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“he shall have judgement without mercy, that hath shewed no mercy."

Secondly, a rejoicing in the misfortunes of others. Psal. lii. 1. "why boastest thou thyself in mischief?" This is exemplified in the Edomites, Psal. cxxxvii. Prov. xxiv. 17. "rejoice not when thine enemy falleth."

Thirdly, pretended pity. Psal. xli. 6. “if he come to see me, he speaketh vanity."

Fourthly, a misplaced compassion. Jer. xvi. 7. "neither shall men tear themselves for them in mourning, to comfort them for the dead-." This is exemplified in the pity of Ahab for Benhadad.

Under reciprocal love are comprised brotherly love and friendship.


BROTHERLY or CHRISTIAN LOVE is the strongest of all affections, whereby believers mutually love and assist each other as members of Christ, and are as far as possible of one mind; bearing at the same time to the utmost of their power with the weaker brethren, and with such as are of a different opinion. Psal. cxxxiii. 1. "behold how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity." John xiii. 34, &c. "by this shall all men know that ye are my disciples, if ye have love one to another." xv. 12, &c. "this is my commandment, That ye love one another, as I have loved you; greater love hath no man than this-.' See also Eph. v. 1. Ï John iii. 16. John xvii. 11. "that they may be one, as we are." Rom. xiv. 19. "let us therefore follow after the things which make for peace, and things wherewith one may edify another." 2 Cor. xiii. 11. "be of one mind, live in peace; and the God of love and peace shall be with you." Eph. iv. 15. "that we.. speaking the truth in love, may grow up into him in all things, which is the head, even Christ." Philipp. ii. 2. "that ye be likeminded, having the same love, being of one accord, of one mind." Col. ii. 1, 2. "their hearts being knit together in love." iii. 15. "let the peace of God rule in your hearts, to the which also ye are called in one body, and be ye thankful." 1 Thess. iv. 9. “as touching brotherly love ye need not that I write unto you, for ye yourselves are taught of God to love one another." Heb. xiii. 3, &c. "remember them that are in bonds, as bound with them-." 1 Pet. ii. 17. "love the brotherhood." iv. 8. "above all things have

fervent charity among yourselves, for charity shall cover the multitude of sins." 2 Pet. i. 7. "add to brotherly kindness charity." 1 John ii. 10. "he that loveth his brother abideth in the light, and there is none occasion of stumbling in him.” iii. 14, 15. ". we know that we have passed from death unto life, because we love the brethren." iv. 7, 8. "beloved, let us love one another, for love is of God." v. 2. "by this we know that we love the children of God, when we love God, and keep his commandments."

Bearing with the weaker brethren, &c. Acts xxi. 20, &c. "thou seest, brother, how many thousands of Jews there are which believe, and they are all zealous of the law.... do therefore this." Gal. vi. 1, 2. "brethren, if a man be overtaken in a fault, ye which are spiritual restore such an one in the spirit of meekness, considering thyself, lest thou also be tempted; bear ye one another's burthens." Eph. iv. 2. "with all lowliness and meekness, with long-suffering; forbearing one another in love." Col. iii. 12-14. "put on therefore, as the elect of God, holy and beloved, bowels of mercies, kindness, humbleness of mind, meekness, long-suffering; forbearing one another, and forgiving one another; if any man have a quarrel against any, even as Christ forgave you, so also do ye."

Opposed to this are divisions, enmities, rivalries among brethren, &c. Gen. xiii. 8. "let there be no strife, I pray thee, between thee and me, and between my herdmen and thy herdmen, for we be brethren." 1 Cor. iii. 3. "whereas there is among you envying, and strife, and divisions, are ye not carnal?" Gal. v. 20, 21. "hatred, variance, emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, heresies, envyings.... they which do such things shall not inherit the kingdom of God." 1 John ii. 9, 11. "he that saith he is in the light, and hateth his brother, is in darkness even until now." To these may be added a pretended brotherly love, from which great danger often arises to believers. 2 Cor. xi. 26. "in perils among false brethren." Gal. ii. 4. "and that because of false brethren unawares brought in."

FRIENDSHIP is a most intimate union of two or more individuals, cemented by an interchange of all good offices, of a civil at least, if not of a religious kind. Eccles. iv. 9, &c. "two are better than one, because they have a good reward for their labour-." It takes precedence of all degrees of

relationship. Deut. xiii. 6. "thy friend, which is as thine own soul." Prov. xvii. 17. "a friend loveth at all times." xviii. 24. "there is a friend that sticketh closer than a brother." xxvii. 10. "thine own friend, and thy father's friend, forsake not, neither go into thy brother's house in the day of thy calamity; for better is a neighbour that is near, than a brother that is far off."

Friendship, and even common companionship with good men, is safe and advantageous. Gen. xii. 3. "I will bless them that bless thee." xviii. 26. "if I find in Sodom fifty righteous within the city, then will I spare all the place for their sakes." xix. 21. "see, I have accepted thee concerning this thing also." xx. 7. "he is a prophet, and he shall pray for thee, and thou shalt live." Numb. xi. 2. "the people cried unto Moses; and when Moses prayed unto Jehovah, the fire was quenched." xiv. 19, 20. " pardon, I beseech thee, the iniquity of this people.... I have pardoned according to thy word." 1 Sam. xv. 6. "go, depart.... lest I destroy you with them for ye showed kindness to all the children of Israel-." Psal. cxix. 63. "I am a companion of all them that fear thee." Prov. xiii. 20. "he that walketh with wise men shall be wise." Isai. lxv. 8. "so will I do for my servants' sake." Ezek. xxii. 30. "I sought for a man among them that should make up the hedge.' They are also useful as counsellors. Exod. xviii. 14. "when Moses' father-in-law saw all that he did to the people," &c. v. 24. 66 so Moses hearkened unto the voice of his father-in law." Prov. xii. 15. "he that hearkeneth unto counsel is wise." xxvii. 9. "ointment and perfume rejoice the heart; so doth the sweetness of a man's friend by hearty counsel." The benefits of their friendship, however, extend not to the ensuring our salvation in a future life; not even in the instance of those who associated with Christ on earth: Matt. xii. 46, &c. Mark iii. 35. Luke xi. 27. xiii. 26. John vii. 5.

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Opposed to this, are, first, pretended friendship. Job xix. 13, &c. "he hath put my brethren far from me, and mine acquaintance are verily estranged from me." Psal. lv. 12, &c. "it was not an enemy that reproached me, then I could have borne it.... but it was thou, a man mine equal, my guide, and mine acquaintance; we took sweet counsel to

gether, and walked unto the house of God in company." Prov. xix. 4, 6, 7. " many will intreat the favour of the prince," &c. Of this crime the traitor Judas is an example.


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Secondly, friendship or social intercourse with the wicked. Gen. xiv. 12. "they took Lot-.” xix. 12, &c. "hast thou here any beside?.... bring them out of this place.' Psal. i. 1. "blessed is the man who walketh not in the counsel of the ungodly." xxvi. 4, 5. “I have not sat with vain persons—.” cxli. 4. "incline not my heart to any evil thing, to practise wicked works with men that work iniquity." Prov. xiii. 20. 'a companion of fools shall be destroyed." xiv. 7." go from the presence of a foolish man.' v. 9. "fools make a mock at sin; but among the righteous there is favour." v. 14. "a good man shall be satisfied from himself." xxiv. 1, 2. " neither desire to be with them." xxviii. 7. "he that is a companion of riotous men, shameth his father." Rom. i. 31, 66 32. who not only do the same, but have pleasure in them that do them." 1 Cor. xv. 33. "be not deceived: evil communications corrupt good manners." Eph. v. 7. "be not ye therefore partakers with them." v. 11. "have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness." Such intercourse, however, is sometimes unavoidable in the present life. Judges ix. 3. "there were gathered vain men to Jephthah, and went out with him." 1 Sam. xxii. 2. "every one that was in distress, and every one that was in debt.... gathered themselves unto him." xxx. 22. "then answered all the wicked men and men of Belial, of those that went with David-." Psal. cxx. 5, 6. "woe is me!.... my soul hath long dwelt with him that hateth peace." 1 Cor. v. 9-11. "I wrote unto you in an epistle not to company with fornicators; yet not altogether with the fornicators of this world. . . . for then ye must needs go out of the world; but.... if any man that is called a brother be a fornicator-."

Thirdly, enmity. Prov. xvii. 14. "the beginning of strife is as when one letteth out water; therefore leave off contention before it be meddled with.” v. 19. "he loveth transgression that loveth strife; and he that exalteth his gate, seeketh destruction." XX. 3. "it is an honour for a man to cease from strife; but every fool will be meddling.' xxvi. 26. "whose hatred is covered by deceit, his wickedness shall be showed before the whole congregation."

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THE SPECIAL VIRTUES, or VARIOUS MODES OF CHARITY OR JUSTICE AS REGARDS OUR NEIGHBOUR, relate to him either under the general acceptation of the word neighbour, as denoting simple proximity; or under some special acceptation, where our relationship arises from special circumstances.

The discharge of our special duties towards our neighbour includes the regulation not only of our actions, but of our affections, as concerns him. Exod. xx. 17. "thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house-."

Special duties towards our neighbour, using the word in its general sense, regard either his internal or external good.

His internal good is consulted by a regard to his safety and honour; his external, by a concern for his good name and worldly interests. Our regard to his safety should extend not merely to the present life, but to the eternal state.

Prov. x.


11. "the mouth of a righteous man is a well of life." xiv. 15. "destroy not him with thy meat, for whom Christ died." James v. 20. "let him know that he which converteth the sinner from the error of his way, shall save a soul from death, and shall hide a multitude of sins." The duty of preserving our neighbour's life is inculcated. Prov. xxiv. 11, 12. "if thou forbear to deliver them that are drawn unto death, and those that are ready to be slain; if thou sayest, Behold we knew it not; doth not he that pondereth the heart consider it? doth not he know it? and shall he not render to every man according to his works?"

Under this class of virtues are comprehended innocence, meekness, and placability.

INNOCENCE Consists in doing a voluntary injury to no one. Psal. xxiv. 4. "he that hath clean hands." xxvi. 6. "I will wash mine hands in innocency." Rom. xii. 18. "if it bé possible, as much as lieth in you, live peaceably with all men." Heb. xii. 14. "follow peace with all men."

MEEKNESS is that by which we are so far from offering or taking offence, that we conduct ourselves mildly and affectionately towards all men, as far as is practicable. Numb. xii. 3.

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now the man Moses was very meek, above all the men which were upon the face of the earth." Psal. xxv. 9. "the meek

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