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pioneers, and Irishmen, 36,5311. 158. 140.; extraordinary pay-
ments for marine affairs and sea causes, carriage of letters,
gifts and rewards, allowances of over-prices of victuals and
horse meat, diets of prisoners, fortifications and buildings,
riding and travelling charges, spial money, diets of generals, and
portage of treasure, 7,910l. 10s. 63d.; surplusages upon accompts,
1,988l. 19s. 11}(l.; prests upon accompts, 10,950l. 148. 4d.;
prests upon entertainments, 4,067l. 18s. 9}sl.
Debts depending upon the Earl of Essex and upon Sir
Peter Carewe; Thomas More; William Piers, the elder; George
Gill, captain; Edward Barkley, late captain ; Henry Stutvile,
corporal; Thomas Morgane, captain; George Bourchier, captain;
Hugh, Baron of Dungannon; Arte McBaron ; and William
Selby, captain of horsemen, for money to them over-paid by
the Earl's ministers, 2,840l. 10s. 63d
Sum of the whole payments for charges under the Earl of
Essex, 64,397 l. 4s. 93.1.
Sum total of all and singular the payments and allowances
contained in the accompt of the said Sir Edward Fiton,
211,5531. 6s. 33d.
And so he is in surplusage upon this accompt, 10l. 48.11%d.
Examined by Tho. Jenyson, Lauditor, 30 Nov. 1577.
Pp. 14. Endal. -


“Memorandum, that the 19th of October 1575, there were letters brought and delivered to the Lord Deputy by Sourleboye's secretary, wherein were contained the petitions of the said Surleboys, with a report of an agreement made by him in times past with the Right Hon. the Earl of Sussex, Lord Deputy of this realm, unless James McDoneil, the said Surleboy's brother, should be a let or hindrance to the same. And further it were expressing that this is the same peace that was then concluded, viz., that Surleboy's brother should have freely the inheritance which he calleth [claimeth () from Inewr or Funir to the river Buassi, and from Buasi to Bannium, paying to the Lord Deputy out of that country 60 kine, and to send unto him 60 footmen and 20 horsemen in every rising out, to be levied in Ulster, from Lowghfoyle to Greenwood, that is to Newry; humbly requesting that he may obtain all those things at her Majesty's hands, through the mediation of the said Lord Deputy, showing that his meaning was to pay all the abovesaid duties.” At the end of the letter he asked credit for the bearer. The limits above mentioned include the Glinns and the captainship of Rowte. Thereupon the Lord Deputy and Council granted that he should enjoy such possessions as he now occupies by the Queen's good leave, and in the mean season his request should be showed to her Majesty. Pledge was given on behalf of Surleboys. The followers of Barnard McFelim 1575. - O'Neil may return and do their business about and near

Caricfurgus, “if so be by Captain Peers and the aforesaid” Donaldus, who are authorized to examine and give sentence upon their agreement and the conditions they have made with him, [allowed].”

Surleboys has taken oath to observe the premises in the presence of the Barons of Louth and Dungannon and Captain Moore.

Copy. Pp 2.

Dec. 15. 33. SIR HENRY SYDNEY, Lord Deputy, to the LORDs of THE Vol. 601, p. 43. CouncIL [in England].

“Since my last letters, wherein I made report of the state of Ulster,t and in the same omitted (as I think) to write of O'Donnell, Lord of Tyrconnell, and McGuire, Lord of Fermannaghe, who wrote humbly unto me, live wealthfully, and deny not to pay rent and service to her Majesty (so as that they may be discharged from the exactions of others), I have passed and gone through the whole English Pale, containing the greatest and best part of the provinces of Meath and Leinster, and of the same have had conference with the principal personages, as well English as Irish, of the estate of those two countries, in like sort as I mean, before I cease to travel (in journey as I do), to visit the most and chiefest parts of every province within this realm.

“And yet, before I enter to particular discourse of any other part, I must return back to the province of Ulster, and speak of the county of Louth, being a parcel of the English Pale, which I find greatly impoverished, through the continual concourse of soldiers passing to and fro the North, and besides the ill neighbourhood of the men of Ferney, the Fues and the Orrery, mentioned in my former report of Ulster. The good towns of Carlingford, Dundalk, and Ardee are extremely impoverished, and only the town of Drohedaghe in better state, which was much amended and increased in wealth through the great expenses of the Earl of Essex, who lay and continued there much, and during his abode very bountifully and very honourably spent in the same; howbeit, the rest of the country is in great confidence of speedy recovery, for the gentlemen are willing to obey and forward to serve, and the rather for the good inclination I find of my Lord of Louth, who is one both well given and forward (as it seemeth) to execute anything committed unto him. The good neighbourhood of the Marshal, who governeth those under his rule without doing of harm, but rather by their labours and travails procurers of amity, friendly society, and quiet to their neighbours; so that only Ferney is the gap open to the hurt of the rest, which I beseech your Lordships to hasten my Lord

* Sfc. f This Report is not preserved either amongst the Carew Papers or in the Public Record Office.


of Essex to take order in, as the occasion of his stay, in resolution to place some one man, to take the charge of the country, breed not further trouble, than in short time is to be recovered.

“And thus, to begin with Meath, I find the same curstly scorched on the one side, as well by the incursions of the O'Connors and O'Moloyes, while they were in open rebellion, as oppressed by them, since they were protected, not yet recovered nor reformed, but in very good way to be, the noblemen and gentlemen of the same performing in their doings that which frankly they have offered ; and a great deal the better it is, for the good neighbourhood and just dealing of O'Reilie, whose country, for that it is in the province of Connaught, for the present I write the less of him and of it, yet for that he confineth within this country, and it very well used by him, I thought good thus much to touch of him and it, as of the justest Irishman and the best ruled Irish country (by an Irishman) that is in all Ireland.

“The most of the baronies of the borders of Westmeath are sore spoiled and made waste by the forenamed rebels, as Fertullagh or Tirrell's country, the barony of Ferbill, called Darcie's country, and now held of the Earl of Kildare, Dillon's country, Dalton's, and De La Mare. Those and divers others, as the Brawney Urin, or 'O'Birne's country, were made baronies of Westmeath when the same was first made a shire, and in the time of my last government here I added Kinaleaghe or McGoghagan's country, the Caulderie or McGaul's country, [and] Clancolman or O'Malaghlin's country, to be likewise members and parcels of the said county. In these Irish countries the writ yet hath no perfect currency, but, God willing, it shall have, whereunto the Lords of the same have willingly agreed, and most humbly desired to take their lands of the Queen, yielding for the same both rent and service. Fercall or O'Moloy's country, Monteregan or the Fox's country, together with the rest before remembered, are all wasted or extremely impoverished by the rebels aforenamed (McGoghagan and McCoghlan's country only excepted), but I hope well of the speedy reformation of this country, a great deal the rather through the good hope I conceive of the service of my Lord of Delvin, whom I find active and of good discretion. There joineth unto this the Annalie, a country by me heretofore made the county of Longford, being a parcel of the province of Connaught, the lords of the same being of two lineages, though of one surname. They were with me, and proved by good testimony that they were good neighbours both to Westmeath and the rest of the Pale, and lived now in far better order and greater wealth among themselves than they did before they were shire ground. They confess to be in arrearage for the rent for all or most of the years since I departed, which they willingly agreed to pay speedily and in convenient time. And thus much for the state of the province and countries of Meath.

“In the province of Leinster, first, I find the borders of the county of Dublin greatly annoyed almost by nightly stealths and some daily bodderaggs, chiefly fathered upon one Pheaghe McHughe McShane, of the surname of the O'Birnes, but under his father owner and farmer of sundry lands apart from them. The father was with me without protection, but the son liveth aloof yet, without hurt for anything I hear, since my arrival; but my circuit once finished, I intend to attend him somewhat nearer than hitherto I have done. The county of Kildare is extremely impoverished, and especially the Earl of Kildare's lordships and lands, which in a great part are wasted, partly by the last-named loose people, partly and chiefly by the O'Mores, as well in the rebellion as since they were under protection ; and in one barony of the said county, called Carbrie, it was constantly affirmed unto me by old Henry Cowlie, with tears in his eyes, that that barony was 3,000l. in worse case than it was the last time before I was there with him. The county of Catherloghe is more than half waste, as well by the forenamed outlaws of all sorts, as partly by the inhabitants of Kilkenny, the Kevanaghes, and some other of their own soil living under Sir Edmond Butler; and some doubt I have of the good order of that quarter, for that Sir Peter Carew is lately departed this world, and the land left to a young gentleman, his kinsman. For the county of Wexford, it is constantly affirmed, both publicly and privately, (by Thomas Masterson and many other principal gent') that if it were divided into two parts, the one of them is utterly wasted, most of them by the county of Kilkenny, partly by some of themselves, and much by the IKevanaghes, living in worse order, for that their captains (Englishmen) agree no better, which is much to be pitied, but hardly it will be redressed, it is so innate after they are once placed here.

“For the Irish countries on the east side of Leinster, being under the rule of Mr. Agard, as the O'Tohills and the O'Birne's country, I find they are in very good order, except Hugh McShane's son, whom before I remembered. And here, my Lords, except I should forget it, I cannot but lament the lack of Mr. Agard so long from hence; surely the loss of 1,000l. should not so much have grieved me as the wanting of him hath troubled me.

“The Kinshelaghe [are] divided into three lineages, but originally all Kevanaghes, now under the order of Thomas Masterson, who, in my opinion, is a good servant, both for the Queen and country, for he hath brought the people to good order, and made them obedient and willing to pay that rent which heretofore I brought them unto, and though much arrear, yet pay it they will and shall. The O'Moroghes, another lace of the Kevanaghes, are under the rule of one Richard Sinnett, in indifferent good order, and shall pay the rent and service, as well that in arrear, as that shall grow due hereafter. That race of the Kevanaghes that dwell about Fernes, by the good policy and rule of Thomas Masterson,


constable of the same, are willing and ready to yield all rents
and services due to her Majesty. And thus much for the
Irish in East Leinster.
“On the west side lieth the countries of Ophali or O'Con-
nor's country, Leix or OMore's country, Upper Ossory or
McGillpatricke's country, Iregan or O'Dunne's country. The
two first were shired by the names of King's and Queen's
Counties, and in the time of my Lord of Sussex’ government
granted in fee farm, with good reservations, to sundry tenants,
whereof the greatest part then were mere English, and now both
countries are much spoiled and wasted by the race and offspring
of the old native inhabiters, which grow great and increase in
number, and the English tenants decay both in force and
wealth, not of ability to answer the rents and services, but let
their lands to Irish tenants. They are daily so spoiled and
burned, the charge they have been at, and the daily, expenses
they be at, to defend themselves, so weaken them, as their
estate is to be pitied : 200 men at the least in the Prince's
pay lie there to defend them. The revenue of both the
countries countervails not the 20th part of the charge, so that
the purchase of that plot is and hath been very dear, yet now
not to be given over in any wise, for, God willing, it shall be
recovered and maintained ; but this may be an example how
the like hereafter is attempted, considering the charge is so
great, and the honour and profit so small, to win lands from
the Irishry so dearly as these two countries have been to the
“Rory Oge hath that possession and settling place in
the Queen's County, whether the tenants will or no, as be
occupieth what he listeth,and wasteth what he will, Geshell,
in the King's County, is very necessary to be had of the Earl
of Kildare; it is a matter of consequence for her Majesty's
service in that county; and therefore it was necessary he
were dealt effectually with to depart withal. During my
time of being at the fort at Maribroughe, the Earl of Clanri-
card came unto me, not unsent for, but very humbly and
loyally offered his service ; what and how I find of him I will
more at large write to your Lordships when I shall come to
Connagh, where he is.
“Upper Ossorie is so well governed and defended by the
valour and wisdom of the Baron that now is, for the old man,
in whom before the cause of the greatest disorder of that
country grew, God hath taken (I hope) to his merciful favour,
as, saving for surety of good order hereafter in succession, it
made no matter, the country were never shired, nor her
Majesty's writs otherwise current than it is, so humbly he
keepeth all his people to obedience and good order; and
yet united to some shire it shall be. And the Baron him-
self very well agreeth to yield rent and services, as other
countries lately brought to such frame do and shall do.
Iregan or O'Doyne's country [is] in good case; the Lord of


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