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July 23. Vol. 628, p. 297.

*Ibid., p. 255.

whereupon he allows payment; and until he have some other discharge under the hand of the Treasurer of that realm, there is no reason to deliver them. We therefore send for a brother of Sir Edward Fitton; and if he be not warranted to give such discharge as is requisite, some other must be sent from the Treasurer fully authorized.

The treasure due to you by composition for this quarter ended at Midsummer is delivered to your servant, James Prescotte.

St. James's, 13th July 1576.
Contemp. copy. Pp. 4}.
Headed: From the Lls, to the Lord Deputy.


Your letters of the 9th inst. from Athlone were delivered to us here at St. James's on the 21st. The Queen graciously takes all your proceedings, upon the sudden news of that revolt in Connaught, wherein you had, for her service, directed your course another way. You have prevented a great many mischiefs and saved a great deal of cost which else might have ensued. You complain of want of answers to your letters. We trust, when you have considered our letters sent by Cateline, you will not find great cause to lament our slackness. “For the stay of those persons that you required to be sent unto you out of this realm by your former letters, as the time will be now passed before your return to Dublin, and your course altered from taking that of them that you determined by your time appointed of the midst of September, so we remain s I of opin on that your intended purpose shall be sooner established by le: ons to be sent hither from thence to confer with such here as be well acquainted with that government, than by any that can be sent from hence not so acquainted, nor so skilful in the same ; and yet nevertheless, if your L. shall persevere to think the sending of them so necessary for her Majesty's service, we shall, upon signification thereof from you, procure the coming of them.” As to your request for a meet man to be sent over to take the charge of the government" of the province of Connaught, we trust by this time you have understanding of her Majesty's resolution upon Captain Nicholas Malbie for that purpose. His services “in dealing with his soldiers, in keeping his band complete, living upon the country without exactions, extortions, or bribes,” have proved him to be a honest and discreet man. Lastly, for the house at Athlone, her Majesty has sent letters by Cateline signifying her pleasure that Fitton shall from henceforth give over that entertainment. St. James's, 23rd July 1576. Contemp. copy. Pp. 24. Headed : From the Lls, to the Lord Deputy.


“According to your Honour's request that I should make known to the same the judges, Queen's counsellors, and officers, the certain revenue within this realm and how her Majesty hath been answered thereof.” I have gathered as much as I could of every of them. I have also added a roll containing a brief of such good laws as are meetest to be put in execution, which I desire your Honour to commit to the Queen's Printer, “to have 300 or 400 of them to be in form of proclamations, which before the circuit I wish were in all the parts twice proclaimed.” I also enclose a copy of the letter I have written to her Majesty and some articles, in consequence of the sharp commandment which her Highness gave me to advertise her what I should find of the state of this country, and her officers, courts, and revenue. The garrison is the chief cause of the consuming of her Majesty's treasure. “Through the waste of divers parts within the Pale, a great part is depopulated, and the most of the inhabitants in the other parts so wretched poor creatures in person and substances as not able to defend themselves; wherefore necessity urgeth the keeping of a garrison until they may be able to defend themselves. “To work this waste to a populous habitation, that with small help the country might defend themselves, is the way to discharge the great charge her Majesty is at. The multitude of idle thieves are the wasters of the country and the impoverishers of the poor churles, as they term them. To cut them off by justice is the plat I lay, and that must be put in execution by circuiting the Pale yearly twice, and even upon the very borders, and by executing the same with all severity, and chiefly upon the best sort offending. English justices must be the executioners. What these be who serve here, my notes shall tell your Honour. I have therefore desired the help and assistance of two persons, th’ one to be her Majesty's Attorney, th' other a justice. And because I cannot perceive how to have such competent fee as requisite to entertain those two out of the proportion allowed to my Lord, therefore I have thought good to move to your Honour this way, that you would please to commend the Bishop of Dublin to her Majesty to be preferred to some bishopric in England now vacant, and to retain the see of Dublin vacant for these three years in her Majesty's hands, and the profits to give to one person learned to be Attorney one 100l., to another to be justice, 200l., and to a preacher and officers to discharge ecclesiastical jurisdiction, the rest. The Bishop I have heard offer the same bishopric to farm for 400l. by year, and if her Majesty's pleasure be not to forbear this (a thing her Highness never had), I know not how to be assisted or her Majesty well served.


“I will do that which I cannot learn that any my predecessors have used—descend from the place of Chancellor and be still in commission with them as a justice, but alone to take the travail. I know the burthen is over heavy, and if I were able, yet my single report cannot carry the credit as if three joined. If they be sent speedily we may confer before Lent (which is mine appointed time to begin the travail) upon some plat to settle justice with fewer officers and courts, less fees and better servitors, than are at this day Although I see, in my opinion, a plain way to work the same by making four courts one, yet stay I to certify my conceiving, in hope your Honour's earnest travel to her Majesty will procure the speedy sending over of such as I have required, that (concurring in opinion) we might signify our minds together. “Here was never an Earl attainted in this land but by Parliament. I shall desire your Honour to cause the Queen's counsel learned to send hither their opinions, whether the Earl of Clanricard be here to be tried by his peers as in England; if not, what other way than by Parliament we may proceed with him. “When I wrote to your Honour to have Bassenet sent over, I was altogether a stranger, and chiefly desired him as one whom I thought I might trust to learn the disposition of the judges and other persons I had to deal with, of whom sithen now by other means I am satisfied, and have sufficiently gathered the understanding of them, I shall not trouble your Honour to write to him. “The bag for to carry the seal and the discharge for my 20th part for the deanery I am to put your Honour in remembrance of. “I heard of the people so quiet in every part at my coming, and finding them so fickle in manner in all parts of the Pale in this time of my Lord's absence, I am persuaded the conspiracy to withstand justice was great. “I have in this travail found one good token of likelihood to do good, which is obedience to process. I think I have passed 300 or 400, and assuredly I have not five persons who wilfully contemn, but either I have appearance or lawful eXCuSe. “I wish I never had come ; and yet sithens I am come, abashed I shall be either to return to my grave here or into England without some show of good service to her Majesty. which because it resteth only in these journeying circuits, which without English help I shall not well be able to take in hand, therefore am I the more earnester with you for assistance.” This bearer shall tell your Honour my mind. Dublin, 19th October (year omitted). Signed : William Gerrard, Cancellarius]. Pp. 2. Add. and endd.

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II. “The NAMES of the CHIEF OFFICERS in IRELAND, and a guess of their dispositions.”

This document contains a list of the officers in the Chief Place, the Common Place, the Chancery and the Exchequer, and of the Queen's learned counsel. The writer (Chancellor Gerrard”) not only specifies their dwelling places and the ladies whom they had married, but states his opinion of their qualifications for their respective offices, and of the ability or negligence with which those offices were exercised. Here is a specimen :“Thomas Cotton, Keeper of the Records in the Treasury; himself honest, but the records ill kept and embezzled.” Among the Queen's learned counsel in Meath he mentions “Barnaby Skurlocke, of Trayne, married to a daughter of Mr. Justice Plunket's, reported to be best experienced in the laws, somewhat aged and sickly, of modest behaviour, and juster knew (just enough *), but honest.”

III. List of “the Earls and Lords on this side the provinces of Munster, Connaught, and Ulster.”f

IV. Account of the Revenue in Munster and Connaught. Munster. — The Queen's possessions in co. Waterford, 260l. 6s. 10%d.; Cork, 225l. 16s. 740. ; Kerry, 971. 10s. 11%d. ; Limerick, 120l. 10s. 1d. ; Tipperary, 4091. 12s. 10d. Conmaught.—The revenues not known and embezzled. The church lands detained and concealed.

v. “Charges of the realm of Ireland,” for half a year ending 31 March 1576.f

Contemp. copies. Pp. 10.



For some years past we have been oppressed with cesses and exactions contrary to the laws, and our corn, grain, beeves, mutton, and other “accates " have been taken up at mean and base prices, whereby we are reduced to great decay and poverty. We therefore beseech that “henceforth her Majesty's subjects be no further exacted or oppressed other than her Highness' laws and statutes of the realm doth warrant and allow of; and yet are we most willing, of our own accords, with all humility, to yield unto your Honour (her Majesty's Deputy here) all like preeminence as her Highness might have being here resident in her royal person, where withal we humbly crave that your Honours will hold you pleased, or otherwise not only to license such of us as will repair unto her Matie to seek redress of their said griefs, but also graciously

* See the commencement of the preceding letter.

f It may be doubted whether this list was enclosed in Gerrard's foregoing letter, although it follows No. 11.

# This paper has been noticed under its proper date.

to suffer us with your honorable letters and other good means
to our aid and succour in the same.”
Contemp. copy. P. 1.

Dec. 43. The PRIVY COUNCIL to the LORD CHANCELLOR of Vol. 628, p. 255a. IRELAND (GERRARD).

We have perused the note which you sent over containing such casualties as have of late been answered to her Majesty there. Understanding the offence and the offenders (by report) to be very many, we marvel that so small fines have been answered in the Castle Chamber, and nothing at all touching the execution of the Commission for Ecclesiastical Causes. Her Majesty and we mislike such careless proceedings.

Hampton Court, December 1576.

Contemp. copy. P. i.

1577. Jan. 11. 44. WISCOUNT BALTINGLAs and OTHERS to the PRIVY COUNCIL Vol. 628, p. 148a. in ENGLAND.

Of late we made humble suit to the Lord Deputy and Council for redress of certain things, whereby this poor country is brought to decay. We besought “to have the same either by them reformed, or else some of us to have been licensed to repair to her Majesty to seek relief.” Finding no comfort, we have made choice of Barnaby Skurlock, Richard Nettervill, and Henry Burnell, to relate our griefs and to require redress at her Majesty's hands. This case not a little concerns your Lordships. Dublin, 11th January 1576.

Signed : Roland, Wiscount of Baltinglas ; Christopher, Baron of Houthe ; C. Delvin; Peter, Baron of Trimleston ; James, Baron of Killene.

II. “A BRIEF ESTIMATE as well of all such CESSE as is yearly taken up within the English Pale of Ireland for the provision of the Lord Deputy's household, together with their several rates and the prices accustomed to be paid for the same, as also what loss and hindrance the country doth sustain by the small prices thereof, and having not therefor the worth as they might be sold in the market.”

Beeves, 1,000, at 9s, sterling the beef, which is the price allowed unto them by the Council. If they were sold in the market they would be worth 20s, sterling. Beer malt and wheat, 1,000 pecks, at 2s. 6d. Sterling the peck, may be sold for 5s. ; oat malt, 700 pecks, at 16d. the peck, may be sold at 3s. in the market; and so the country lost 1s. 8.7. in every peck. Muttons, 3,900, at 12d. a piece; which they affirm they may have in the market at 2s. 6d. Weals, 130, at 12d. a piece; may be sold at 5s, a piece. Porks, 240, at 3s. ; worth 8s. Bacons, 12, at 5s. a piece; worth 13s. 4.7. Butter, 2,580 gallons, at 9d, the gallon ; worth 2s. 6.7. Lambs, 300, answered by the said Lord Deputy but after the rate of 3d. a piece; worth 12d. Pigs, 700, at 3d.; worth

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