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An Anonymous Epistle of Dido to Aeneas

(Anthologia Latina 83)

An Edition, with Introduction, Translation,
and Notes

BY

ETHEL LEIGH CHUBB

A THESIS

PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE GRADUATE SCHOOL IN
PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR

THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

PHILADELPHIA, PA.
1920

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The writer wishes to express her sincere thanks to Professor John C. Rolfe, Professor Walton B. McDaniel, Professor Roland G. Kent, Professor George D. Hadzsits, Professor Harry B. Van Deventer, and Professor Edward H. Heffner for kindly criticism and advice given during the preparation of this thesis.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Editions

BURMAN, PIETER. Anthologia Veterum Epigrammatum et Poematum. Amsterdam, 1759. Vol. 1, Lib. 1, no. 173. (Text with notes.) COLLECTIO PISAURENSIS OMNIUM POEMATUM, CARMINUM, FRAGMENTORUM

LATINORUM. Pesaro, 1766. Vol. 4, pp. 237 ff. (Text only.) WERNSDORF, J. C. Poetae Latini Minores. Altenburg, 1785. Vol. 4, pp.

439 ff. (Text with notes.)

LEMAIRE, N. E. Poetae Latini Minores ex Recensione Wernsdorfiana. Paris, 1824. Vol. 3, pp. 357 ff.

MEYER, HEINRICH. Anthologia Veterum Latinorum Epigrammatum et Poematum. Editionem Burmannianum digessit et auxit Henricus Meyerus. (Text with brief critical notes.) Leipzig, 1882. Vol. 4, pp. 271

Leipzig, 1835. Vol. 2, no. 1610. BAEHRENS, EMIL. Poetae Latini Minores.

ff. (Text with apparatus criticus.) RIESE, ALEXANDER. Anthologia Latina. Leipzig, 1869. Second edition,

1894. Vol. 1, no. 83. (Text with apparatus criticus.)

Articles dealing with the Text*

BAEHRENS, EMIL. Jahrbücher für Philologie und Paedagogik, 107 (1873),

pp. 60-61.

BIRT, THEODOR. Ad Historiam Hexametri Latini Symbola. Bonn, 1876, pp. 61-2. (This discusses the metre also.)

MAEHLY, J. Zeitschrift für die österreichischen Gymnasien, 1871, pp. 550 ff. PETSCHENIG, M. Zeitschrift für die österreichischen Gymnasien, 1877, pp. 481 ff.

TRAUBE, LUDWIG. Philologus 54 (1895), pp. 124 ff.
WINTERFELD, PAUL VON. Schedae Criticae in Scriptores et Poetas Romanos.
Berlin, 1895, p. 46.

*For the early emendators whose names appear in the apparatus criticus, Heinse, Oudendorp, Schrader, Higt, Hoeufft, and Klotz, I have relied on the statements of other editors. Heinse's conjectures are probably contained in the ms. copy which he made of the Salmasian Codex, cf. Riese, p. XV and footnote 2, Burman Vol. 1, pp. XLIV-XLV. Those of Oudendorp and Schrader seem to have been communicated directly to Burman, cf. Vol. 1, p. LII: "Franciscus Oudendorpius, cui et eo nomine me haud parum obstrictum gratus profiteor, quod specimina huius operis typographum exercentiare censere adiuverit, et praesertim egregiis passim emendationibus suis optime de his Catalectis mereri voluerit; quemadmodum etiam clarissimus Joh. Schraderus, Franequeranae Academiae insigne decus, suas coniecturas, tamquam gemmas interlucentes, hic illic splendere concessit.' Burman gives Higt's emendations in the Mantissa Adnotationum in Vol. 2, pp. 711 ff. Those of Hoeufft are in his Pericula Critica; see Baehrens' note on verse 14.

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3

Works in which Reference is made to the Poem, aside from the Text SCHOELL, F. Histoire abrégée de la littérature romaine. Paris, 1815. Vol. 3, p. 53 note, p. 100.

MONCEAUX, PAUL. Les Africains; étude sur la littérature latine d'Afrique; les païens. Paris, 1894, p. 367.

SCHANZ, MARTIN. Geschichte der römischen Literatur. Munich, 1896.

Part 3, p. 37.

TEUFFEL, W. S. Geschichte der römischen Litteratur. 6th edition. Leipzig,

1913. Vol. 3, § 398.12.

PALMER, ARTHUR. Edition of Ovid's Heroides. Oxford, 1898. Introduction, p. XX, footnote 1.

Miscellaneous

BAYARD, LOUIS. Le latin de Saint Cyprien. Paris, 1902.
BECHTEL, EDWARD A. Edition of Sanctae Silviae Peregrinatio. Chicago,

1902.

BOISSIER, GASTON. Roman Africa; Archaeological Walks in Algeria and
Tunis. English Translation by A. Ward. New York and London, 1899.
BONNET, MAX. Le latin de Grégoire de Tours. Paris, 1890.
DILL, SAMUEL. Roman Society in the Last Century of the Western Empire.

2nd edition, London, 1906.

GOELZER, HENRI. Étude lexicographique et grammaticale de la latinité de Saint Jérome. Paris, 1884.

HOPPE, HEINRICH. Syntax und Stil des Tertullian. Leipzig, 1903. KÜHNER, RAPHAEL. Ausführliche Grammatik der lateinischen Sprache.

Zweite Auflage, Hanover, 1912.

MÜLLER, LUCIAN. De Re Metrica Poetarum Latinorum praeter Plautum

et Terentium. 2nd edition, Petrograd and Leipzig, 1894.

SCHMALZ, J. H. Lateinische Grammatik; Syntax und Stilistik. 4th edition,

Munich, 1910. (I. von Müller's Handbuch, II.2)

SCHUBERT, O. Quaestiones de Anthologia Codicis Salmasiani; Pars I. De Luxorio. Vimaria, 1875.

INTRODUCTION

The Salmasian Codex preserves, in incomplete form, an ancient anthology compiled at Carthage between the years 532 and 534 A. D. In this collection is found the anonymous epistle of Dido to Aeneas which is here presented.

DATE2 AND AUTHORSHIP

The only external evidence for the date of this poem is furnished by the known time of the compilation of the Salmasian

1Riese, Praefatio, pp. XXIV-XXV; Schubert, pp. 17 ff.

'Monceaux apparently assigns it to the 3rd century, Schanz to the end of the 3rd century. Teuffel and Palmer think it is probably not earlier than the 4th century. Schoell places it in the 6th century.

Anthology, according to which it must be earlier than 534 A. D. A further indication may possibly be found in the fact that the poem is anonymous. A number of poems in the Anthology which are given under the names of their authors have in addition to the name the title vir clarissimus, vir inlustris, or some such complimentary expression; from this the conclusion has been drawn that these poets were contemporaries of the compiler of the Anthology. Consequently there is a presumption that the poems which appear without such a title are of earlier date. While some weight may be given to this evidence, it cannot be regarded as conclusive, for there is always the possibility that the name or complimentary title originally attached to any particular poem may have been lost in copying; also, while it is not probable that the work of an author still living would be inserted anonymously in an anthology, it is by no means impossible.

For further evidence we must examine the poem itself. In two passages the author expresses Epicurean views, suggesting that he was not a Christian. This fact leads Teuffel and Schanz to date the poem just before the official triumph of Christianity. Here again we must beware of attaching too much importance to these expressions, for paganism still lived on and flourished side by side with Christianity long after the official recognition of the latter. There were, too, nominal Christians, like Ausonius, whose religion rested lightly upon them, and did not prevent them from employing the old mythological subjects and the language of paganism. Further, it must be remembered that the opinions which the author attributes to Dido are not necessarily his own. Consequently, while we may conclude that the author was probably a pagan, we are not justified in going so far as to say that the poem must have been written before Christianity became the official religion of Rome.

Riese, pp. XXVI-XXVIII.

441 and 121-2; cf. also 63 and note.

'Cf. Teuffel, Vol. 3, §398: "Aus der Zeit vor dem amtlichen Siege des Christentums scheint eine Anzahl von Schriftwerken in gebundener Form zu stammen, die sich mit Unbefangenheit oder gar Heiterkeit auf dem Boden der alten Götterwelt bewegen und die überlieferten Formen meist mit leidlicher Sicherheit handhaben."

'Dill, pp. 385 ff.

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