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March 31. Vol. 628, p. 314.

sent me, postiled with your opinions, I think they were mistaken, for I received the copy of the treaty betwixt the Earl of Essex and him, and not your Lps. resolutions in those articles I presented unto you for his causes.”

I recommend to you my servant John Gyfford “whom I have expressly sent to attend upon your Lps, pleasure, for order for the receipt of my quarterage due the last of March next, to be brought over by him, who hath my acquittance to deliver for the same, where he shall be directed to receive it.”

Limerick, - February 1575.

Signed : Henry Sydney.

Copy. Pp. 16.

CHARGES OF IRELAND.

“Charges of the realm of Ireland for martial affairs and all other extraordinary charges for one half year ending last of March 1576.”

Diets, wages, and entertainment of the head officers:–Sir Henry Sydney, Lord Deputy, 1,500l. per annum; a captain, 48, a day; a petty captain, 28. ; a standard bearer, 186.; a trumpeter and a surgeon, 12d. a piece; 50 horsemen at 9d., and 50 footmen at 8d., for 240 days, beginning 1 August 1575, and ending 31 March. Sir Edward Fitton, Treasurer: himself, 6s. 8d. a day; 20 horsemen, 20 footmen as aforesaid, for 183 days. Sir Nicholas Bagnall, Knight Marshal of the army : himself, 6s. 8d.: a trumpeter, 12d.; 30 horsemen. Jaques Wingfeld, Master of the Ordnance: himself, 6s. 8d.: petty captain, 2s. ; a guydon, 12d.; 30 horsemen. Oliver Moore, Clerk of the Check: himself, 4s. ; 5 horsemen. Total, 3,038l. 17s. 5d. Horsemen —The Earl of Essex as captain, 68. a day; his petty captain, at 3s. ; his guydon, 18q.; two officers, 12d. a piece; 100 horsemen, at 9d. ; for 183 days. Francis Agard, 10 horsemen, at 9d. William Norris, 6s. ; petty captain, 38. ; guydon, 180. ; 65 horsemen, for 36 days. Humfrey Mackworth : himself, 48. ; petty captain, 28.; 3 officers, at 12d.; 50 horsemen at 9.J.; for 42 days. Henry Harrington: himself, 68. ; petty captain, 3s. ; a guydon, 186. ; 2 officers at 12d.; 100 horsemen, for 183 days. Robert Harpoole, 10 horsemen, for 83 days. Total, 1,908!. 6s. Footbands attendant on the Lord Deputy :—Captain Wm. Collier, at 48. himself; petty captain, 28. ; 5 officers, 12d.; 100 footmen, 8d.: for 183 days; and George Akars with the like number. Captain Wm. Furres, 4s. ; his petty captain, 28.; 4 officers, 12d.; 100 footmen, 8d. Captain Wm. Baker, his petty captain, 4 officers, and 100 footmen. Total, 2,2221. 9s. 4d. Warders in sundry forts and castles —The Lord of Upper Ossory, lieutenant of the forts in the King's and Queen's County, 6s. 8d. a day; 40 kernes, 3d. Francis Cosbye, constable of Maryborough, 2s. ; a porter, 12d. George Harvey, captain, guarding the said fort, his petty captain, 4 officers and 100 men for 56 days. Humfrey Mackworth, who succeeded him, for 127 days. Edward Moore, constable of Philipstown, 28, ; 20 horsemen, 9d. ; for 147 days; and as captain of 100 foot, with petty captain and 4 officers, for 36 days; porter for 61 days, at 12(l. John Gifford, succeeding in the guard of the said fort, with petty captain, 5 officers and 100 footmen, for 147 days. Thomas Lee, constable of Carifergus, 3s. 4d. ; 20 footmen at 8d. Wm. Peerce, as constable by patent, 3s. 4d., with 20 footmen ; and as captain of horsemen at 4s., with petty captain at 28, ; 4 officers at 120. ; 50 horsemen at 9d. Richard Lloyde, captain of footmen, for guard of the said town ; petty captain, 4 officers, and 100 men. Peter Carew, constable, 4s. ; a porter, 12d.; 20 horsemen, and 10 footmen. Robert Mostian, constable of Rosscoman, 2s. ; with 12 footmen. William Appesley, constable of Castlemaigne, 3s. ; 3 horsemen, 13 footmen. John Cornwall, constable of the new fort upon the Blackwater, 2s. 8d. ; a porter and 24 footmen for 152 days; his pension at 180, for 31 days. Henry Davells, constable of Dungarvan, 48. ; 6 horsemen, 3 footmen; 3 archers at 6d. Henry Harlepoole, for the castle of Catherlaugh, 4 footmen and 4 archers. Davye Floddye, porter of Philipstown, 12.J. Sir Edward Fitton, for the castle of Athlone, 20 footmen. Total, 3,765/. 10s. 10d. Kernes : —Francis Cosby, General, for term of life, at 3s. 8d. a day; 32 kernes at 3d, ster, a day, for 183 days. Francis Agard, 40 kernes. Owen McHugh, 20 kernes. Total, 291 l. 15s. 8d. Pensioners at sundry rates, 244l. 7s. 2d. . Ministers of the Ordnance :--the clerk, 200, a day; the master gunner, 200. for him and his men; the smith and his men at 200. ; the fletcher by patent, 16d. ; divers other, some at 12d., some at Sd. a day. Total, 1911. 2s. 8d. Ministers of the Victuals —Thomas Sackeford, himself at 88, a day; his clerk, 48. Impotent soldiers, 13, at 6d. a day. Sum total, 11,832]. 0s. 7d. Ertraordinary Charges:--Diets of Commissioners in Munster, 3871. 11s. 1d. Irish ; viz. the two Justices of the King's Bench 20s, ster, a day; the second Justice in Munster, his half year's fee, 331.6s. 8d. ster. ; Henry Davells, 6s. 8d. a day; Attorney, half year's fee, 131.6s. 8d.: “all Irish as above.” Journeys with the Lord Deputy : to the Lord Chief Justice of the Exchequer, the Queen's Secretary, and the General Surveyor, 738l. 13s. 3; d. Irish. “Freights and transportations of the Lord Deputy and his train out of England, 11.7l. 12s. ; of munitions from place to

place, of soldiers out of the realm, and victuals, of the

Deputies in passage of rivers, 1991. 16d. “Carriage of letters from thence to the court, ordinarily 13l. 6s. 8d. a letter ; and sometime their attendance consi

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Provision of necessaries for the Queen's storehouses, brewhouses, &c. 131. 15s. 11; d. The sword of estate, furnishing (?), 13s. 4d. Riding and travelling charges for apprehension of notable malefactors, 691. 19s. 7#d. Allowance of losses and charges in victualling delivered to the captains after Irish rate, 1,4191. 24d.; whereof lost by sea, 891. 4s. 5}d.; victual uttered at less price, 164l. 17s. 4d.; beeves bought at 26s. 8d., sold at 11s, to the soldiers. Gifts and rewards to workmen and to messengers from the Irish and Catholics (?), and alms to old servitors and decayed ladies and gentlemen, 761. 17s. 6; d. Espial money, 591. 2s. 2d. “Conduction through and searching pays with guides,” 13l. 10s. Carriage of victuals, 5l. 13s. 4d. Forages of the Deputy and his company in voyages, 12s. 13s. 4d. Recompences of losses and charges taken away by soldiers, 101.13s. 4d. Reparations, 931. 144d. Portage of treasure, viz., 5,000l., 33l. 6s. 6d. Prests upon victualling, building, &c., about 2,000l. The whole half year's charge, almost 13,000l. sterling. “In Ireland. The charges of 100 horse: captain 6s. ; petty captain, 38.; guidon, 18q.; 2 officers, trumpet and surgeon, 2s. ; 100 men at 9d. for a month of 28 days, 1221. 10s. Of a band of 100 footmen: the captain, 48. ; petty captain, 2s. ; 5 officers, 5s. ; 100 men at 8d. amounteth to 108l. 4s. 8d.” Contemp. copy. Pp. 34.

38. SIR HENRY SYDNEY, LoRD DEPUTY, to the PRIvy

Council.

I crave pardon that I have not with more diligence addressed this my fourth and last provincial discourse, namely of Connaught. By this and the other three before sent, you may perceive how I have occupied myself these six months since I arrived here, in which I have viewed and almost circled this whole realm on every side. The cause of my deferring was, that I expected the arrival of Mr. Agard, whose miss hath been no small maim to me in this my travail; and also for that I looked to have received somewhat by Gifford, but by letters which arrived here the 24th inst., I understood of his death.

In my last discourse of Munster, I omitted to write of my being at Kinsale, where I continued three days, and went to the Old Head, six miles beyond the town, which is one of the forticablest places that ever I came in. The town is much decayed, by the great and long unquietness of the country, yet through the continuance of justice and English government near them it holds its own well enough, and is on the mending hand. A castle they had upon the pier, which was all ruined, and the pier itself greatly decayed. I granted them some aid towards re-edifying the same. They are to find stuff. victuals, and labour, and the money which I gave them is to be expended only in defraying the wages of artificers. I trust the work will be finished this summer. “After my last dispatch made at Limerick and sent to your Lps, by Gifford, I departed thence the 27th of February, and so entered into Thomond, attended on by the Earl of Thomond, Sir Daniel O'Brien, Teg McMorogho, Teg McConnohor, Tirloghe, the Earl's brother, and Donnoghe McMorrogho;—all these gentlemen of one surname, called O'Briens, and yet no one of them friend to another, and sometime have been named kings of Limerick, These are the great doers and undoers of their own country and neighbours, yet so near kinsmen as they descended of one grandfather. I had also with me the two McNemarrowes, by us called the East and West McNemarrowes, chief gentlemen of that country, which if it were in quiet, they might live like principal knights in England. There was also with me in company the two landlords of the McMaghons of Thomond, and O’Laghlan. These are captains and lords of large territory.” There were many others of meaner sort, but amongst them all I could not find one descended of English race, although that country was once the Lord Clare's of England, and most part of it possessed by Englishmen. All these and many more complained upon the O'Briens and each other for the ruin of their country. “If they were not a people of more spare diet than others are, both of flesh and bread and drink made of corn, it were not possible that a soil so wasted could sustain them ; and yet many they are not in number.” I lodged, the first night after I left Limerick, in a dissolved friary of the Queen's, called Coyne, where by the Earl and country I was well provided for. The night following I rather encamped, than lodged, in the ruined see of Kilmakoagh, where I and my company had bad fare and worse harbour. Here the Earl of Clanricard met me, in very comely and civil manner, but immediately departed from me. The next day again he met me, and so passing into O'Shagne's country, “where Thomond (being of Munster) confineth with Connaught,” I came the same day to Galway, where I was honourably entertained. As soon as I could get all them of Thomond to me I entered into consideration of their griefs and losses; the spoil of goods and cattle was infinite, and the whole country not able to answer a quarter of that which was affirmed to be lost among them ; though Sir Lucas Dillon, who examined every particular matter as it was booked, reduced the same to a reasonable and certain quantity. Commissioners were appointed to take the proofs and the goods restored to the losers. The mutual hurts and revenges done betwixt the Earl and Teg McMorrogho were one great cause of the ruin of the country. I bound them by bonds in great sums to abandon their country during my pleasure, as well to restrain them, as to bind them to perform such orders as I took with them,

1576.

which they have observed. I took the Earl's brother, and
still detain him in iron; and Teg McConnoghor I detained
likewise, until he had delivered a sufficient hostage for his
good behaviour. I made Sir Daniel O'Brien sheriff of the
shire, and appointed others of the country birth to be serjeants,
cessers, and other mean officers. The country consented to be
at the charge of a provost marshal, and to give him wages and
food, for himself, 12 horsemen, and 24 footmen, for that the
country swarmed of idle men, and by this means they thought
best to suppress them.
During my abode at Galway, divers notorious malefactors
were brought in and executed. According to their desire I
sent them commissioners. Lastly, for that the origin of their
ruin was the uncertain grant and unstable possession of their
lands, (whereupon grew their wars.) I brought them to agree
to surrender all their lands into the Queen's hands for for-
feited, and take them of her again, and yield both rent and
service.
“Thus much for Thomond, a limb of Munster, but in my
last government here annexed to the President of Connaught
by the name of the county of Clare.”
I divided Connaught (besides the East Brenye or O'Reilie's
country, and the Annalye or O'Ferrall's country) into four coun-
ties, namely Sligo, which was a part of Nether Connaught;
Mayo, another part of the same ; Galway, which was called
Upper Connaught ; and Roscommen, called the Plains of Con-
naught.
“Out of the county of Sligo I had nothing but letters, but
those humbly written, from O'Connoghor, affirming that he
durst not come for fear of the wars happened between
O'Donnell and Con his nephew, but lewd and malicious tales
rather made him afraid, as I take it. He hath under his
tyranny O'Dowde, two McDonoughes, two O'Hares, and Agare,
and yet he himself tributary to O'Donnell. They be all men
of great lands, and they shall not choose but yield both rent
and service to the crown. All but O'Conner himself have
offered it, and he, to be discharged of O'Donnell, will most
willingly do it. I look daily for O'Rwrke (whose country, called
West Brenye, is also a portion of this county), with whom I
doubt not to conclude for a good rent and service for the
Queen. This county, or these countries, are well inhabited
and rich, and more haunted with strangers than I wish it were,
unless the Queen were better answered of her custom.”
Out of the county of Mayo came to me to Galway first
seven principal men of the Clandonnells, all by profession mer-
cenary soldiers by name of galloglas; they humbly submitted
themselves. I was informed that McWilliam Eughter would
not come to me, and therefore I won his chief force from him in
getting these Clandonnells; but in the end McWilliam came
very willingly, by the good persuasions of the Dean of Christ
Church (one of the Council), whom I sent into Connaught, when

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