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cipitate passions, as the first that rises in And with the majesty of darkness round
that assembly to give his opinion upon their

Covers his throne; from whence deep thunders roar,

Mustering their rage, and heav'n resembles hell! present posture of affairs. Accordingly, he As he our darkness, cannot we his light declares himself abruptly for war, and


Imitate when we please? This desert soj] pears incensed at his companions for losing

Wants not her hidden lustre, gems and gold; so much time as even to deliberate upon it.

Nor want we skill or art, from whence to raise

Magnificence; and what can heav'n show more? All his sentiments are rash, audacious, and desperate. Such is that of arming them

Beelzebub, who is reckoned the second selves with their tortures, and turning their in dignity that fell, and is, in the first book, punishments upon him who inflicted them: the second that awakens out of the trance,

and confers with Satan upon the situation -No, let us rather choose, Armd with hell fames and fury, all at once

of their affairs, maintains his rank in the O'er heav'n's high tow'rs to force resistless way,

book now before us. There is a wonderful Turning our tortures into horrid arms

majesty described in his rising up to speak. Against the tort'rer; when to meet the noise Of his almighty engine he shall hear

He acts as a kind of moderator between
Infernal thunder, and for lightning see

the two opposite parties, and proposes a
Black fire and horror shot with equal rage third undertaking, which the whole assem-
Among his angels: and his throne itself
Mix'd with Tartarian sulphur, and strange fire,

bly gives into. The motion he makes of His own invented torments.

detaching one of their body in search of a His preferring annihilation to shame or vised by Satan, and cursorily proposed by

new world is grounded upon a project demisery is also highly suitable to his charac- him in the following lines of the first book: ter; as the comfort he draws from their disturbing the peace of heaven, that if it Space may produce new worlds, whereof so rife be not victory it is revenge, is a sentiment

There went a fame in heav'ni, that he ere long

Intended to create, and therein plant truly diabolical, and becoming the bitter- A generation, whom his choice regard ness of this implacable spirit.

Should favour equal to the sons of heav'n;
Belial is described in the first book as

Thither, if but to pry, shall be perhaps

Our first eruption, thither or elsewhere: the idol of the lewd and luxurious. He is

For this infernal pit shall never hold in the second book, pursuant to that de- Celestial spirits in bondage, nor th' abyss scription, characterized as timorous and

Long under darkness cover. But these thoughts

Full counsel inust mature: slothful; and if we look into the sixth book, we find him celebrated in the battle of an- It is on this project that Beelzebub grounds gels for nothing but that scoffing speech his proposal : which he makes to Satan, on their sup

-What if we find posed advantage over the enemy. As his Some easier enterprise? There is a place, appearance is uniform, and of a piece in (If ancient and prophetic fame in heav'n these three several views, we find his senti

Err not.) another world, the happy seat

of some new race calld man, about this time ments in the infernal assembly every way To be created like to us, though less conformable to his character. Such are In pow'r and excellence, but favour'd more his apprehensions of a second battle, his

of him who rules above; so was his will

Pronounc'd among the gods, and by an oath, horrors of annihilation, his preferring to be That shook heav'n's whole circumference, confirma'd, miserable, rather than not to be.' I need not observe, that the contrast of thought in

The reader may observe how just it was, this speech, and that which precedes it, not to omit in the first book the project gives an agreeable variety to the debate.

upon which the whole poem turns; as also the first book, that the poet adds nothing the next to him in dignity was the fittest to Mammon's character is so fully drawn in that the prince of the fallen angels was the

only proper person to give it birth, and that toit in the second. We were before told, that he was the first who taught mankind to

second and support it. ransack the earth for gold and silver, and

There is besides, I think, something wonthat he was the architect of Pandæmonium, derfully beautiful, and very apt to affect the or the infernal palace, where the evil spirits reader's imagination, in this ancient proWere to meet in council. His speech in phecy or report in heaven, concerning

the this book is every way suitable to so de-creation of man. Nothing could more show praved a character. How proper is that the dignity of the species, than this tradireflection of their being

unable to taste the tion which ran of them before their existhappiness of heaven, were they actually ence. They are represented to have been there, in the mouth of one, who, while he the talk of heaven before they were created. was in heaven, is said to have had his mind Virgil, in compliment to the Roman comdazzled with the outward pomps

and glories monwealth, makes the herves of it appear of the place, and to have been more intent in their state of pre-existence; but Milton on the riches of the pavement than on the does a far greater honour to mankind in beatific vision. I shall also leave the reader general, as he gives us a glimpse of them to judge how agreeable the following senti- even before they are in being. ments are to the same character:

The rising of this great assembly is de

scribed in a very sublime and poetical This deep world Of darkness do we dread? How ont amidst Thick clouds and dark doth heav'n's all-ruling sire

Their rising all at once was as the sound Choose to reside, his glory unobscurd,

Of thunder heard remote.


The diversions of the fallen angels, with this quotation. He will likewise observe the particular account of their place of how naturally the three persons concerned habitation, are described with great preg- in this allegory are tempted by one com. nancy of thought, and copiousness of in- mon interest to enter into a confederacy tovention. The diversions are every way gether, and how properly Sin is made the suitable to beings who had nothing left portress of hell, and the only being that can them but strength and knowledge misap- open the gates to that world of tortures. plied. Such are their contentions at the The descriptive part of this allegory is race and in feats of arms, with their enter- likewise very strong, and full of sublime tainment in the following lines:

ideas. The figure of Death, the regal

crown upon his head, his menace of Satan, Others with vast Typhæan rage more fell Rend up both rocks and hills, and ride the air

his advancing to the combat, the outcry at In whirlwind, hell scarce holds the wild uproar.

his birth, are circumstances too noble to be Their music is employed in celebrating to this king of terrors. I need not mention

past over in silence, and extremely suitable their own criminal exploits, and their dis- the justness of thought which is observed course in sounding the unfathomable depths in the generation of these several symboof fate, free-will, and foreknowledge. The several circumstances in the de- the first revolt of Satan, that Death ap

lical persons; that Sin was produced upon scription of hell are finely imagined; as the peared soon after he was cast into hell, four rivers which disgorge themselves into and that the terrors of conscience were conthe sea of fire, the extremes of cold

and ceived

at the gate of this place of torments. heat, and the river of oblivion. The mon- The description of the gates is very strous animals produced in that infernal poetical, as the opening of them is full of world are represented by a single line, Milton's spirit: which gives us a more horrid idea of them than a much longer description would have

-On a sudden open fly donc:

With impetuous recoil and jarring sound

Th’infernal doors, and on their hinges grate
Nature breeds,

Harsh thunder, that the lowest bollom shook
Perverse, all monstrous, all prodigious things,

Of Erebus. She open'd, but to shut Abominable, inutterable, and worse

Excell'd her pow'r; the gates wide open stood, Than fables yet have feign'd, or fear conceiv'd,

That with extended wings a banner'd host Gorgons and hydras, and chimeras dire.

Under spread ensigns marching might pass through

With horse and chariots rank'd in loose array; This episode of the fallen spirits and their So wide they stood, and like a furnace mouth place of habitation, comes in very happily

Cast forth redounding smoke and ruddy flame. to unbend the mind of the reader from its In Satan's voyage through the chaos there attention to the debate. An ordinary poet are several imaginary persons described, would indeed have spun out so many cir- as residing in that immense waste of matcumstances to a great length, and by that ter. This may perhaps be conformable to means have weakened, instead of illustrated the taste of those critics who are pleased the principal fable.

with nothing in a poet which has not life The fight of Satan to the gates of hell is and manners ascribed to it; but for my own finely imaged.

part, I am pleased most with those passaI have already declared my opinion of ges in this description which carry in them a the allegory concerning Sin and Death, greater measure of probability, and are such which is, however, a very finished piece as might possibly have happened. Of this in its kind, when it is not considered as kind is his first mounting in the smoke that a part of an epic poem. The genealogy rises from the infernal pit, his falling into a of the several persons is contrived with cloud of nitre, and the like combustible great delicacy. Sin is the daughter of Satan, materials, that by their explosion still hurand Death the offspring of Sin. The in- ried him forward in his voyage; his springcestuous mixture between Sin and Death ing upward like a pyramid of fire, with his produces those monsters and hell-hounds laborious passage through that confusion of which from time to time enter into their elements which the poet calls mother, and tear the bowels of her who

The womb of nature, and perhaps her grave. gave them birth. These are the terrors of an evil con- chaos from the utmost verge of the crea

The glimmering light which shot into the science, and the proper fruits of Sin, which tion, with the distant discovery of the earth naturally rise from the apprehensions of that hung close by the moon, are wonderDeath. This last beautiful moral is , I think, fully beautiful and poetical.

L. clearly intimated in the speech of Sin, where, complaining of this her dreadful issue, she adds: Before mine eyes in opposition sits

No. 310.) Monday, February 25, 1711-12.
Grim Death, my son and foe, who sets them on,
And me his parent would full soon devour,

Connubio jungam stabilı-
For want or other prey, but that he knows

Virg. Æn. i. 77.
His end with mine involv'd.-

I'll tie the indissoluble marriage-knot. I need not mention to the reader the •MR. SPECTATOR,—I am a certain young beautiful circumstance in the last part of woman that love a certain young man very



heartily; and my father and mother were able regard to you, but as it is, I beg we for it a great while, but now they say I can may be strangers for the future. Adieu. do better; but I think I cannot. They bid

"LYDIA.' me not love him, and I cannot unlove him. What must I do? Speak quickly.

• This great indifference on this subject, *BIDDY DOW-BAKE.'

and the mercenary motives for making al

liances, is what I think lies naturally before

Feb. 19, 1712. you, and I beg of you to give me your *DEAR SPEC-I have loved a lady en-thoughts upon it

. My answer to Lydia was tirely for this year and a half, though for a as follows, which I hope you will approve; great part of the time (which has contri- for you are to know the woman's family buted not a little to my pain) I have been affect a wonderful ease on these occasions, debarred the liberty of conversing with though they expect it should be painfully her. The grounds of our difference was received on the man's side. this; that when we had enquired into each other's circumstances, we found that at our

• MADAM, I have received yours, and first setting out into the world, we should knew the prudence of your house so well, owe five hundred pounds more than her that I always took care to be ready to obey fortune would pay off. My estate is seven your commands, though they should be to hundred pounds a-year, besides the benefit see you no more. Pray give my service to of tin mines. Now, dear Spec, upon this

all the good family. Adieu. state of the case, and the lady's positive

•CLITOPHON. declaration that there is still no other ob

• The opera subscription is full.' jection, I beg you will not fail to insert

MEMORANDUM. this, with your opinion, as soon as possible, whether this ought to be esteemed a just letter and report the common usages on

The censor of marriage to consider this cause or impediment why we should not be such treaties, with how many pounds or joined; and you will for ever oblige yours acres are generally esteemed sufficient reasincerely, DICK LOVESICK.”.

son for preferring a new to an old preten

der; with his opinion what is proper to be “Sir, if I marry this lady by the assist- determined in such cases for the future. ance of your opinion, you may expect a fa- See No. 308, let. 1. vour for it.'

MR. SPECTATOR,—There is an elderly • MR. SPECTATOR,I have the misfor- person lately left off business and settled in tune to be one of those unhappy men who our town, in order, as he thinks, to retire are distinguished by the name of discarded from the world; but he has brought with lovers; but I am the less mortified at my him such an inclination to tale-bearing, disgrace, because the young lady is one of that he disturbs both himself and all our those creatures who set up for negligence neighbourhood. Notwithstanding this frailof men, are forsooth the most rigidly virtu- ty, the honest gentleman is so happy as to ous in the world, and yet their nicety will have no enemy: at the same time he has permit them at the command of parents to not one friend who will venture to acquaint go to bed to the most utter stranger that him with his weakness. It is not to be can be proposed to them. As to me myself, doubted, but if this failing were set in a proI was introduced by the father of my mis- per light, he would quickly perceive the tress; but find I owe my being at first re- indecency and evil consequences of it. ceived to a comparison of my estate with Now, sir, this being an infirmity which I that of a former lover, and that I am now hope may be corrected, and knowing that in like manner turned off to give way to an he pays much deference to you, I beg that humble servant still richer than 'I am. when you are at leisure to give us a specuWhat makes this treatment the more ex- lation on gossiping, you would think of my travagant is, that the young lady is in the neighbour. You will hereby oblige several management of this way of fraud, and who will be glad to find a reformation in obeys her father's orders on those occasions their grey-haired friend: and how becomwithout any manner of reluctance, but does ing will it be for him, instead of pouring it with the same air that one of your men forth words at all adventures, to set a of the world would signify the necessity of watch before the door of his mouth, to reaffairs for turning another out of office. frain his tongue, to check its impetuosity, When I came home last night, I found this and guard against the sallies of that little letter from my mistress:

pert, forward, busy person; which, under “SIR,- I hope you will not think it is any member of society! În compliance with

a sober conduct, might prove a useful manner of disrespect to your person or those intimations, I have taken the liberty merit, that the intended nuptials between us are interrupted. My father says he has to make this address to you. I am, sir, your

most obscure servant, a much better offer for me than you can

PHILANTHROPOS.' make, and has ordered me to break off the treaty between us. If it had proceeded, I MR. SPECTATOR,- This is to petition should have behaved myself with all suit- l you in behalf of myself, and many more of


your gentle readers, that at any time when | fore my house more than once this winter. you may have private reasons against let. My kinswoman likewise informs me that ting us know what you think yourself, you the girl has talked to her twice or thrice of would be pleased to pardon us such letters a gentleman in a fair wig, and that she of your correspondents as seem to be of no loves to go to church more than ever she use but to the printer.

did in her life. She gave me the slip about It is further our humble request, that a week ago, upon which my whole house you would substitute advertisements in the wa in alarm. " I immediately despatched place of such epistles; and that in order a hue and cry after her to the 'Change, hereunto Mr. Buckley may be authorized to her mantua-maker, and to the young lato take up of your zealous friend Mr. dies that visit her; but after above an hour's Charles Lillie, any quantity of words he search she returned of herself, having been shall from time to time have occasion for taking a walk, as she told me, by Rosa

• The many useful parts of knowledge mond's pond. I have hereupon turned off which may be communicated to the public her woman, doubled her guards, and given this way, will, we hope, be a consideration new instructions to my relation, who, to in favour of your petitioners. And your give her her due, keeps a watchful eye, petitioners, &c.'

over all her motions. This, sir, keeps me Note.—That particular regard be had to often watch when my daughter sleeps, as I

in perpetual anxiety, and makes me very this petition; and the papers marked letter am afraid she is even with me in her turn. R may be carefully examined for the fu- Now, sir, what I would desire of you is, to


represent to this fluttering tribe of young fellows, who are for making their fortunes

by these indirect means, that stealing a No. 311.] Tuesday, February 26, 1711-12. man's daughter for the sake of her portion, Nec Veneris pharetris macer est, aut lampade fervet : that they make but a poor amends to the

is but a kind of a tolerated robbery; and Inde faces ardent, veniunt a dote sagitta.

Juv. Sat. vi. 137. father, whom they plunder after this manHe sighs, adores, and courts her ev'ry hour : ner, by going to bed with his child. Dear Who would not do as much for such a dower ? sir, be speedy in your thoughts on this sub


ject, that, if possible, they may appear be. . Mr. SPECTATOR,—I am amazed that, fore the disbanding of the army. I am, among all the variety of characters with sir, your most humble servant, which you have enriched your speculations,

"TIM WATCHWELL.' you have never given us a picture of those audacious young fellows among us who Themistocles, the great Athenian genecommonly go by the name of the fortune- ral, being asked whether he would rather stealers. 'Ycu must know, sir, I am one who choose to marry his daughter to an indigent live in a continual apprehension of this sort man of merit, or to a worthless man of an of people, that lie in wait, day and night estate, replied, that he should prefer a man for our children, and may be considered as without an estate to an estate without a a kind of kidnappers within the law. I am man. The worst of it is, our modern for. the father of a young heiress, whom I be- tune-hunters are those who turn their heads gin to look upon as marriageable, and who that way, because they are good for nothing has looked upon herself as such for above else. If a young fellow finds he can make these six years. She is now in the eighteenth nothing of Coke and Littleton he provides year of her age. The fortune-hunters have himself with a ladder of ropes, and by that already cast their eyes upon her, and take means very often enters upon the precare to plant themselves in her view when- mises. ever she appears in any public assembly. The same art of scaling has likewise I have myself caught a young jackanapes, been practised with good success by many with a pair of silver-fringed gloves, in the military engineers. Stratagems of this navery fact. You must know, Sir, I have kept ture make parts and industry supe:fluous, her as a prisoner of state, ever since she and cut short the way to riches. was in her teens. Her chamber windows Nor is vanity a less motive than idleness are cross-barred; she is not permitted to go to this kind of mercenary pursuit. A fop, out of the house but with her keeper, who is who admires his person in a glass, soon a staid relation of my own; I have likewise enters into a resolution of making his forforbid her the use of pen and ink, for this tune by it, not questioning but every wotwelvemonth last past, and do not suffer a man that falls in his way will do him as band-box to be carried into her room before much justice as he does himself. When an it has been searched. Notwithstanding heiress sees a man throwing particular these precautions, I am at my wit's end, graces into his ogle, or talking loud within for fear of any sudden surprise. There her hearing, she ought to look to herself; were, two or three nights ago, some fiddles but if withal she observes a pair of red heard in the street, which I am afraid heels, a patch, or any other particularity portend me no good: not to mention a tall in his dress, she cannot take too much care Irishiman, that has been seen walking be-lof her person. These are baits not to be trilled with, charms that have done a world / No. 312.) Wednesday, Feb. 27, 1711-12. of execution, and made their way into hearts which have been thought impregnable.- quod adipisci cum dolore corporis velit, qui dolorem

Quod huic officium, quæ laus, quod decus erit tanti, The force of a man with these qualifica- summum malum sibi persuaserit? Quam porro quis tions is so well known, that I am credibly ignominium, quam turpitudinem non pertulerit, ut effu. informed there are several female under- giat dolorem, si id summum malum esse decreverit. takers about the 'Change, who, upon the


What duty, what praise, or what honour will he arrival of a likely man out of a neigh- think worth enduring hodily pain for, who has per. bouring kingdom, will furnish him with suadel bimself that pain is the chief evil? Nay, to a proper dress from head to foot, to be avoid pain, if he has determined it to be the chief evil? paid for at a double price on the day of marriage.

It is a very melancholy reflection, that We must, however, distinguish between men are usually so weak, that it is absofortune-hunters and fortune-stealers. The lutely necessary for them to know sorrow first are those assicuous gentlemen who and pain, to be in their right sense's. Prosemploy their whole lives in the chase, with- perous people (for happy there are none) out ever coming to the quarry. Suffenus are hurried away with a fond sense of their has combed and powdered at the ladies for present condition, and thoughtless of the thirty years together; and taken his stand mutability of fortune. Fortune is a term in a side-box, until he has grown wrinkled which we must use, in such discourses as under their eyes. He is now laying the these, for what is wrought by the unseen same snares for the present generation hand of the Disposer of all things. But of beauties, which he practised on their methinks the disposition of a mind which is mothers. Cottilus, after having made his truly great, is that which makes misforapplication to more than you meet with in tunes and sorrows little when they befal Mr. Cowley's ballad of mistresses, was at ourselves, great and lamentable when they last smitten with a city lady of 20,0001. befal other men. The most un pardonable sterling; but died of old age before he could malefactor in the world going to his death, bring matters to bear. Nor must I here and bearing it with composure, would win omit my worthy friend Mr. Honeycomb, the pity of those who should behold him; who has often told us in the club, that for and this not because his calamity is deplotwenty years successively upon the death rable, but because he seems himself not to of a childless rich man, he immediately deplore it. We suffer for him who is less drew on his boots, called for his horse, and sensible of his own misery, and are inclined made up to the widow. When he is rallied to despise him who sinks under the weight upon his ill success, Will, with his usual of his distresses. On the other hand, withgaiety, tells us, that he always found her out any touch of envy, a temperate and pre-engaged.

well-governed mind looks down on such as Widows are indeed the great game of are exalted with success, with a certain your fortune-hunters. There is scarce a shame for the imbecility of human nature, young fellow in the town of six foot high that can so far forget how liable it is to cathat has not passed in review before one or lamity, as to grow giddy with only the susother of these wealthy relicts. Hudibras's pense of sorrow, which is the portion of all Cupid, who

men. He therefore who turns his face from the unhappy man, who will not look again

when his eye is cast upon modest sorrow, Upon a widow*s* jointnre land,'

who shuns affliction like a contagion, does is daily employed in throwing darts and but pamper himself up for a sacrifice, and kindling flames. But as for widows, they contract in himself a greater aptitude to are such a subtle generation of people, that misery by attempting to escape it. A gen. they may be left to their own conduct; or

tleman, where I happened to be last night, if they make a false step in it, they are’an- fell into a discourse which I thought showed swerable for it to nobody but themselves. a good discerning in him. He took notice, The young innocent creatures who have no that whenever men have looked into their knowledge and experience of the world, heart for the idea of true excellence in huare those whose safety I would principally

man nature, they have found it to consist consult in this speculation. The stealing in suffering afte a right manner, and with of such an one should, in my opinion, be as a good grace. Heroes are always drawn punishable as a rape.

Where there is no

bearing sorrows, struggling with adversijudgment there is no choice; and why the ties, undergoing all kinds of hardships, and inveigling a woman before she comes to having, in the service of mankind, a kind years of discretion should not be as criminal of appetite to difficulties and dangers. The as the seducing of her before she is ten gentleman went on to observe, that it is years old, I am at a loss to comprehend.

from this secret sense of the high merit L.

which there is in patience under calami

ties, that the writers of romances when * See Grey's edit. of Hudibras, vol. 1. part i. canto iii. they attempt to furnish out characters of v. 212, 213

the highest excellence, ransack nature for

Took his stand

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