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Oct. 20. Vol. 605, p. 82.

and horses were hurt and galled. James McDonnell's" sonss],
viz., Donnell Gorum and Alexander Carroghe, were slain, with
all the rest of their leaders, and the chiefest Burke which drew
them into the province.
The names of the captains and the numbers of the English
forces employed in this service are specified.
With the rebels' goods, and 300l. or 400l. of his own money,
Sir Richard defrayed the extraordinary expenses of these
services. Now, it is said, there are not 40 Scots to bear up
head in all Ireland, “to the eternal commendations of this
worthy gent' Sir Richard Bingham for ever.”

Copy. Pp. 19.


I received your letter of the last of August, by which it appears “that God hath revealed to her Majesty the wicked treasons practised against her royal person, for which be He blessed.” Her Majesty in time will know who are to be trusted. I am glad to hear that, notwithstanding all her troubles, she “carrieth an invincible mind that showeth from whom she came.” You say that all her Majesty's speeches of me are to my comfort, but she will not hear of my revocation. I shall never be weary of serving her in any other place, while health and ability will permit. “But by God! Mr. Carewe, I daily grow weaker and weaker of body through the great pain I have of the stone, growing more and more upon me in this slimy country. Th’ experience whereof I lately had at my being in Connaught, where in my travel, through the grating of the stone in my kidneys, if I travelled one day, I was fain to rest another; and in th' end the Irish ague took me, that I was 7 days like to die in Gallowaye, and am not yet thoroughly recovered thereof, nor shall not (I believe) pass this next year, except her Majesty, of her great grace, give me licence to go to the Spa the next spring; a suit that I made to her Highness 9 years agone. It were better her Majesty preserved me to serve her in some other place, than I to be wilfully cast away here.”

I lose time and grow into contempt by mistakings there, and wind whispered in corners. If my enemies have anything to say against me, let it be put upon paper, and I will disprove it. I only took this office to serve God and the Queen. “But I am bere amongst devils, who, coming up of nothing, care not what fables they make of any man that will not serve their turns.” . He has need of many favourers that has to manage a broken kingdom. If I can once come into the Queen's presence

* So in the margin. “McConnell's" in the text, here and elsewhere.


Vol. 618, p. 4.

Vol. 611, p. 278.

I will make such revelations as will save her many charges,
and procure her more obedience in Ireland.
You wrote too late for Moyle.
Dublin, 20 October 1586. Signed.
Pp. 2. Addressed.

2. Copy of the same.
Pp. 2.

623. ULSTER.

“The Description and present State of Ulster in 1586.” Its boundaries are described. It contains nine counties, that is to say, three of ancient making, and six made, or rather to be made, new : old—Lowth, Downe, Antrim ; new— Manachan, Farnamagh, Tirone, Dungale, Colrane, Armagh. Lowth is exposed to the often incursions of many lewd and disordered people. Names of its corporations, inhabitors, and principal surnames. Manacan contains these countries, Iriell, Dartrey, Lowghtie, and Irow. The chief captain there is Sir Rory McMahon, who has been some time contributory to Turlough] O'Neil, and now is left to the government of the Earl of Tyrone. He is able to make 100 horsemen and 400 footmen. Buildings in his country are none, save certain old defaced monasteries. The county of Farnmanagh contains all Farninanagh, Tyrmingrah, and Tirmin O’Mingan. Its captain is Sir Conohour McGwyre, under the rule of Tur. O'Neyle, but desirous to depend on the Queen. He is able to make 80 horsemen, 260 shot, and 300 kerne. In the county of Tyrone the chief captain is Tir. O'Neyle. Of late the half thereof and more by a composition is let to the Earl of Tyrone. Turlough desires from her Majesty to his son the portion of Tyrone wherein he dwelleth. The O'Neales are all horsemen, and the Clandonelles all galloglas. The O’Doonells are much affected to Shan O'Neyle's sons, The whole force of this country is 300 horsemen and 1,500 footmen. Turlough most commonly dwelleth in the castle of Steaban. “The new castle upon the Earl's part is Dungannon, a defaced castle built by Shan O'Neyle upon the Blackwater, called Benburbe.” The county of Dunegall contains all Terconell and O'Dohertie's country. O'Donell is captain and governor of Tirconell, the chief strength of whom standeth most upon the O'Gallochells and McSwynes. He is able to make 200 horsemen and 1,300 footmen. Between him and O'Nell hath been continual wars for the castle of Liffa and the lands thereabouts, O'Doghertie's country is a promontory almost environed with the sea, namely, with Lough Swyly on the south, and Lough Foyle on the north. O’Doghertie is forced to contribute both to O'Neyle and O’Doonelle. “His country, lying upon the sea and open to the isles of Ila and Jura in Scotland, is almost

yearly invaded by the Scots, who take the spoil of it at their pleasures, whereby O’Doghertie is forced always to be at their devotions.” He is able to make 60 horsemen and 300 footmen. “Buildings in his countries are the Dery [and] Greencastle, which are wardable.” The county of Coleran contains all O'Cahan's country. Its captain is Rory O'Cahan, always left to the government of Turlough only. His nation is able to make 140 horsemen and 400 footmen; yet because he bordereth so near the Scots, he is much affected to them. His castles are Anagh and Lybenadye. Near the salmon fishing are the castle of Collran and Castle Rooe, where Turlogh O'Neale keeps a constable and a ward to preserve (?) his part of the fishing. The county of Ardmache contains Oriragh, which is O'Hanlon's country, Clanbrasell, Clancan, Clanawll, Mucknee, Tiriacgh, Fues, and O’Nelan, of late made all contributories to the Earl of Tyrone. O'Hanlon's country is able to make 40 horsemen and 200 footmen. Clanbrasell has no horsemen, but 80 kearne. Clancan has no horsemen, but 100 kearne, who live upon stealth and robberies. Clanawlle appertains to the Archbishop of Armagh and his freeholders, containing the bridge and fort of Blackwater; and Tur. Brasolach holds his portion of land from the Earl of Tyrone. The said Tur. with his sons is able to make 30 horsemen and 80 footmen. Muckne and Tireawgh are now possessed by the Earl of Tyrone, who has placed there certain of his own waged followers. Fewes is peopled with certain of the Neyles, accustomed to live much upon spoil of the Pale. They are able to make 30 horsemen and 100 footmen. O'Neylan is claimed by the Earl of Tyrone. “He hath placed there some of the Quins and Flagans who fostered him, and sometimes he dwelleth himself amongst them there in a little island, Loch Coe.” The fort at Blackwater should be repaired and better fortified. At Ardmach, a small village, the charge (church 2) and friaries are broken and defaced." The county of Downe contains the lordship of the Newry and the lordship of Mowrne, Evagh, otherwise called Maginis country, Kilulto, Kilwarlin, Kinalewrty, Clanbrasell McGoolechan, Lechahull, Diffringe, Little Ardes, Great Ardes, and South Clandeboy. Newry and Mowrne are the inheritance of Sir Nicholas Bagnoll, “who, at his coming thither, found them altogether waste, and Shane O'Neyle dwelling within a mile to the Newry at a place called Fedom, suffering no subject to travel from Dundalk northward; but since the fortifications and buildings made there by the said Sir Nicholas Bagnall, all the passages are made free, and much of the countries next adjacent reduced to reasonable civility.” Evagh is governed by Sir Hugh MacEnys, the civilest of all

* The extent, situation, &c. of these countries are defined.

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the Irishry in those parts. He was brought by Sir N. B. from
the bonaghe of the O'Neyles to contribute to the Queen. In
this place only amongst the Irish of Ulster is the rude custom
of tanistship put away. Maginis is able to make 60 horse-
men and 80 footmen. Every festival day he wears English
garments. The captain of Kilultoe is Cormack McNeyl, who
likewise was brought by Sir N. B. from the bondage of the
O'Neyles. “This country afore the Barons' wars in England
was possessed and inhabited by Englishmen, and there doth
yet remain there an old defaced castle, which still beareth the
name of one Sir Miles Tracy.” The captain of Kilwarlin is a
McGenys, called Ever McRorye, and sometimes did contribute
and yield to Clandeboy, but now depends only upon the
Queen. In Kinalewrty, or McCartan's country, some interest
was given to Sir Nicholas Malbey, but never by him quietly
enjoyed. Its captain is Acolie McCartan. Clanbrasell
McGoolecham is inhabited by the Kelleys, a very savage and
barbarous people, well affected to the Scots, whom they often
draw into their country for the spoiling of the subjects. They
do contribute, but at their own pleasures, to the captain of
South Clandeboy. Lecahul is the inheritance of the Earl of
Kildare, given to his father and his mother by Queen Mary.
“In it is the bishop's see called Downe, fast built, and in-
habited by one Sir John Cowrsy, who brought thither with
him sundry English gentlemen, and planted them in this
country, where some of them yet remain, though somewhat
degenerate and in poor estate, yet they hold still their free-
holds. Their names are Savadges, Russells, Fitzimons, Awd-
leys, Jordans, and Bensons.” Diffrin, sometime the inheritance
of the Mandevills, and now appertaining to one White, who
is not of power sufficient to defend and manure the same ;
therefore it is usurped and inhabited for the most part by a
bastard sort of Scots, who yield to the said White some small
rent at their pleasure. Little Ardes is the inheritance of the
Lord Savage, who has farmed the same to Captain Peerce.
Here are certain ancient freeholders of the Savages and
Smithes, who are often harrowed and spoiled by them of
Clandeboy. Great Ardes was undertaken by Mr. Smith, and
is now possessed by Sir Con MacNeyle Oge, who hath planted
there Neyle McBrian Ferto ; but the ancient dwellers there
are the O'Gilmars [or O'Gilivars ?], a rich and strong sept,
always followers of the Neyles of Clandeboy. Of South
Clandeboy the captain is Sir Con McNeile Oge, “who, in the
time that th' Earl of Essex attempted this country, was pri-
soner in the castle of Dublin, together with his nephew Hugh
McPhelim, captain of North Clandeboy, by mean whereof
Sir Brian McPhelim, younger brother to the said Hugh, did
then possess both the countries.”
Antrim contains North Clandeboy, Island Magy, Brian
Caragh's country, Glines, and the Rowte. North Clandeboy
is given by letters patents to Sir Brian McPhelim's sons, the



Queen's pensioners; notwithstanding, by a new division lately
made by the now Lord Deputy, the one moiety thereof is
allotted to the rule of Hugh McPhelim's sons, whereby great
dissension doth depend between them, and great slaughters on
both parties are often committed. The principal followers in
this country are the McGyes, McO'Nulles, O'Machalons, Dur-
nans, and Turtures. Island McGye is almost all waste, and
contains the McGyes, who contribute to the Lord of Clande-
boy, but of right belong to the Queen's castle of Knockfergus.
“Brian Caragh's country was a portion of North Clandeboy,
won from it by a bastard kind of Scots of the sept of the
Clandonels, who entered the same and do yet hold it.” Brian
Caragh contributes to O'Neyle, and to them of Clandeboy.
By reason of the fastness and strength of his country it is
very hard to harm bim, which maketh him so obstinate and
careless, as he never yet would appear before my [Lord] De-
puty, but yields relief to the Scots. The Glins, so called
because it is full of rocky and woody dales, “is backed with a
very steep and boggy mountain, and on the other part with
the sea, on which side there are very small creeks between
rocks and thickets, where the Scottish galleyss] do commonly
land.” It lies opposite to Cantier in Scotland. Names of its
seven baronies. “These were sometimes the inheritance of
the Baron Missett, from whom it descended to a daughter who
was married to one of the Clandonells in Scotland, by whom
the Scots now make their claim to the whole, and did quietly
possess the same many years, till now of late, being spoiled of
their goods, they were totally banished into Scotland; but
again the country, by instructions from her Majesty, is given
to be held from her Highness to Agnus McConnill, Lo. of
Cantier in Scotland, and to his uncle Sorleboy. The force of
this country is uncertain, for they are supplied as need requireth
from Scotland with what numbers they list to call, by making
of fires upon certain steep rocks hanging over the sea.” The
ancient followers of the country are the Missetts, the Mcy Gills,
the McAwnles, the McCarmajcks, and the Clanalsters. The
Rowte “was sometimes inhabited with English, for there
remaineth [in] it certain defaced castles and monasteries of
their buildings. The now captain that maketh claim thereto
is called McGwillyn, but the Scot[s] hath well near expulsed
him from the whole, and driven him to a small corner near
the Bann, which he defendeth rather by maintenance of
Turloch O'Neile than his own forces; and the said Scots did
inhabit the rest, which is the best part, till likewise they were
by her Majesty's forces banished as aforesaid, but now come
back, and possess all in usurped manner as before. The chief
ancient followers of this country are the O'Haries and the
It may be easily perceived by this description of Ulster
what are the reasons why this province has been more charge-
able than any other; as, namely, the want of good towns and

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