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1577. May 20. Vol. 607, p. 48. Collins' Sydney Papers, I. 180.


I beseech your Majesty to pardon that I have so seldom written. “So bad a delivery of my mind I have by pen, and so illegible it is,” that I wrote to the Council. But now, hearing that I am complained of, in defence of myself I write thus rudely to you. The complaint is that they are charged with cesse, and annoyed with disorder of the soldiers. Explanation of what cesse is. According to the long-continued order, I for this year proceeded at the wonted time, and used like summons as in such cases had been done, and a great assembly was at the same. They affirmed that the charge of each plowland cometh above 10! ; yea, some said 12!; and indeed, as the prices of all things presently are, I found them to be very near 81.; for ease of which I dissolved all freedoms that had not had their continuance time out of memory of man; yet hereat did divers grievously repine. It was the base tenant that bare the burden, who for the most part lived most wretchedly under his covetous and greedy landlord having freedom. I offered to acquit them for five marks upon the plowland. As there are at least 700 plowlands, that rate would amount to 2,540l., besides your accustomed subsidy, which is 13s. 4d. of each. They alleged it was contrary to law to impose any charge upon them without Parliament or Grand Council. It was proved before them that in all ages charges have been imposed by the name of cesse and cessor, sometimes by other names, and not always by Parliament, but oftener by the Governor and Council, and such of the nobility as, being sent for, did come, which made the Grand Council they spake of Finally they said they would seek remedy at your Majesty's hands. I would not write in their favour, but did not forbid them to go over. The other complaint they make is, that I bear too much with the insolency of the soldiers. I punish severely when I find any matter proved against a soldier, which seldom or never I do. “But when the soldier is appointed, through the wilfulness of the people (thereunto animated by the landlord), to assist the sheriff or other officer to levy that which is appointed for the soldiers, it must be confessed that soldiers are no angels, nor yet amongst men the harmlest creatures.” I know they will inculke into your ears the grief of your subjects' poverty, but if I were their faithful advocate, knowing them as I do, I could not tell how to make demonstration thereof and speak truly. “Their land was never more universally tilled nor fuller of cattle than presently; their cities and towns more populous than ever in memory of man; their houses so far exceeding their ancestors', that they may be thought rather to be another and new people than descendants of the old. In bestowing of their children, a gentleman I have known of this age gave more than three



barons in times past. In plate and ali other furniture of their
houses, in apparel of themselves, wives, and children, there
is as great odds between the present age's people and their
predecessors, as in England is between a yeoman and a good
squire; besides the number trebled of their sons, kinsfolk,
and friends now by them kept in the universities, and at
the study of the law of the realm, to that which their
elders kept; and each one standeth them in treble the
charge that one stood the others in before. And there be
some principal gentlemen that have their sons in Lovain,
Doole, Rome, and other places where your Majesty is rather
hated than honoured in, and (it is to be supposed) not with-
out their charges. And, as dear as all things are, they fare
more delicately and chargeously than ever they did.”
They are not able, they say, to give your Majesty either
stuff or money for finding your soldiers, but to furnish that
triumvirate now sent to suppress your Majesty's prerogative
they can make above 1,000l. Scurlocke has purchased more
and builded more than ever his father, grandfather, or all his
surname ever did. Being Attorney to your sister and yourself,
for his negligence and wilfulness in the time of my Lord of
Sussex' government he was displaced. “Netervill is the
younger son of a mean and second justice of one of the
Benches, born to nothing, and yet only by your Majesty's
bounty liveth in better countenance than ever his father did,
or his elder brother doth,” but is a seditious varlet. “Burnell
his father is alive and an old man, but neither in youth nor
age lived or was able to live in half that appearance that this
man doth. He thirsteth earnestly to see the English govern-
ment withdrawn from hence, but, for aught I know, he is the
least unhonest of the three.”
“If their practice and standing in this matter had not been,
all Munster (the liberties of the Earls of Ormond and Desmond
only except) had consented to yield an annual rent out of
their lands for their defence, as the Wiscount Barry and
McCarty Reoghe already have done, the first 150l., the other
250l. sterling by the year. These two make not the sixth part
of Munster. So the two liberties of Tippser]arie and Kerry
submitting to the same contribution, as I know no reason why
they should not, Munster will be worth in new increased rent,
besides the old, and the impost, 3,000l. yearly. And as
Munster had done, there is no doubt all the rest of the remote
or unreclaimed parts of the realm would have done. And as
confidently as I can conceive of anything which sensibly by
sight or feeling I have not, so probably am I persuaded that
if Netervill had not been, I had before this time assured your
Majesty of above 10,000 marks of increase of revenue yearly
more than I found you possest of, for I held a straighter
hand in the matter of cesse rather to bring them to a certain
rent. Netervill giveth it forth that he was animated to do


that he hath done by some of the greatest of this country
You must without interval keep an army here. If you do
not, it will be given from you and your Crown for ever, Ire-
land may and shall in short time yield revenue enough to
wage a sufficient garrison. Divers things for your advantage
must be done—in especial a mint.
“But in these mine offers making I am not a little terrified
by a speech which your Highness' Chancellor [Gerrard] told
me he heard your Majesty say, which was that I promised at
the three years' end you should not need be at any more
charges for Ireland than Ireland would yield.”
While writing “I received advertisements from sundry places
in confirmation of such as before I did as well out of England as
out of France, and from thence not only from special spial there
maintained to attend upon James FitzMoris, but from sundry
honest merchants, your Majesty's faithful and loving subjects,
and likewise by report of some very vehemently suspected to
be sent into this land from him, whereof some are apprehended,
and I have sent out search for others, that James is in readi-
ness with force to invade this your realm. It is said he bringeth
with him 4,000 shot and divers principal gentlemen of France.
It is certain that he is returned from Rome, where he was
princelike entertained; he returned not without a good mass of
treasure. He liveth now in France chargeously. All my adver-
tisements I have imparted to this bringer, Mr. Waterhowse.”
“I have great cause to mistrust the fidelity of the greatest
number of the people of this country birth of all degrees;
they be Papists, as I may well term them, body and soul, for
not only in matter of religion they be Romish, but for govern-
ment they wish change, and to be under a prince of their
own superstition. Since your Highness' reign the Papists
never showed such boldness as now they do.”
I desire 2,000 footmen furnished, whereof the most part
shot, a large mass of powder, lead, match, and pieces, with
pikes and short weapon, and 20,000l. If the invasion happen,
consider whether it be not requisite to man forth some part of
your navy. He cometh with 14 sails. There are many great
charges for spial and messengers, fortification, and other
extraordinaries. Pardon me that I remember you how, in
your sister's time, Calais, the jewel and honour of England,
was lost for lack of force in readiness.
I had once written these lines with mine own hand, but
when I beheld them, they seemed to me so ill favoured, as I
thought them not worthy to come into your sight, but made
them be written out again.
Dated from the Queen's House at Kilmainham, 20 May
1579." Signed.
Contemp. copy. Pp. 9. Addressed. Endorsed.

* Evidently a mistake for 1577, to which date Carew has correctly assigned this letter.

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Inquisition taken in the Guildhall of the city of Cork, 1 June, 19 Eliz., upon the death of Sir Donatus otherwise Donnogh McCarty, before Sir William Drury, Lord President of Munster, and one of the Privy Council of Ireland, and his associates, commissioners of the Queen through the said entire province, pursuant to letters patent, dated 9 April in the same year: whereby it was found that the said Sir Donatus, late of Kilbirtane, in the county of Cork, was seized in his demesne as of fee of certain carucates of land in Knocknegaple and Rathharowe; of others called Ballenureny, Currynivir, Langestowne, Kildare, Cloghane, Rathdroughtie, and Killinstie; and of others in Ballerviellan, Killinvarra, Knockbrowne, Barraliegh, Martlesknocke, Gortinenige, Garan Rieugh, Ardgehan, Ballenagornagh, Castle Iwir, and Curry I Crwolley; all in the said county of Cork. That all these lands were held of the Queen, but the jury were entirely ignorant by what services. That the said Donatus was seized of the premises on 24 January, 19 Eliz., and died so seized ; and that all the premises are worth 5l. by the year. And that Florence otherwise Fynen McCarty is the son and heir of the said Donatus, and is under age; that is, of the age of 15 years.

In testimony whereof both the said commissioners and the jurors affixed their seals.

Ex’ per Wm. Marwood, dept. R.

Copy. Latin. Pp. 2.


Grant from Queen Elizabeth to Sir William O’Karroll upon his surrender of all his lands, castles, villages, &c. in the country called Ely O’Karroll and elsewhere, belonging to the said William, as by his charter enrolled in the Chancery of Ireland, dated 28 July, 20 Eliz., may more fully appear, in consideration of his services, and for the better government of the Queen's subjects residing in Ely O’Karroll, and in consideration of the service and rent to be paid by the said William, and by the assent of her faithful counsellor, Sir Henry Sydney, Deputy General, of all the said territories; to hold to himself, his heirs, and assigns, in capite, by the service of one knight's fee, when scutage runs in Ireland, and to pay annually 100l. of lawful money of Ireland. If the said rent should be in arrear for the space of four months, the Deputy may enter the said country and distrain. The said William and his heirs to be discharged from all exactions, impositions, cesses, bonaght, and other demands, and to answer to all hostings, roads, journeys, and risings-out with 12 horsemen and 20 footmen, whenever they shall be called upon.

Dublin, 1 August, 20 Eliz.

Signed : E. FitzSymon.

Ex’ per Da. Ryan.

Copy. Latim. Pp. 3.

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Extracts from the 7th part of Sir Edward Cooke's reports in Calvin's case, showing that Ireland is a dominion separated from England.

Copy. Pp. 3.


“An opinion touching the government of Ireland, foreign
invasion only excepted. 26 September 1579.”

2,000 soldiers will keep the whole land in due obedience.
At the end of one year every several province shall bear the
charge of the governments. 800 of the said number to be
placed in Ulster; that is to say, 300 footmen and 100 horse-
men at the fort of the Black Water; and 300 footmen and
100 horsemen at Colrane, where a bridge is to be made to
overawe certain countries (named), 300 footmen and 100
horsemen to be placed in Connaught to co-operate with those
in Ulster. 300 footmen and 100 horsemen in Munster; upon
any further need, to call for the 400 in Connaught.
180 are to answer all the wards now settled within the
whole realm by the last establishment.

200 are to attend upon the Governor in the English Pale,
whereof 100 horsemen and 100 footmen.

The odd 20 will serve for wards in fit places upon the Bane side, as the castle of Foane at the end of Lough Eaugh, and so upon three or four fords between that and Colrane.

The forces of Ulster and Connaught will keep O'Donnell in obedience.

“Your Honour shall by perusing the carte of Ireland out [see] the probabilities of this plat. If the Governor shall need any more force, which may be presumed he shall by Leix and Ofalley, he may send for some band out of Ulster or Connaught or Munster, for it cannot be thought but that some one of those provinces will hold firm to her Majesty, or at least be obedient formidime poenae. Take example by Connaught.”

Pp. 2. Endorsed: Sir Nicholas Malbye's plat for government. Also endorsed in Sir John Perrot's hand: Concerning the reformation of Ireland.

The CLERK of the CHECK's BOOK.

“In this book is contained the numbers of her Majesty's garrisons in pay in the said realm, as well of the old garrisons set down in the establishments the 1st of June 1579, as also all such as have been entered by the late Justice [Drury] and Council, together with those sent by her Majesty out of England sithence the said 1st of June till the 2nd of this October 1579.”

First, the old garrison, beginning with the Lord Justice and chief officers of the army. Himself at 100l. per month;

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