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For the duties of GUARDIANS, see 2 Kings xi. 4, &c. “he shewed them the king's son," &c.
The duties of WARDS. 2 Kings xii. 2. "Jehoash did that which was right in the sight of Jehovah all his days, wherein Jehoida the priest instructed him."
The prophet Samuel did not consider it beneath his dignity in his old age, after having exercised the most important public functions, to discharge the office of TEACHER in the schools of the prophets.3 1 Sam. xix. 20. "they saw the company of the prophets prophesying, and Samuel standing as appointed over them."
The duties of PUPILS. 1 Kings xix. 21. "he went after Elijah and ministered unto him." 2 Kings ii. 2, 4, 6. "I will
not leave thee."
The duties of the ELDER. Prov. xvi. 31. "the hoary head is a crown of glory, if it be found in the way of righteousness." Tit. ii. 2. "that the aged men be sober, grave, temperate, sound in faith, in charity, in patience."
The reverse. Job xx. 11. "his bones are full of the sin of his youth, which shall lie down with him in the dust." Isai. lxv. 20. "the sinner being an hundred years old shall be accursed."
The duties of the YOUNGER. Lev. xix. 32. "thou shalt rise up before the hoary head-." 2 Chron. xxxiv. 3. “in the eighth year of his reign, while he was yet young, he began to seek after God." Job xxxii. 4. " Elihu had waited till Job had spoken, because they were elder than he."
v. 6. “I am young, and ye are very old; wherefore I was afraid, and durst not show you mine opinion." Psal. xxv. 7. "remember not the sins of my youth-." cxix. 9. "wherewithal shall a
3 The words of our translation, as well as of the Septuagint and the Latin Vulgate, do not necessarily imply that Samuel taught, but that he presided in the schools of the prophets. But Milton probably understands the text in the right manner. Jonathan renders it et Samuelem stantem docentem super eos. See Stillingfleet's elaborate account of the schools of the prophets, Origines Sacræ, Book II. chap. iv. sect. 3. It will be remembered that Milton was reproached by his enemies with having been a schoolmaster. In the Transposer Rehearsed, written by R. Leigh, Oxon. 1673, 12mo. he is called a Latin Secretary and an English Schoolmaster, p. 128; and Salmasius, in his posthumous reply to the Defence of the People of England, describes him as ludimagister in schola triviali Londinensi.' Newton and Symmons have vindicated him from this crime with more seriousness than the charge seems to deserve.
young man cleanse his way?- cxlviii. 12. "young men and maidens.... praise the name of Jehovah." Eccles. xi. 9, 10. "rejoice, O young man, in thy youth.... but know thou, that for all these things God will bring thee into judgement.' xii. 1-3. “remember now thy Creator in the days of thy youth." 1 Tim. iv. 12. “let no man despise thy youth." 2 Tim. iii. 15. "from a child thou hast known the holy scriptures." Tit. ii. 6. " young men likewise exhort to be sober
The reverse. 2 Kings ii. 23. "there came forth little children out of the city, and mocked him." 2 Chron. xxxvi. 9. "Jehoiachin was eight years old when he began to reign... and he did that which was evil in the sight of Jehovah." Psal. Iviii. 3. "the wicked are estranged from the womb." Prov. xx. 11. " even a child is known by its doings." Isai. iii. 5. "the child shall behave himself proudly against the ancient."
The duties of SUPERIORS. Ruth ii. 4. "Boaz said unto the reapers, Jehovah be with you." Psal. xlix. 20. " man that is in honour, and understandeth not, is like the beasts that perish." Prov. iii. 35. "the wise shall inherit glory." 1 Pet. iv. 10. " as every man hath received the gift, even so minister the same one to another, as good stewards of the manifold grace of God."
The reverse. Prov. xxvi. 1. "as snow in summer, and as rain in harvest, so honour is not seemly for a fool." Eccles. x. 5, 6. “there is an evil that I have seen under the sun, as an error which proceedeth from the ruler; folly is set in great dignity." Isai. xxiii. 9. " to stain the pride of all glory-."
We are forbidden to glory in nobility of birth, or in rank, however exalted. Deut. xxvi. 5, &c. "thou shalt speak and say before Jehovah thy God, A Syrian ready to perish was my father-." Job xii. 21. " he poureth contempt upon princes." Psal. lxxv. 7. "God is the judge, he putteth down one, and setteth up another." cxiii. 7. " he raiseth up the poor out of the dust." Isai. xxxii. 8. "the liberal deviseth liberal things, and by liberal things shall he stand." John i. 13. "which were born, not of blood-." iii. 6. "that which is born of the flesh is flesh." viii. 39. "if ye were Abraham's children, ye would do the works of Abraham."
Opposed to the proper duty of a superior, is an unauthe
rized assumption of censorial power. 1 Pet. iv. 15. “ a busybody in other men's matters.'
The duties of INFERIORS. Prov. xxvi. 8. as he that bindeth a stone in a sling, so is he that giveth honour to a fool." Ruth ii. 4. "they answered him, Jehovah bless thee." v. 7. "I pray you, let me glean and gather after the reapers." 2 Kings ii. 15. "they came to meet him, and bowed themselves to the ground before him." Luke xiv. 9, 10. "when thou art bidden, go and sit down in the lowest room.' Rom. xiii. 7. "render therefore to all their dues.... honour to whom honour."
James ii. 2, &c. "if there come unto your
assembly a man with a gold ring," &c.
The duties of BRETHREN and KINSMEN. Gen. iv. 7. "unto thee shall be his desire, and thou shalt rule over him." xiii. 8. "let there be no strife, I pray thee, between thee and me for we be brethren." xxix. 11. "Jacob kissed Rachel, and lifted up his voice and wept." v. 13. "he ran to meet him, and embraced him, and kissed him." xliii. 33. "they sat before him, the first-born according to his birth-right-." Psal. cxxxiii. 1. "behold how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity."
The reverse. 2 Chron. xxi. 4. "he slew all his brethren-." v. 13. " and also hast slain thy brethren of thy father's house, which were better than thyself." Prov. xviii. 19. " a brother offended is harder to be won than a strong city."
The duties of MASTERS. Exod. xxi. 26, 27. "if a man strike the eye of his servant, or the eye of his maid, that it perish, he shall let him go free for his eye's sake." Job xxxi. 13. "if I did despise the cause of my man-servant, or of my maid-servant, when they contended with me.' Psal. ci. 6. "he that walketh in a perfect way, he shall serve me." cxxvii. 1, 2. “except Jehovah build the house, they labour in vain that build it." Prov. iii. 33. "he blesseth the habitation
of the just." xiv. 11. " the tabernacle of the upright shall flourish." xv. 6. "in the house of the righteous is much treasure." xxiv. 3, 4. " through wisdom is an house builded," &c. xxvii. 23. "be thou diligent to know the state of thy flocks." xxix. 21. "he that delicately bringeth up his servant from a child, shall have him become his son at the length." Luke xvii. 7-10. " which of you having a servant
plowing.... will not rather say unto him, Make ready wherewith I may sup.. doth he thank that servant because he did the things that were commanded him? I trow not." Eph. vi. 9. "and ye, masters, do the same things unto them, forbearing threatening; knowing that your master also is in heaven, neither is there respect of persons with him." Col. iv. 1. “masters, give unto your servants that which is just and equal," &c. 1 Tim. iii. 5. "if a man know not how to rule his own house," &c.
The reverse. Prov. iii. 33. "the curse of Jehovah is in the house of the wicked." xi. 29. " he that troubleth his own house shall inherit the wind." xiv. 11. "the house of the wicked shall be overthrown." xv. "in the revenues of the wicked is trouble." v. 25. “Jehovah will destroy the house of the proud."
Respecting the possession of slaves, and the extent of the master's authority, see Gen. xvii. 12. "he that is born in the house, or bought with money of any stranger-." Levit. xix. 20. "whosoever lieth carnally with a woman that is a bondmaid," &c. xxv. 44-46. "both thy bondmen and thy bondmaids which thou shalt have," &c. 1 Cor. vii. 21, 22. "let every man abide in the same calling wherein he was called.... art thou called being a servant, care not for it." See also the epistle to Philemon. Concerning the forfeiture, by insolvency, of the rights of freedom, see 2 Kings iv. 1. "the creditor is come to take unto him my two sons to be bondmen." Matt. xviii. 25. "his lord commanded him to be sold, and his wife," &c.
Respecting the punishment of slaves, see Gen. xvi. 6. "behold, the maid is in thine hand, do to her as it pleaseth thee." Prov. xxix. 19. "a servant will not be corrected by words; for, though he understand, he will not answer. Punishment, however, should not exceed due limits. Exod. xxi. 20, 21, 26, 27. “if a man smite his servant, or his maid, and he die-"
Respecting the manumission of Hebrew slaves, see Exod. xxi. 2—4. Levit. xxv. 39, 40. Deut. xv. 12, 13, 16, 17, &c. Jer. xxxiv.
The duties of SERVANTS. Gen. xvi. 9. "the angel of Jehovah said unto her, Return to thy mistress, and submit thyself under her hands." xxiv. 9. "the servant put his hand
under the thigh of Abraham his master, and sware to him—." Prov. xvii. 2. " a wise servant shall have rule over a son that causeth shame-." xxv. 13. “so is a faithful messenger to them that send him, for he refresheth the soul of his masters.' xxvii. 18. "he that waiteth on his master shall be honoured." Eph. vi. 5-8. "servants, be obedient to them that are your masters according to the flesh, with fear and trembling, in singleness of your heart, as unto Christ-." See also Col. iii. 22, &c. 1 Tim. vi. 1, 2. "let as many servants as are under the yoke count their own masters worthy of all honour, that the name of God and his doctrine be not blasphemed : and they that have believing masters, let them not despise them.... because they are faithful and beloved." Tit. ii. 9, 10. "exhort servants to be obedient unto their own masters, and to please them in all things, not answering again, not purloining, but showing all fidelity, that they may adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour in all things." 1 Pet. ii. 18, 19. "servants, be subject to your masters with all fear, not only to the good and gentle, but also to the froward; for this is thankworthy-."
Gen. xvi. 4. "her mistress was despised in
her eyes. 2 Kings v. 20, &c. "Gehazi, the servant of Elisha the man of God, said, Behold, my master hath spared Naaman this Syrian, in not receiving at his hands that which he brought; but as Jehovah liveth, I will run after him, and take somewhat of him." Prov. x. 26. "as vinegar to the teeth.. .. so is the sluggard to them that send him." xxvi. 6. "he that sendeth a message by the hand of a fool cutteth off the feet, and drinketh damage." XXX. 22, 23. "for a servant when he reigneth," &c.
CHAP. XVI.-OF THE REMAINING CLASS OF PRIVATE
THUS far of domestic duties. We are next to speak of those which are exercised towards strangers. The principal virtues in this class are almsgiving and hospitality.
ALMSGIVING consists in AFFORDING RELIEF TO THE POOR, ESPECIALLY TO SUCH AS ARE BRETHREN, IN PROPORTION TO