A SERIES OF MATHEMATICAL TEXTS EDITED BY EARLE RAYMOND HEDRICK THE CALCULUS By ELLERY WILLIAMS DAVIS and WILLIAM CHARLES BRENKE. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY AND ALGEBRA By ALEXANDER ZIWET and LOUIS ALLEN HOPKINS. ELEMENTS OF ANALYTIC GEOMETRY By ALEXANDER ZIWET and LOUIS ALLEN HOPKINS. PLANE AND SPHERICAL COMPLETE TABLES By ALFRED MONROE KENYON and LOUIS INGOLD. PLANE TRIGONOMETRY SPHERICAL AND BRIEF TABLES TRIGONOMETRY WITH WITH By ALFRED MONROE KENYON and LOUIS INGOLD. ELEMENTARY MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS By JOHN WESLEY YOUNG and FRANK MILLETT MORGAN. COLLEGE ALGEBRA By ERNEST BROWN SKINNER. MATHEMATICS FOR COLLEGIATE STUDENTS By ALFRED MONROE KENYON and WILLIAM VERNON LOVITT. PLANE TRIGONOMETRY By ALFRED MONROE KENYON and LOUIS INGOLD. THE MACMILLAN TABLES Prepared under the direction of EARLE RAYMOND HEDRICK. PLANE GEOMETRY By WALTER BURTON FORD and CHARLES AMMERMAN. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY By WALTER BURTON FORD and CHARLES AMMERMAN. SOLID GEOMETRY By WALTER BURTON FORD and CHARLES AMMERMAN. CONSTRUCTIVE GEOMETRY Prepared under the direction of EARLE RAYMOND HEDRICK. OF JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL MATHEMATICS By WILLIAM LEDLEY VOSBURGH and FREDERICK WILLIAM FOR COLLEGIATE STUDENTS OF AGRICULTURE AND GENERAL SCIENCE BY ALFRED MONROE KENYON PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS IN PURDUE UNIVERSITY AND WILLIAM VERNON LOVITT ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS IN PURDUE UNIVERSITY NEW YORK THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 PREFACE This book is designed as a text in freshman mathematics for students specializing in agriculture, biology, chemistry, and physics, in colleges and in technical schools. The selection of topics has been determined by the definite needs of these students. An attempt has been made to treat these topics and to select material for illustration so as to put in evidence their close and practical relations with everyday life, both in and out of college. It is certain that the interest of the student can be aroused and sustained in this way. We believe also that he can be trained to understand and to solve those mathematical problems which will confront him in the subsequent years of his college work and in after-life, without losing anything in orderly arrangement or in clear and accurate logical thinking. Reference to the table of contents will indicate the scope and proportions of the material presented and something of the means employed in relating the material to the vital interests of the student and of correlating it to his experience and his intellectual attainments. Many of the chapter subjects and paragraph headings are traditional. Nothing has been introduced merely for novelty. Since this course is to constitute the entire mathematical equipment of some students, some chapters have been inserted which have seldom been available to freshmen; for example, the chapters on annuities, averages, and correlation, and the exposition of Mendel's law in the chapter on the binomial expansion. Particular attention has been given to the illustrative examples and figures, and to the grading of the problems in the lists. The exercises constitute about one fifth of the text and contain |