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object. Gen. vi. 2. "the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair, and they took them—.' 1 Sam. xvi. 7, 8. "look not on his countenance, or on the height of his stature." Esth. ii. 15. "Esther obtained favour in the sight of all them that looked upon her." Prov. vi. 25. "lust not after her beauty in thy heart." x. 22. "as a jewel of gold in a swine's snout, so is a fair woman which is without discretion." Rom. xii. 9. "abhor that which is evil; cleave to that which is good." 1 Cor. x. 6. " we should not lust
Our joy ought to be so regulated, that we may delight in things essentially good in proportion to their excellence, and in things indifferent so far only as is consistent with reason. The same rule is to be observed with regard to sorrow. Deut. xii. 7. "there shall ye eat before Jehovah your God, and ye shall rejoice." See also v. 12, 18. xxvi. 11. "thou shalt rejoice in every good thing which Jehovah thy God hath given unto thee." Job xxii. 19. "the righteous see it, and are glad; and the innocent laugh them to scorn. Psal. iv. 6-8. "lift thou up the light of thy countenance upon us: thou hast put gladness in my heart more than in the time that their corn and their wine increased." xxx. 11, 12. “ thou hast turned from me my mourning into dancing." lviii. 10. "the righteous shall rejoice when he seeth the vengeance; he shall wash his feet in the blood of the wicked." cxxvi. 2. "then was our mouth filled with laughter." Luke ii. 10. “I bring you good tidings of great joy." xxiv. 52. " they returned to Jerusalem with great joy ;" and to the same effect in many other passages. Prov. x. 23. "it is as sport to a fool to do mischief; but a man of understanding hath wisdom.” 21. "folly is joy to him that is destitute of wisdom; but a man of understanding walketh uprightly." xvii. 5. "whoso mocketh the poor, reproacheth his maker." v. 22. " a merry heart doeth good like a medicine; but a broken spirit drieth the bones." See also xviii. 14. xxvi. 19. "so is the man who deceiveth his neighbour, and saith, Am not I in sport?" Eccles. ii. 2. "I said of laughter, It is mad; and of mirth, What doeth it?" vii. 2-4. "it is better to go to the house of mourning, than to go to the house of feasting: for that is the end of all men." Isai. xxii. 12, &c. "in that day did the Lord God of hosts call to weeping and to mourning.... and behold
joy and gladness-." Jer. xxxi. 4. "thou shalt again be adorned with thy tabrets, and shalt go forth in the dances of them that make merry." v. 13. " then shall the virgin rejoice in the dance, both young men and old together, for I will turn their mourning into joy." Lam. v. 15. "the joy of our heart is ceased, our dance is turned into mourning." Amos vi. 6. "that drink wine in bowls.... but they are not grieved for the affliction of Joseph." There are occasions on which tears are not unbecoming even a wise man. Gen. xlii. 24. “Joseph turned himself about from them, and wept." Psal. cxix. 136. "rivers of waters run down mine eyes, because they keep not thy law."
In the proper regulation of hope and fear, the cause, the object, and the degree of excitation are chiefly to be considered. Concerning hope, see above; concerning fear, Matt. x. 28. "fear not them which kill the body." Isai. viii. 12, 13. compared with 1 Pet. iii. 14. “be not afraid of their terror." Even the bravest may occasionally be influenced by fear. Gen. xxxii. 7. "then Jacob was greatly afraid." Exod. ii. 14. "Moses feared." 1 Kings xix. 3. "when he saw that, he arose and went for his life." Psal. iv. 5-7. "because of the voice of the enemy.... fearfulness and trembling are come upon me." _2 Chron. xx. 3. “Jehoshaphat feared.” Nehem. ii. 2. “then I was very sore afraid.”
In anger, we are to consider the motive for the passion, its degree, and duration. Prov. xvi. 32. "he that is slow to anger is better than the mighty, and he that ruleth his spirit than he that taketh a city.” xix. 11. "the discretion of a man deferreth his anger, and it is his glory to pass over a transgression." Mark iii. 5. “when he had looked round upon them with anger, being grieved for the hardness of their hearts-." Eph. iv. 2. "with long suffering." v. 26. “be ye angry, and sin not; let not the sun go down upon your wrath." Col. i. 11. “unto all patience and long-suffering."
The excess of anger is irascibility. Prov. xii. 16. “a fool's wrath is presently known.” xiv. 17. “he that is soon angry dealeth foolishly, and a man of wicked devices is hated." xxii. 24, 25. “make no friendship with an angry man—.” xxvii. 3. “ a stone is heavy.... but a fool's wrath is heavier." xxix. 22. 66 an angry man stirreth up strife." Eccles. vii. 9. "be not hasty in thy spirit to be angry; for anger resteth in
the bosom of fools." Matt. v. 22. "whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause, shall be in danger of the judgement.' Eph. iv. 31. "let all wrath and anger.. be put away from you." From this infirmity even the best of men are not always exempt. Acts xv. 38, 39. "the contention was so sharp between them, that," &c.
From well-regulated affections proceeds the proper government of the tongue. Prov. xi. 9. " an hypocrite with his mouth destroyeth his neighbour; but through knowledge shall the just be delivered." v. 11. " by the blessing of the upright the city is exalted; but it is overthrown by the mouth of the wicked." xii. 14. “ a man shall be satisfied with good by the fruit of his mouth." xiii. 2. " a man shall eat good by the fruit of his mouth; but the soul of the transgressors shall eat violence." xv. 2, 4, 7. “the tongue of the wise useth knowledge aright; but the mouth of fools poureth out foolishness." v. 23. "a man hath joy by the answer of his mouth, and a word spoken in due season how good is it!" v. 28. "the heart of the righteous studieth to answer: but the mouth of the wicked poureth out evil things." xvi. 1. "the answer of the tongue is from Jehovah." v. 23, 27. "the heart of the wise teacheth his mouth, and addeth learning to his lips." xviii. 13. "he that answereth a matter before he heareth it, it is folly and shame unto him." xix. 28. "an ungodly witness scorneth judgement, and the mouth of the wicked devoureth iniquity." xxix. 20. "seest thou a man that is hasty in his words? there is more hope of a fool than of him." Matt. xii. 34, 36, 37. "how can ye, being evil, speak good things? for out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh." James iii. 2, &c. "if any man offend not in word, the same is a perfect man." Psal. cxli. 3. "set a watch, O Jehovah, before my mouth; keep the door of my lips." Prov. xviii. 21. "death and life are in the power of the tongue." xxi. 23. "whoso keepeth his mouth and his tongue, keepeth his soul from troubles."
CHAP. IX.-OF THE FIRST CLASS OF SPECIAL VIRTUES CONNECTED WITH THE DUTY OF MAN TOWARDS HIMSELF. THE SPECIAL VIRTUES which regulate our desire of external advantages, have reference either to bodily gratifications, or to the possessions which enrich and adorn life.
The virtue which prescribes bounds to the desire of bodily gratification is called TEMPERANCE. Tit. ii. 11, 12. "the grace of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared unto all men, teaching us that denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, and godly, in this present world." 1 Pet. ii. 11. "as strangers and pilgrims, abstain from fleshly lusts which war against the soul." 2 Pet. ii. 9. "the Lord knoweth how.... to reserve the unjust unto the day of judgement to be punished; but chiefly them that walk after the flesh in the lust of uncleanness."
Under temperance are comprehended sobriety and chastity, modesty and decency.
SOBRIETY consists in abstinence from immoderate eating and drinking. 1 Thess. v. 8. "let us, who are of the day, be
? Abstinence in diet, says a biographer of Milton, was one of his favourite virtues, which he practised invariably through life, and availed himself of every opportunity to recommend in his writings. He is reported to have partaken rarely of wine or of any strong liquors. In his Speech for the Liberty of Unlicensed Printing, the following passage occurs: How great a virtue is temperance, how much of moment through the whole life of man! Yet God commits the managing so great a trust, without particular law or prescription, wholly to the demeanour of every grown man.' Prose Works, II. 66. Again, in Paradise Lost:
The rule of Not too much, by temperance taught,
In what thou eat'st and drink'st, seeking from thence
Till many years over thy head return.
See also 472, &c., 515, &c., Il Pens. 46, Samson Agonistes, 542, &c. and the second elegy to Deodati. In the Apology for Smectymnuus, he vindicates himself with some indignation against the charge of being a sackdrinker, which one of his opponents had brought against him. He concludes his defence with the following sentence. 'For the readers [of the book in which the accusation appeared], if they can believe me, principally for those reasons which I have alleged, to be of life and purpose neither dishonest nor unchaste, they will be easily induced to think me sober both of wine and of word; but if I have been already successless in persuading them, all that I can further say will be but vain; and it will be better
sober." 1 Pet. i. 13. "wherefore gird up the loins of your mind, be sober." iv. 7. "the end of all things is at hand; be ye therefore sober, and watch unto prayer. v. 8. "be sober, be vigilant; because your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about seeking whom he may devour." Esther i. 8. "the drinking was according to law; none did compel for so the king had appointed to all the officers of his house, that they should do according to every man's pleasure."
The opposites of this virtue are drunkenness and gluttony: instances of which may be seen in Noah, Gen. ix. Lot, Gen. xix. and Benhadad, 1 Kings xx. 16. Prov. xx. 1. "wine is a mocker." xxi. 17. "he that loveth wine.... shall not be rich." xxiii. 3, &c. "be not desirous of his dainties, for they are deceitful meat.". v. 20, 21. "be not among wine-bibbers, among riotous eaters of flesh-." v. 29-32. "who hath woe? who hath sorrow? who hath contentions? who hath babbling? who hath wounds without cause? who hath redness of eyes? they that tarry long at the wine." Isai. v. 11, 12. woe unto them that rise up early in the morning, that they may follow strong drink.... but they regard not the work of Jehovah." 66 v. 22. woe unto them that are mighty to drink wine." xxviii. 1, 3, 7, 8. "woe to the crown of pride, to the drunkards of Ephraim-." Ezek. xvi. 49. "behold, this was the iniquity of thy sister, Sodom, pride, fulness of bread." Luke xxi. 34. "take heed to yourselves, lest at any time your hearts be overcharged with surfeiting, and drunkenness, and cares of this life, and so that day come upon you unawares.' Rom. xiii. 13. "let us walk honestly, as in the day; not in rioting and drunkenness." 1 Cor. vi. 10. nor drunkards
shall inherit the kingdom of God." Gal. v. 21. "drunkenness, revellings, and such like. . . . shall not inherit the kingdom of God." Hos. iv. 10. "they shall eat, and not have enough." vii. 5. "in the day of our king the princes have made him sick with bottles of wine." Habak. ii. 15. 66 woe unto him that giveth his neighbour drink." Eph. v. 18. "be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess; but-.' 1 Pet. iv. 3, 4. "the time past of our lives may suffice us.... when we walked in lasciviousness, lusts, excess of wine, revellings, banquettings
wherein they think it strange that ye run not with them
to the same excess of riot."
thrift to save two tedious labours, mine of excusing, and theirs of needless hearing.' Prose Works, III. 123.