italian sky. side chapels to ihe latter, run into a transept of nearly equal length The nave proper, as above said, consists of six bays. Each of the with the united breadth of nave and aisles ; a transept with longitudinal three sets of two arches are of unequal span; the largist, standing in chapels as well as with a chapel at either end which increases its length; the middle, are some fifty feet wide, and the smallest, standing at the a chancel wider, longer and loftier than the chapels; a large affiliated east epd, are some ten feet less in width. The Dave, with a width of chapel which does not affect the internal appearance of the building; a upwards of forty feet, is supported by aisles of about one half as wide. fine, roomy and ornate Sacristy, itself once, perhaps still, a fashionable The crown of the arches which divide the nave from the aisles reach to church for marriage--such forms the simple ouilino of the church. within a few feet of the spring of the vaulting of the rouf. There is, The regular chapels of the transept face east, and in this instance are therefore, po attempt at a clerestory. But necessary light is obtained, four in number, two on either side of the chancel, which itself is only where clerestory windows would otherwise be pierced, above the lean-to sufficiently deep to contain the once necessary stalls for the brethren, roof of the aisles and in the apex of the arch of the wall, from large, behind, as is usual, and not in front of the altar. The chapels of the circular windows innocent of tracery and free from modero painted glass. transept, one at either end, which have been added. face south and The arches are severely plain, unmoulded, and very wide for their north. These are respectively the Rucellai Chapel, wbich is enriched by height. The columns are built in the same grand, simple form-fine the celebrated Madonna and Holy Child of Cimabue, formerly the circular shafts supporting broad arches not less grand. The vauliiog favourite, but now the neglected picture of the fickle Florentives ; and matches both column and arch, and is formed by four parallel and two the Strozzi Chapel, still radiant with the glories of Orcagoa's frescos, intersecting arches of the simplest kind of groining. The pavement is painted both on the walls, which are entirely covered, and also as an laid with black and white stones placed diamond-wise : and ihe six feet altar-piece. Both the latter chapels are picturesquely built above the of surface in the breadıh of the piers, and lyiog between them loagi. highest floor level of the church, and are approached by a flight of steps. tudinally, have been filled with a series of uniform tombstones of late Hence, the ground plan of the building, though technically cruciform of muke but early commemoration, which apparently have replaced tho the Latin form, more nearly resembles the tau T cross in shape, with apcient floor monuments that may be elsewhere seen. The prevailiog

colouring of the body of the charch is decidedly dull. The pillars and

PROPOSED CHURCA EXTENSION. arches are washed io a blueish gray tint, and the walls in a yellowish

A public meeting was held on Saturday afternoon at the Clarence drab. The only redeeming shade of colour in the cave is cast through a

Hotel, Exeter, to consider the proposed restoration of the old Cornish gorgeous circular west window, thoroughly Florentino in tone, and a

| Bishopric. The Mayor occupied the chair, and amongst those present Giotto-painted crucifix surmounting, and two frescos supporting, the

were--the Bishop. Eurl of Devon, Rev. Precentor Cook, Rev. Canon groa: western doors which open into the piazza of the church.

Lee, &c. The Dean of Exeter, who was suffering froin indisposition, These architectural details are sufficient to make what follows wrote offering to pay £100 when two-thirds of the amount required was intelligible.

proinised, and a similar amount when five-sixths was proinised. Mr. C. The Three Hours" Office on Good Friday was the last of the great Turner and his son promised £25 each, Mr. J. Were promised £100. Lenten services at Santa Maria Novella. In Passiontide the church After three or four speakers bad addressed the meeting, the Mayor asked had assumed a mourning garb. All the altar-pictures and crosses had whether anyone else wished to offer any remarks, when been covered with purple stuff, and for the Great Day itself the altars

Aldermaa THOMAS, whose rising was the signal for a great deal of bad been stripped of every ornament but the veiled crucifixes. The applause, said: I rise with much pleasure to support the proposition effect of this veiling, upon the twelve sile-altars of the aisles and those which has been made by Earl Devon; but in common with a great many in the transept, was marked. In the Strozzi Chapel and beneath its Churchmen, I feel that there is a subject which has not been touched open altar had been laid a full-length, life-sized, recumbent figure of the

upon, and an expression of opinion upon which a great number of Dead CHRIST, which was carried thither in solemo procession, and before Churchmen would like to see incorporated in the resolution proposed. I which the faithful were wont to pray. In thu Rucellai Chapel had been think that the movement for raising money for the purpose of restoring made, on Maundy-Thursday, with much labour, a “Sepulchre” for the the Cornish Bishopric would receive great assistance, and that a very reception of the sacred flost, in preparation for the Mass of the Pre large number of Churchmen would become contributors to the fuud, if sanctified. And the last Tenebræ service-an Office of striking beauty some power were given to the Church in the appointment of the Bishops. again to be heard in churches at home-5ad been sung on the evening With a desire, therefore, that the object of this meeting shall be advanced of the same day. During the forty days a platform draped in black, six to the very fullest extent, I would suggest that the mover and seconder feet high, about fifteen feet loog, and of proportionate breadth, furnished

of the resolution should adopt the following rider: “That this is a fitting with a chair, a faldstool, and a crucifix, was erected in the neve beneath opportunity for asserting the right of the Church in Corowall to some the Lenteo curtain. For Good Friday this platform was removed close real voice in the appointment of the proposed new Bishop and his to, and in sight of, the transepts in front of the chancel; and on the successors." The manner in which that should be carried out I won't opposite side of the nave, in a correspondiog position, was built an presume to dilate upon. I hope the words will not be objected to, for I enclosure for the orchestra, hung with black drapery to conceal the feel sure that many Churchmen will witbhold from contributing is some players. Hence, the congregation was intended to move up from the

expression favourable to them is not made. west-end of the church to the neighbourhood of the high altar, and The Rev. J. L. Galton, the Rector of St. Sidwells, was loudly cheered before mid-day on the Great Fast the transepts furnished with open on rising to second the rider. He said: I feel at this juncture that if benches, and the easteromost end of the nave, which was gradually anything is to be done to free the Church from an amount of tyranny filled with chairs, were both crowded.

under which she has long been suffering, that this is the time. Here The chancel was completely darkened by double and thick black cloth you are asked to provide means for the erection of a new Bishopric, and curtains hung over the windows; and the subdued colouring of the is it fair that the Church shall have her mouth closed in the appointment Ghirlandaio frescos, as seen over the altar and beyond the altar wings, of the proposed Bishop? The late Bishop of this Diocese, when he were spec re-like and uncanny in appearance. Not a vesture of the referred to transactions perhaps not known to most here, but known to white marblo altar and altar-screen was visible, save its grand outline, myself and others equally old, called the statute of premupire the most and the two angels standing in relief in their native whiteness, at the hatefal and most tyrannical law wbich is permitted to pollute our statute extremities of the screen, and keeping their silent watch. The screen | book; and in the House of Lords soon after, when the appointment of and altar were entirely draped in black; and the hangings were so Dr. Hampden to the See of Hereford was discussed, it was called the arranged as to allow three steps only to be marked between the pave- Magna Charta of tyranny. Under that statute the Church is at present ment and the platform on the top. Every ornament and all the ordinary precluded from any voice in the election, in the confirmation, or in the Candles had boen removed. On each of the three steps, on the altar, | cousecration of her Bishops. I know very well that when Dr. Hampden half way up, and at the top stood pairs of heavy candlesticks supporiing was appointed to Hereford, the Dean there was valiant enough to stand thick tawny coloured lights. The large bronze crucifix, with its passion alone in refusing to proceed to any election when the name of Dr. symbol attached during the season-an upright palm-branch—which Hampden was sent him; and in writing to the Prime Minister of the added to its height, had been taken away. In its place, high aloft, in | day notifying his intention, he received the following curt reply, dated the centre of the altar, and beneath the lofty arch, had been erected a Christmas Day :-"I have had the honour to receive your letter, in wooden Figure of the Crucified, nature painted, which stood out in awful which you intimate your intention to violate the law. I have had the honour relief against the dark black back-ground of the sanctuary, and in to be, your obedient servant, RUSSELL.” The Times on that occasion striking contrast with the wbite glistening angel-guards. On the plat took a right view of the matter-a thing it had not of late often form, at the top of the altar, and on either side of the Cross, might be done in Church matters—and told them that whilst Churchmen seen, before the commencement of Divine Service, an upright object, were called upon to object, they had to shut their mouths. That completely covered, some six or seven feet higb. These objects, when was the treatment the Church had received with regard to the appointthe candles were being lighted, were undraped and disclosed themselves ment of her Bishops, and he asked if this was to continue ? He for to be figures of the Blessed Virgin and St. John, painted in their one declared it to be a grievous blunder to their whole Church system. traditional colouring. The beloved Disciple looked upwards at his To show them that the law itself was warped-for he could call it by no crucified Master, and our Lady was pierced with a sword also tbrough other name-he read the report of an appeal made to the Queen's Beach her virgin breast. The cross was made to spring from a rocky support, upon that case, and the remarks of Judge Coleridge and Judge Patterson, as a Golgotha, and the effect of Mary and John, perhaps of heroic whom Devon would ever love for their being on the side of the Churcb, dimensions, standing beneath the sacred tree on the high platform of and the remarks of Lord Chief Justice Denman, who regretted having black, in the sight of all men, guarded by the angels and surrounded by to refuse an inquiry which he would have granted even in a railway the dimly-perceived Scriptural scenes upon the walls, was striking. case. In consequence of this awful statute the Church had no voice. Never had I seen, in the best sense of a word ill-used on the lips of It was held out as a gag to all who caine forward and demanded the some, so truly a histrionic effect within the walls of a church; and it liberties of the Church. Mr. Galton concluded: I for ono say I will not commended itself to my mind that such simple and effective teaching, stir one inch to promote any increase in the Episcopate unless the Church through the medium of the senses, of the culminating act in the Passion has a proper voice in the appointment of the Bishops. I know I am of our divine LORD, might profitably be described for our example and not standing alone in this place. There are Churchmen throughout the imitation at hoine. Of course, the surroundings in art and architec- land who will give to their utmost to provide for an increase in the ture of the Novella Church cannot be had in England; but there is no Episcopate, provided that they have at least a veto with the appointment reason why the visible representation of the Crucifixion might not be of an unfit candidate. There were hundreds of thousands in the days of placed before the eyes of the faithful during the verbal recitation of the the Bishops I have named who would have said, “We don't want such sacred story of the Passion on the day of its commemoration. Little is as Bishops in our Church." needed, except three life-sized figures and black cloth; but the result The Rev. J. TOTE, Rector of St. David's, Exeter : When I came into would be beyond comparison greater than the efforts used to secure it. this room I had not the slightest intention of addressing this meeting, Its effect would not quickly fade from the memory.

but when Canon Lee describes the action of the mover and seconder of It is with the hope of suggesting this representation to some who the rider as being cowardly, I must confess that there is a certain amount will adopt the idea that I venture to send you the above account. Of of English blood in me which won't allow such words to pass. I am the service of the “Three Hours" itself I do not purpose to speak. It sorry to differ from the noble lord, for whom I have the greatest respect, followed the usual course of such a devotional exercise, and was attended but here is a quostion involving a principle touching those who advocate by a very large number of persons of both sexes and all ranks in it much more keenly than those who support the Bishopric fund imagine. society. The chief difference from the English reproduction of the Money is wanted. It's the object of the meeting to get money. A large service, which I have witnessed, consisted in the absence of congre- sum is required, and if this principle is recogaized, I believe it will tend gational singing, the silence of the orgao, and the use of orchestral further than anything I know to supply the deficiency. How is the music only. The seven sermonettes, eloquently delivered by a friar of Bishop to be appointed ? Under this Act, which is a most awful the Order of Preachers, must have been heard by the immense congre- | mockery, he may be appointed by the present Prime Minister, and gation assembled in the transepts and Dave, so clear and loud was his without saying one word about him the Bishop may be appointed by his articulation. They were followed, one by one, by impassioned prayer saccessor in office. It may be that the Bishop may be appointed by a at the faldstool, and were divided from each other by modern music man who reveres God, and it may be that he may be appointed by a man performed with taste and care by the unseen orchestra, the preacher who cares not for God at all. If the Bi hop of the Diocese were conmeantime reposing in the chair provided for his use. Not being able to snlted, I have no doubt he would do everything he thought proper, but form a musical opinion, I offer no critical account of the vocal and I may take that as an argument in favour of interference with absolute instrumental performance; but to a non-professional ear it sounded appointments, and ask why if one person was consulted Cornwall should appropriate and good. Of the devotion of the congregation, however, I not express an opinion? There are many persons in the two counties can speak. It appeared to be most devout; and there was a constant who would be able to represent whom they considered to be fitting succession of attendants at the service, though the large majority of persons. Here we are asked to provide money to endow a Bishopric, worshippers remained throughout the “Three Hours' Office." '0's. I but not to have a voice in the appointment. Never.

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THE GAUNTLETT FUND.

NOTICE.-The Pilot may be had, on
Prout, Ebenezer, Esq. ...
Puttick, A. J., Esq.

IY order, at any of Messrs. SMITH & SONS
Puttick and Simpson, Mesers...

... 5 0 0 Buokstalls, THE Sudden Death of the late HENRY

Rathbone, Benson, Esq., Liverpool

6 0 0

LONDON AGEN IS. T JOHN GAUNTLETT, Mus. Doc., the Reeves, Sims, Esq. ...

Mr. E. W. ALLEV, 11, Ave Maria-lane, Ludgate-bill. Reid, Dr., Edinburgh eminect Composer and Organist, has induced

. Rice, Rev. Howard, Abingd

Messrs. OUR TICE & CO., Catherine-street, Strand. lon

10 some of his friends to raise a fund for his Richards, Brinley, Esq. ... ...

i i ở Messrs. DAWSON & SONS, 121, Cannon-street, E.C. widow and family, who are, they regret to say, Rosa, Carl, Esq. ........

2 2 0 Mr. W. HOPKINS, 397, New North-road, Islington. left entirely unprovided for. Acknowledgment Royle, J. G., Esq. ..

Messrs. KENT & CO., Paternoster-row.
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1 0 0 has been made in the several notices of his life

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street, E.C.

... prints, of the valuable services be rendered in Simpson, G., Esq....

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The cause of Art generally, and more especially
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Messrs. MOWBRAY, & CO., 25, Warwick-lane, Pater-
Smith, Dr. J.

noster-row. that of Church Music. To Dr. Gauntlett we Smith, Mrs. P., Leamington

Messra. POTTLE & SON, Royal Exchange, E.C. owe most of the improvements in the construc Smith, Rev. E. L. Chetwood

Smith, Mrs. Chetwood tion of organs which have been carried out

Mr. PIL HER, 144, (hay's-Inn-road.
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îÖ Mr. PRITCHARD, 82, York-road, Lambeth. during the last 40 years.

Spicer, Wm. R., Eso

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500

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: Stewart, sir R. P., "Dublin

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0 100 Balfe, Mme.

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And may be obtained of all Bookseller's and Newsagents. Brooks, H. Esq. ...

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... 1 0 0

PANION to an INVALID LADY. A ClergyCaux, La Marquise de, (Adelina

Wood, Geo., Esq. Champion, T. R. S., Esq... 0

mau's Widow seeks an appointment as above, having

W. B. (stamps) .... ... Chappelow, Miss ... 1

hud somo years' experience in that capacity. Unex. 0 Clarke, S., Esq.

ceptionable reference given and required. Apply by
5
...

0
London, April 6th, 1876.

letter to "A. B.," care of Mr. BATTY, Pilot Office, 376, Clement, J. V., Esq. Clement, P. W. Esq. 0

Strand. 0 Cobb, Rev. J.F...

2 0 1 Subscriptions may be paid to the credit of DEFORMED FUNERALS with Patent Cole, Sir fienry, F

the Gauntlett Fund at the London and WestCollio gridge, W. H., Esq.

I EARTH to EART" COFFINS upon the Cope, Rev. Sir Wm, Bart.

1.; to the principle advocated in the Times, and dispensiug with Costa, Sir Michael

6 01 Hon. Treasurer, C. L. Gruneisen, Esq., F.R.G.S.. all procession. Explanatory Pamphlet with List of Cross, W. H., Esq., St. Bartholomew's Hosp. 16, Surrey-street, Strand, W.C.; or to the

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possible resume of the Doctrine of the Holy Eucharist and we are much mistaken if it does not leave a The Life and Times of Prince set forth in this Tract.'"-English Church Union

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The History of Great Britain

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RELIGION AT OXFORD.

trines of the Christian Faith may be taught by men who will

be equal to the task of unfolding a true Christian Philosophy. M HE fatal results of a policy of wanton and wicked

We think that such a proposal, put forward in this sober, destructiveness, such as that which has for so long a

practical way, will probably, and not without reason, someI period marked the ascendancy of Liberalism in this

what startle people who either do not know, or have not yet country, are nowhere more clearly visible than in the con

realized, the results wrought by recent changes in Oxford, dition to which it has brought our Universities—the ancient

and who will be disposed to ask what has become of all the homes of Religion and Learning. The pious work, which,

means hitherto supposed to be available for the purpose of reared under tbe fostering care of saintly and venerated

teaching Religion. What are the Colleges about? What is founders and benefactors, had after several centuries reached

the use of College Chapels? And what about St. Mary's ? maturity, will now, in about as many years, be silently but

These and other like questions are answered only too comeffectually uprooted by the profane and unsanctified machina

pletely in the pamphlet before us. Religious forms indeed tions of those whose aim it is, not merely to undo the good old remain, but a silent revolution is taking place. The substance work by depriving the Church of her resources, but also to lis vielded though the shadow be clung to. The foolish and endow therewith a hostile system. The broad effect of recent

fatal concessions of Churchmen themselves to the crafty legislation with referənce to Education generally has been to

proposals of the Secularists have, as usual, wrought nothing raise a new Establishment on the ruins of the old. Indeed,

but disaster. The mischief has not been direct or immediate ; as regards primary education, the new Secularist Establish

but the indirect consequences of the abolition of religious ment is elevated to a position far more highly privileged than

tests have been none the less serious. The Bishop of Oxford, any which ever belonged to the Church ; inasmuch as, in any

in his Charge delivered in April, 1875, spoke of a considerable place where a School-board is set up, the whole community is

number of Graduates holding office in the University, or forced to contribute to the support of the schools belonging to

Fellowships in the Colleges, who had ceased to be Christians the Secularist sect. And that attempts are being made on all

in anything but name, while in some cases even the name had sides to despoil and plunder the old National Church, in order

| been repudiated ; and he added that there was moreover a to provide endowments for the new Secularist Establishment,

reserve on the part of Christian teachers in communicating is sufficiently illustrated by a reference to the Burials' ques

their own belief to their pupils. Recent legislation has tion. In the case of the Universities the design of pocketting

severed the connection between the Colleges and the Church, the endowments of the Church for the benefit of a hostile

and the Colleges are getting more and more unmindful of the sect has been carried out with great success. It is notorious

religious character which their founders above all things that Secularism has done less than any other “denomi

intended them to possess. And these evils will probably be nation” so-called, to promote, at its own expense, even purely increased by the tendency of modern legislation to sacrifice secular instruction. The burden of primary education it has

the College system to that of the University, whereby the old never touched with one of its little fingers, whilst the sum

bond of intimacy between tutor and pupil is much weakened, total of its efforts to grapple with the problems of the higher

and the very object with which the Colleges were first education is visibly represented by a certain building in Gower

called into being—to counteract the evils which had arisen Street—the ugliest and most revolting object in all that dismal

out of the University system-is defeated. And here we region—a structure whose ghastly horror is entirely appro

must beg leave to differ, with all respect, from the opinion priate to, and eminently typical of, the unloveliness of a

expressed by Bishop Mackarness, that the evils which he Godless Infidelity. We all know the fate of this precious

deplores do not owe their origin, at least very largely, to the scheme—the darling project of Liberal doctrinaires and Whig

removal of tests. His Lordship confesses that he himself charlatans—which is as worthy of comparison with the old voted in Parliament for their abolition-an admission which religious foundations, as Gower Street itself is with “the

itself is with “the fills us with painful amazement. After the evidence given High" at Oxford, or as the “packing-case” erection aforesaid before the Royal Commission in 1870, it is simply astounding is with Magdalen Tower. This heathen establishment having

that anyone should have a doubt on the subject. failed to gain a decent name for itself, was at last com

It has been customary with the advocates of the Liberal pelled to borrow some degree of respectability by ignomini

policy to urge that, if the Church really is what she claims to ously taking refuge under the wing of King's College-al be, her Divine Message will not need any external aid, but Ohurch institution. It was evident that the end in view will win its way, as it has often done before, by the could not be attained by pitting a pinchbeck “University” in sheer force of Truth. Viewed as an argument for ousting the competition with Oxford and Cambridge. The alternative Church from her temporal rights, we have always thought plan was to liberalize the latter; 80 that all the prestige this proposition a tolerably audacious one. The question is, belonging to these ancient seats of learning, which they had whether the Church is to be robbed of her means of teaching derived from their union with the Church, might be used as The Truth, in order to hand over her vantage-ground to the a weapon against her. How completely this design has been teachers of soul-destroying falsehood. That, in spite of all carried out, men are only just beginning to realize. In the obstacles, she is faithful to her mission in Oxford is shewn by case of Oxford, those who are most intimately acquainted with the strenuous and successful efforts made by individuals to its religious condition speak of it in the most gloomy terms.

supply the shortcomings of a vicious system. And here, first They declare that no adequate provision is made for the and foremost, rank the labours of the Divinity Professors. It religious needs of the Undergraduates. The author of a

is impossible to overrate the debt of gratitude which many remarkable pamphlet* just published, who is evidently well.

and many an Oxford man must always owe, not merely to the informed on the subject, and the accuracy of whose statements

public teaching, but also to the private influence, of such men we can thoroughly verify, has addressed a stirring and sea

as Doctors Liddon, Bright and King. Not to mention the sonable appeal to the Bishop of the diocese to establish a Warden of Keble and his fellow-workers, or such a wellChurch for the exclusive use of Undergraduates, where fre

known champion of the good cause as the Dean of Chichester, quent and dignified services, including especially the Holy

there are, throughout the University, men of mark, such as Eucharist, may be solemnly celebrated, and where the Doc

the sub-Rector of Exeter, Mr. Noel Freeling and Mr. Wilson * Spiritual Destitution at Oxford. A Letter to the Bishop of Oxford.

of Merton, Mr. Bramley of Magdalen, and Mr. Wordsworth of By a Fellow of a College. (Oxford : George Shrimpton, 1876.)

Brasenose, as well as younger men like Mr. Holland of

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