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Jan. 27. Vol. 601, p. 63.

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cesseld, sterling per diem, wherewith they hold themselves well contented, the commodity of cesse being turned another way to no relief of the country. And for the further easing of her Highness in respect of his increase of pay, both her Majesty and your Lordships may assure yourselves that, this being proponed in Parliament, the country will contribute towards it, to the uttermost of their powers, wherein we will ersuade by all the ways we can.”

7. As to any other grieves besides cesse, we were not appointed to deal therein.

Signed : Barnaby Scurloke, Richard Nettervyll, Henry Burnell.

Contemp. copy. Po. 7.

45. LORD DEPUTY SIDNEY to the PRIVY COUNCIL.

Since my letters of the 20th September last, dated from Galway, I still remained in expectation of answer to my former letters, which came not before the 23rd inst., when it was brought me by my servant, James Prescott. I cannot justly lay the fault to his negligence, but to the contrariety of the winds and untowardness of the weather, which would not suffer him to pass. In my letters from Galway I spoke of my proceedings in Connaught in pursuit of the rebels. The day following I went to Athenry, so to the Shrugher and into McWilliam Eughter's country, and within a day or two came to the castle of Ibary, which I had caused to be besieged beforehand by certain companies I had dispersed from me, to lie in that country and to make head against the Scots, who were reported to lie not past five or six miles from the place of this siege, and to have gathered together all the prey of the country. The castle was noted to be a very strong piece. “At my coming thither, the mother of two of the principal gentlemen that were in the ward of the castle and sons to Edmund Burke (who was sent from the Earl of Clanrickard' sons, to entertain the Scots to come into Connaught to the aid of those rebels,) made humble suit unto me, that she might speak with her sons; and first she entreated for their lives, that I would grant them pardon, which I would not in any sort assent to, except they would presently yield the castle into my hands, and simply submit themselves, their lives, lands, and goods to my devotion; and assured her that since I was coine thither I would not depart thence and leave the place before I had won it. She thought the conditions very hard ; nevertheless, tendering much her son's lives, went to them by licence from me, and put them in so hard hope to obtain mercy (but upon these conditions) as the misery of their state made them to hazard the extremity of fortune, and so privily at a spikehole on the back side and in a main wall of the castle (which during the parley they had wrought somewhat wider), and made passage to let down a man by

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device into the ditch betwixt the twilight and setting of the
watch, the ward stole away and escaped with their lives.”
Hither came to me McWilliam Eughter, whom I rebuked,
because, though I was come into those parts to repossess and
settle him in his country, he had neither come nor sent to me.
He alleged that he had gathered his strength and people
together, and forth with gave a sudden charge upon the Scots,
crying “Bows ' Bows : " The Scots, thinking it to be true
fled away, and left all the prey behind them. I delivered to
him the castle I had taken, to keep it to her Majesty's use,
and all the castles and piles of which he had been dispossessed."
From this place I meant to have gone to Sligo, but by
reason of extreme rains the water of Moy was risen so high
that, having no boats, I could not pass either my horsemen or
footmen over. And besides the soldiers were overtoiled and
wearied, and many of them feeble and sick. Moreover, I
thought the journey less necessary, for that O'Connor Sligo
came to me thither, with the Clandonnells and all the rest of
that country, and because the Scots were fled the country,
leaving Ulick Burke, who likewise fled to the mountains of
Slevartye to his brother Shane ; O'Roorke also sent to me, to
meet me where I would appoint him.
“I returned homewards by the plains of Connaught to-
wards Dublin, and left Sir Nicholas Malbye possessed of the
houses of Roscommon and Athlone, and all the Earl's houses
in Clanrickerd, besides two bands of footmen, and Captain
Daniell's company of horsemen, 200 of the Clandonnells of
Leinster, being her Majesty's galloglas, with 100 kerne; all to
be at the direction of the Colonel, over and besides his own
company, being 30 horsemen and 20 footmen ; and gave him
order and commission to take bonaght and spending for
the finding of the galloglas upon such countries and lords as
had not yet compounded with her Majesty for their lands.
And so leaving him sufficient authority and power for the
government of the province, I departed thence and arrived
in Dublin the 13th of October.” Sir Nicholas Malbye is a
sufficient man for the service of Connaught, being forward
and valiant. I thank your Lordships for your choice of so fit a
man to the place.
The hope of the Earl's enlargement, so daily gaped for, is
the only cause of the wars there. But “in truth the Earl's
cause falleth out against him every day fouler and fouler, as
both by his own confession and the depositions of others.”
will appear to you. With them I will send you a bill drawn
for his attainder by Parliament, if he be not found a bastard,
as it is thought he may be, and then he may be tried by a
jury of common persons. His sons' wars and his once
suppressed, the revenue of Connaught will in short space
bear the charges of Connaught.
“The province of Munster is universally quiet as yet, but
the President findeth some stubbornness of Thomond, in not

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obeying such orders as be taken against him ; and some
wilfulness of Desmond, that he will not be withdrawn from his
wonted exactions; and such a general repining throughout to
bear cesse, not without some intelligence, or, as it is rather
to be suspected, conspiracy, with them of the English Pale.”
Howbeit the Lord President holds them in great security of
quiet. If the cess might be converted to a certain subsidy,
the revenue of that province would do more than bear the
charge of the same.
The English Pale is very quiet. Never has a winter passed
over with less loss and fewer stealths and bodderagges. “The
only gall of the Pale for this present is the wilful repining at
the cesse, which is stirred up by certain busy-headed lawyers
and malcontented gentlemen, who indeed bear not themselves
the burden of it, but the farmers and husbandmen, who
willingly would contribute toward it, if the gentlemen would
suffer them ; insomuch as the county of Meath being twice
as big as any other county of the English Pale, hath offered
to give five marks sterling out of every plowland, which is
not above 2d. sterling out of every acre; and yet if the same
were universal over Leinster and Meath it would amount
unto above 5,000 marks sterling by the year; and yet in this
accompt all ancient freedoms shall remain and continue free
still. The repiners from whom these new freedoms are now
taken, and to whom the same were first granted in respect
of service to be done by them at general hostings, it was a
mockery to see what sorry service those men they set forth
either did, or for their training or ability were able to do, for
their freedoms, so that the Queen lost both ordinary and
extraordinary subsidy; the consideration whereof moved me
to call the statute in question, whereby they challenge these
new freedoms and exemptions; and the statute being seen
and scanned upon, it was found that they could not justly
any longer claim any freedoms, by force of the same statute,
and so abridged both by my Lord Chancellor and Sir Lucas
Dillon, none of the rest professing the laws, willingly agreed
to that judgment, and yet not any of them all, in learning nor
reason, able to maintain probable argument to the contrary.
“And lest this name of cesse, being not an usual word there,
might seem to carry some secret mystery in the term, being
misconceived, may it please your Lordships therefore to
conceive that cesse is nothing else, but a prerogative of the
Prince, and an agreement and consent of the nobility and
Council to impose upon the country a certain proportion of
victual of all kinds to be delivered and issued at a reasonable
rate, and, as is it commonly termed, the Queen's price; so that
the rising and falling of the prices of victuals and accatts,

and the seasonableness of the times, dear or cheap, makes the

matter heavier or easier to the people. For when the cow was commonly sold for 8 or 98. sterling, the peck of wheat for 2s. 8d. or 38, the peck, and the mutton at 12d., and of the

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rest after the like prices, this burden was not felt, but such
an agreement betwixt the soldier and the countryman, and so
desirous and loving one of another, as there was no repining,
but so welcome was the guest to the host, as there was ever
grief and sadness at their departing each from other. And
now, although as much be paid as ever was in rate, yet the
price growing higher, and the insolency of the soldier more,
than it was wont to be, in exacting of money upon the poor
farmers, and sometimes escaping uncorrected for the same,
(which happeneth as seldom as never if they be complained
upon), provoketh this kicking and spurning at cesse.”
At first they exhibited their complaint to me and the
Council, and I offered to join with them in advice, if any
way might be thought of to ease their griefs, and not any
further to charge the Queen; for the soldier could not pay
above the rate he did for his victual. My Lord Chancellor
afterwards took great travail to set down their device and
had both the gentlemen of the country and victualler{s] before
him, and heard their objections and the victuallers' answers.
Yet the gentlemen, not satisfied with any thing I can do or in-
vent for their good, conspire to complain of cesse, and of me and
my government. Your Lordships should mightily maintain it
with your grave censure, for without it, or a subsidy instead,
the revenues will never bear the charge of the defence of this
country.
As to my government I crave no more but that I may be
heard before I be condemned. “The poor man's burden
(whom I seek most to ease), by reason of the revocation of
these new freedoms, bear a far more easy charge, since some
of the gentlemen then neighbours contribute with them more
than heretofore they did. They are glad and thankful for it,
though others repine and spurn at that which they cannot in
any sort remedy, as long as they are not able to defend and
maintain their own without the aid and help of a garrison to
reside amongst them. It was avouched unto ine in a general
speech by the country that there was paid 91 out of
every plowland for cesse. I offered to discharge them for
four marks. And this is the hard hand and ill will I bear
the country.”
I send herewith the state of the charges of the whole year
from 1 October 1575 to 30 September 1576. Although I
have somewhat exceeded my promise for this year's charge,
the same hath grown chiefly by payments and imprests I
made out of my assignations for * grown due, before the time
I entered government. Yet for urgent causes, and saving her
Majesty's further charges, and to disburden the country of
the extortions and oppressions of the soldiers that remained

* A word omitted ?

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discharged and not paid, I caused to be issued out, as may
appear more plainly by a book of particularities and rates set
down, and signed by Mr. Treasurer (Sir Edward Fyton) and
the Auditor (Thomas Jenyson), which here with J send to
your Lordships; of which sum I disbursed for things due before
my time, amounting in the whole to 1,263. 3s. 8d, sterling, I
am humbly to crave allowance and consideration at Her Ma-
jesty's hands; besides the large imprest delivered by order
there unknown to me, or without my privity here; and some
entered into entertainment so long before their coming hither,
and nevertheless the whole charge continued here, for the
service of the country, although no such allowance had been
granted there, which grew in the end to a double charge to
the Queen ; moreover, this unlooked for broil and stir in
Connaught, which drew some extraordinary expense.”
It cannot be expected that this next year her Majesty's
charges can be lessened, these winter's wars have been already so
chargeable. I endeavour to bring each province to defray its own
charges. Both in Munster and Connaught I have made compo-
sitions with divers lords and potentates of Irish countries for a
certain annual rent and service, as may appear by a book of a
particular rental sent to Mr. Secretary Walsingham. If justice
may be continued amongst them, I doubt not within two or
three years to make that as certain a rent and revenue to the
crown as any yielded by the English Pale.
“There is besides, for the reducing of Munster and Con-
naught to more pliantness and aptness to yield obedience and
embrace justice and civility, several commissions devised,
wherein the Commissioners take travail to appoint a certainty
betwixt the lord and tenant, that the lord may know what
he should demand and the tenant what he should pay, to the
end to abolish all Irish extortions and unjust customs amongst
them.”
I likewise send a book of the state of the army, and a book
of all such fees as are due to the patentees. I beseech you
that money may be sent over hither to discharge that debt.
It will be greatly to their comforts, if special care be had of
them in time; “for if they should expect their payments to
be made out of the arrearages (as they are brought in), that
will not be in a long time, and as the same cometh in, it must
be employed for the payment of old debts, due for
victuals taken up, for wages of artificers, labourers, and stuff
taken by commission for buildings, for] wages of stipendaries
and other extraordinary [expenses].”
In my memorials for Connaught I left unremembered the
good service done by Thomas Le Strange and Captain William
Collier, “whom I left, in the interval betwixt my first journey
into Connaught and the settling Nicholas Malbie colonel there,
to have in mine absence the principal rule in that province.”
Placed by me at Balliloghreughe, a principal house of the

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