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will he teach his way." cxlvii. 6. "Jehovah lifteth up the meek." Isai. lxi. 1. "Jehovah hath anointed me to preach good tidings unto the meek." Matt. v. 5. "blessed are the meek." xi. 29. "learn of me, for I am meek and lowly of heart, and ye shall find rest unto your souls." xxi. 5. "behold, thy King cometh unto thee, meek-." Tit. iii. 2. showing all meekness unto all men."

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PLACABILITY Consists in a readiness to forgive those by whom we have been injured. Matt. vi. 12, 14. "forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors.... for if ye forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you.' xviii. 21, 22. "how oft shall my brother sin against me, and I forgive him?.... until seventy times seven." Luke xvii. 3, 4. "if thy brother trespass against thee, rebuke him; and if he repent, forgive him; and if he trespass against thee seven times a day-. Rom. xii. 18. "if it be possible, as much as lieth in you, live peaceably with all men.'


Opposed to a regard for the life of our neighbour, is, first, the shedding his blood. Gen. iv. 10. "what hast thou done? the voice of thy brother's blood crieth unto me from the ground." ix. 5, 6. "whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed; for in the image of God made he man." Exod. xx. 13. "thou shalt not kill." xxi. 12. " he that smiteth a man so that he die, shall surely be put to death." v. 14. "if a man come presumptuously upon his neighbour, to slay him with guile," &c. v. 28. "if an ox gore a man," &c. Deut. xxvii. 25. "cursed is he that taketh reward to slay an innocent person. Numb. xxxv. 31. 66

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shall take no satisfaction for the life of a murderer." v. 34. "defile not therefore the land which ye shall inhabit―.” Deut. xxi. 1. "if one be found slain in the land," &c. 1 Kings ii. 5, 6. "thou knowest also what Joab did to me," &c. v. 33, 34. "their blood shall therefore return upon the head of Joab." Prov. vi. 16, 17. " these six things doth Jehovah hate

hands that shed innocent blood." xxviii. 17. ". a man that doeth violence to the blood of any person, shall flee to the pit; let no man stay him."

Under this head is also included, first, every thing by which the life of our neighbour is endangered; as blows, wounds, mutilations, &c. Exod. xxi. 18, &c. "if men strive together, and one strike another," &c. Lev. xxiv. 19, 20. “if a man

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cause a blemish in his neighbour," &c. Deut. xxvii. 24. "cursed be he that smiteth his neighbour secretly."

Secondly, hasty anger. Prov. xiv. 29. "he that is slow to wrath is of great understanding; but he that is hasty of spirit exalteth folly." xvi. 32. "he that is slow to anger is better than the mighty; and he that ruleth his spirit, than he that taketh a city." xix. 11. "the discretion of a man deferreth his anger; and it is his glory to pass over a transgression." XV. 18. a wrathful man stirreth up strife." Matt. v. 22. "whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause, shall be in danger of the judgement." 1 John iii. 15. "whosoever hateth his brother is a murderer.'


Thirdly, revenge. Lev. xix. 18. "thou shalt not avenge, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people.' Deut. xxxii. 35. "to me belongeth vengeance and recompense.' Psal. xciv. 1. "O Jehovah, God to whom vengeance belongeth.' Prov. xx. 22. "say not thou, I will recompense evil." xxiv. 29. " say not, I will do so to him as he hath done to me." Rom. xii. 19. "dearly beloved, avenge not yourselves, but rather give place unto wrath." 1 Pet. iii. 8, 9. "not rendering evil for evil.” To avenge the church, however, or to desire that she be avenged of her enemies, is not forbidden. Exod. xvii. 16. "because Jehovah hath sworn that Jehovah will have war with Amalek from generation to generation." Deut. xxv. 17. "remember what Amalek did unto thee by the way." Psal. xviii. 37-43. “I have pursued mine enemies. . . . then did I beat them small as the dust.' xli. 10, 11. " raise me up that I may requite them." "he shall reward evil unto mine enemies." xcii. 11. 66 mine eyes also shall see my desire upon mine enemies." xciv. 2. "render a reward to the proud." cxxxvii. 8. “O daughter of Babylon," &c. Jer. xi. 20. "let me see thy vengeance on them.' See also xx. 12. xv. 15. " revenge me of my persecutors." 1. 15. "take vengeance upon her." Lament. i. 21,


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liv. 5.

22. “let all their wickedness come before thee." iii. 64, &c. "render unto them a recompense." Esther ix. 13. "then said Esther, If it please the king, let it be granted unto the Jews .... to do to-morrow also according unto this day's decree, and let Haman's ten sons be hanged on the gallows." Rev. vi. 10. "how long, O Lord-?”

The HONOUR of our neighbour is consulted by a respect to

his personal modesty. Levit. xix. 29. " do not prostitute thy daughter to cause her to be a whore." Deut. xxiii. 17. "there shall be no whore of the daughters of Israel, nor a sodomite of the sons of Israel."

Opposed to this are unnatural vices, fornication, violation, adultery, incest, rape, whoredom, and similar offences. Gen. xix. 5. "bring them out unto us, that we may know them." See also Judges xix. 22. Deut. xxiii. 17, as above. 1 Kings xv. 12. "he took away the sodomites out of the land." xxii. 46. "the remnant of the sodomites," &c. Gen. xxxiv. 2. "he took her, and lay with her, and defiled her." Exod. xx. 14. "thou shalt not commit adultery." Levit. xviii. 20. "thou shalt not lie carnally with thy neighbour's wife, to defile thyself with her." Job. xxxi. 9, 10, &c. "if mine heart hath been deceived by a woman," &c. Jer. v. 7, 8. "they committed adultery, and assembled themselves by troops in the harlots' houses." Ezek. xviii. 6. "neither hath defiled his neighbour's wife.” xxii. 11. " one hath committed abomination with his neighbour's wife." Hosea vii. 4. " they are all adulterers." Amos ii. 7. "a man and his father will go in unto the same maid-." Heb. xiii. 4. "whoremongers and adulterers God will judge." Hence the laws against fornication, Exod. xxii. 16, 17, &c. " if a man entice a maid that is not betrothed, and lie with her," &c. against incest, Levit. xviii. 6. xx. 11, &c. "the man that lieth with his father's wife," &c. Deut. xxii. 21, 23, 28. "then they shall bring out the damsel to the door of her father's house, and the men of her city shall stone her.... because she hath wrought folly in Israel, to play the whore in her father's house: if a man be found lying with a woman married to an husband.... if a man find a damsel that is a virgin—.” xxiii. 2. "a bastard shall not enter into the congregation of Jehovah." xxvii. 20, &c. "cursed be he that lieth with his father's wife." Hence also provision was expressly made for cases of jealousy. Numb. v. 12, &c. Prov. vi. 34. "jealousy is the rage of a man.' Cantic. viii. 6. "jealousy is cruel as the grave.' Even before the promulgation of the law, adultery was made capital by divine command: Gen. xx. 3. " thou art but a dead man, for the woman whom thou hast taken." xxxviii. 24. " bring her forth, and let her be burnt." Some marriages, however, were prohibited by the Mosaic code, which appear to have


been previously lawful. Gen. xx. 12. "yet indeed she is my sister; she is the daughter of my father;" compared with Deut. xxvii. 22. "cursed be he that lieth with his sister, the daughter of his father;" and Ezek. xxii. 11. "another in thee hath humbled his sister, his father's daughter." Exod. vi. 20. "Amram took him Jochebed his father's sister to wife." Levit. xviii. 12. "thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy father's sister."

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Respecting a menstruous woman, see Levit. xx. 18. "if a man shall lie with a woman having her sickness," &c. Ezek. xviii. 6. "neither hath come near to a menstruous woman.' xxii. 10. "in thee have they humbled her that was set apart for pollution."


THE external good of our neighbour is consulted, as before said, by a regard to his good name and worldly interests.

We consult OUR NEIGHBOUR'S GOOD NAME, when IN OUR DEPORTMENT TOWARDS HIM, IN OUR CONVERSATION WITH HIM, AND IN OUR MANNER OF SPEAKING OF HIM, WE PRESERVE TOWARDS HIM A DUE RESPECT, AND AVOID DOING ANYTHING WHICH MAY CAUSELESSLY INJURE HIM IN THE OPINION OF OTHERS. 1 Pet. ii. 17. "honour all men." Gen. xviii. 2, &c. " he ran to meet them from the tent door, and bowed himself toward the ground." xxiii. 7. "Abraham stood up, and bowed himself to the people of the land." Exod. xviii. 7. "Moses went out to meet his father-in-law." Ruth ii. 10. "then she fell on her face and bowed herself to the ground." Nor are we anywhere told that obeisance was made even to kings otherwise than by a lowly inclination of the body, the same token of respect which was frequently paid to each other even by private individuals.2

2 A scrupulous attention is paid throughout Paradise Lost to this duty, and inferiors are generally represented as shewing their respect to personages of superior dignity in the manner here mentioned. Thus it is said of the fallen angels worshipping Satan :


.... Towards him they bend, With awful reverence prone.

II. 477.


IN OUR DEPORTMENT TOWARDS HIM. To this head belongs that sense of delicacy, which precludes us from saying or doing everything indiscriminately, however proper in itself, in the presence of our neighbour. Job xix. 3. "ye are not ashamed that ye make yourselves strange to me."

Opposed to this is impudence; as exemplified in the unjust judge. Luke xviii. 2. “which feared not God, neither regarded


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IN OUR MANNER OF CONVERSING WITH HIM, &c. The virtues herein comprised are veracity and candour.

VERACITY Consists in speaking the truth to all who are entitled to hear it, and in matters which concern the good of our neighbour. Psal. xv. 2. " he that speaketh the truth in his heart." Prov. xii. 17. " he that speaketh truth, sheweth forth righteousness." v. 22. "lying lips are abomination to Jehovah, but they that deal truly are his delight." xx. 6. "a faithful man who can find?" Zech. viii. 16. " speak ye every man the truth to his neighbour." Eph. iv. 25. “putting Of the holy angels in heaven:

..Lowly reverent

Towards either throne they bow, and to the ground
With solemn adoration down they cast

Their crowns.

Paradise Lost, III. 349.

Of the angels stationed to guard Paradise, at the appearance of Raphael :

To his state

And to his message high in honour rise,

For on some message high they guess'd him bound. V. 288.

Of Adam in the presence of Raphael :

.Though not aw'd,

Yet with submiss approach and rev'rence meek,

As to superior nature bowing low,

Thus said.

Ibid. 358.

Of the Messiah when leaving the Father to go against the rebel angels :

... He o'er his sceptre bowing, rose

From the right hand of glory where he sat.

Of Eve before the tree of knowledge:

.. From the tree her step she turn'd; But first low reverence done, as to the Pow'r That dwelt within.

Thus also in his early poem of Arcades:

VI. 746.

IX. 834.

The great mistress of yon princely shrine,
Whom with low reverence I adore as mine.


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