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Italiam dixisse ducis de nomine gentem.
533.] 'Gentem,' the nation, for the land. the waves rising high. The former, imComp. the Homeric shuqe évi Tpówv, Od. plying that they were unable to make 8. 220. There were many accounts of head and were driven before the wind, is the eponymous Italus, for which see Serv. perhaps more in accordance with the conThuc. 6. 2 makes him a king of the Sicels. text; but both may be intended : comp. One legend made Oenotrus his brother. 2. 311 note. Henry thinks salumn' is
534.] The reading hic' is supported used here and 2. 209 in its technical sense against huc ' apparently by all the best of the sea near the shore, for which see MSS., and Serv. The sense is of course Forc. the same with either reading, while hic' 538.] · Pauci,' a poor remnant. Comp. is the more difficult, ‘huc' the simpler. 6. 744,"pauci laeta arya teneinus.” “Ad. See on 4. 46, where there is a similar navimus, floated or drifted : comp. 4. variety, and comp. 4. 237, “hic nostri 613., 6. 358. In prose the word is used of nuntius esto.” One inferior MS. fills up an ordinary approach to land ; but Virg. the line "huc cunctis [fuit?] ire voluntas. doubtless meant something more. Ves.
535.] 'Subito adsurgens fluctu,' rising tris oris' is epexegetical of 'huc:' see on with a sudden swell. Orion adsurgens E. 1. 53. fluctu' is another of those artifices noticed 539.] The first half of this line is said on vv. 381, 508, the word 'adsurgens' by Macrob. (Sat. 6. 1) to be taken from being intended to combine the rising of Furius (probably of Antium), whom acthe star and the rising of the wave. For cording to the same authority Virg. largely ‘adsurgens fluctu' in the latter sense imitated, “Quod genus hoc hominum, Sa. comp. G. 2. 160 and note; for the former turno sancte create.” This confirms Wag. comp. Val. Fl. 5. 566, “Qualibus adsur. ner's punctuation, which places an intergens nox aurea cingitur astris.” We are rogation after 'hominum, instead of conreminded here rather of the follower of tinuing the construction to permittit.' Hesiod and Aratus than of the imitator Quod genus' is probably to be explained of Homer. The inconsistency was felt in by 'quae patria,' not, as might be argued Serv.'s time, many, as he says, putting from v. 542, by supposing 'hominum'to the superfluous question why the rising be emphatic. For 'quae tam barbara perof Orion is mentioned when the tempest mittit, comp. G. 2. 315, and note. Pa. was raised by Juno; to which he replies tria morem permittit' is equivalent to that Ilioneus was not aware of the facts “terra morem sibi proprium permittit :" which the poet learned from the Muse. see on G. 1. 52, and comp. v. 51 above. Elsewhere storms are connected with the There is the same notion in Catull. 10. 14, setting of Orion (7. 719, Hor. 1 Od. 28. “ quod illic Natum dicitur esse.” 21., 3. 27. 17, Epod. 10. 10), as here with 5 40.] There is a pathetic force in 'hosthe rising. The rising of Orion is about pitio ;' we are barred even from the midsummer (Pliny 18. 68), which agrees welcome which the shore gives the shipwith the time here, v. 756.
wrecked man. Serv. refers to Cic. pro 536.] “Procacibus,' boisterous. EuRosc. Am. 26, “Nam quid est tam compolis, quoted by Julius Pollux ap. Cerdam, mune, quam spiritus vivis, terra mortuis, calls the winds so eayeis. Lucr. 6. 111 has mare fluctuantibus, litus eiectis ?” Comp. “ petulantes aurae," and Hor. 1 Od. 26. 2, Ilioneus' language 7. 229 foll. “protervi venti.” Penitus:' above v.512. 541.] Prima terra,' on the edge of
537.] •Superante salo,' either, the sea their territory. “Primi litoris oram” G. overpowering us (“vicit hiemps" v. 122) or 2. 44.
Si genus humanum et mortalia temnitis arma,
542.] ' If you are so strong as to defy “aer,” not to the “aether;" accordingly, human indignation. It is his cue to re wherever the words occur, he would alter cognize the great power of Carthage. “ aetherius into “aerius," as here and
Mortalia arma,' i.q. “mortalium arma," 6. 762, or “aurae” into “orae,” as in G. 3. 319, note.
4. 445., 7. 557, G. 2. 292. Both changes 513.] 'Sperare’ in the sense merely of are natural enough ; “aetherius” and expectation, like en tigelv, is common. “aerius” are confused in the MSS. 5. 518, There is no occasion to understand · fore.' 520., 8. 221 ; in G. 2. 47 Med. has “auras” • But expect gods who forget not the for “oras.” But whatever may be the righteous or unrighteous deed.' “ Deos case with Lucr. (and I am glad to see that sperare occurs Plaut. Cas. 2. 5. 38, Mil. Prof. Munro rejects his predecessor's view), 4. 5. 10, Cist. 2. 3. 52 in a somewhat there seems on the one hand no reason different sense. • Fandi atque nefandi ’is why Virg. may not have used "aether” from Catull. 62 (64). 406, “Omnia fanda loosely in this connexion, as equivalent to nefanda malo permixta furore.” It is “caelum” (a word with which “ aurae” is hard to say whether ‘fandum' and 'ne. not unfrequently joined, 6. 363., 7. 513, fandum'thus coupled should be taken in 768., 11. 595), while on the other“aura the supposed old sense of the gerundive, at any rate is found in Virg. in a sense as a present participle, and so as strictly in which it is peculiarly appropriate to equivalent to 'fas' and nefas,' or under “aether," if not actually synonymous with stood in the ordinary way, things that may it, “ Aetherium sensum atque aurai simor may not be spoken. With the general plicis ignem,” 6. 747. This is probably its sense comp. Od. 2. 66., 9. 269 foll. Virg. sense here, as Henry suggests,—the same may conceivably have thought of Catuli. mixture of the notions of light and air 28 (30). 11, “ Si tu oblitus es, at di me which we find G. 2. 340, “ lucem hausere.” minere, at meminit Fides."
Henry comp. Stat. Theb. 1. 237 (of the 544.] · Aeneas was our king,' not 'we blind Oedipus), “ Proiecitque diem nec had a king called Aeneas,' which would iam amplius aethere nostro Vescitur," on imply that Aeneas was unknown. Heyne which Lachm. merely remarks,
“ Statio was the first who put a comma at 'alter. licuit improprie loqui.” Elsewhere Virg. The old punctuation connected iustior' connects “aether" with life, 6. 436., 11. with “pietate,'a combination in itself very 104. Heyne remarks that Virg. was proharsh, and morcover involving an unex. bably thinking of such passages as Od. 20. ampled inversion. For the omission of 207 foll., et nou ěti Çuber kal opậ, páos 'neque’ in the first clause, comp. Cacs. B. Benioto Ei so non tédunke kai eiv 'Aldao C. 3. 71 (quoted by Gossr.), “sed in lit. Sóuoco iv, a supposition which may perhaps teris, quas scribere est solitus, neque in be thought to confirm the vicw of “aura fascibus insignia laureae praetulit." So in aetheria 'just maintained. Greek, Aesch. Ag. 532, Choeph. 294. With 547.] Crudelibus umbris,' the cruel ‘pietate maior' comp. 11. 292, “Hic pietate darkness of death. Heyne and Wagn. prior.” Cerda comp. 11. 3. 179, dupó. tuke'umbris' as the dative and Tepov Bao neús ' ayadds kpatepós t'aixun- bare umbris' as a synonym for “occumτης. . • Bello et armis' pleonastic, 4. 615., bere morti.” But “occumbere" means to 7. 235 (comp. the latter passage gene- fall, 'occubare' to lie dead, so that Forb. rally).
is doubtless right in making 'umbris' 546.] Lucr. 5. 857, “quaecumque vides abl., unless we suppose that occubat umvesci vitalibus auris.” Lachm. on Lucr. bris' can be i. q. “iacet inter umbras," lies 3. 405 objects to the combination “aethe among the spectres. riae” or “aetheris aurae” or “aura," on 518.] ‘Nec' is the reading of all the the ground that “aurac” beiong to the MSS., except the Hamburg corrected, and
Paeniteat. Sunt et Siculis regionibus urbes
of Serv., and is supported by the occur adds a new thought, and one which is rence of the expression “nec te paeniteat” natural enough in the mouth of Ilioneus. E. 2. 34., 10. 17, where it is nearly equiva. Arms are a natural addition to a city : lent to “nec pudeat.” “Ne' was recom comp. v. 347 foll, above, “urbem Patavi mended by Heins, and introduced by sedesque locavit Teucrorum, et genti Heyne, and has been followed by most nomen dedit, armaque fixit Troia,” 12. subsequent critics. Retaining nec,' we 192 foll., “ socer arma Latinus habeto ... must understand' non metus' with Henry, mihi moenia Teucri Constituent, urbique "we have no cause to dread,' which would dabit Lavinia nomen.” The Trojans have agree with Dido's words v. 562. But the arms of their own (comp. 4. 48, where expression is a harsh one, though it may observe “urbem” and “regna” in the perhaps be palliated by such phrases as immediate context); but in the absence of “baud mora. There should, I think, be a Aeneas they must seek armed assistance semicolon or colon after ‘metus ;' not a elsewhere. Such being the balance of period, as Ribbeck punctuates, as if a new probabilities, I have decided, after much thought began here and were carried on hesitation, by external evidence, adopting to the end of v. 550. It is Aeneas who 'arma’ with Henry and Ribbeck, against will repay
Dido if he lives. Officio cer most modern critics. “Arva' was first tasse priorem,' to have taken the lead in introduced by Heyne. Oddly enough, the rivalry of good deeds. Comp. the there are traces of a similar variety in Pal. phrase “provocare aliquem beneficio.” “Si and another MS. below, v. 569, where, muneribus certes” E. 2. 57. Comp.gene. though ‘arma’ would be out of the quesrally the parallel 7. 233, “Nec Troiam tion, there is a certain parallelism. Ausonios gremio excepisse pigebit.” “Cer- sanguine,' without a participle or word tasse," like paeniteat,' assumes that Dido indicating origin, 5. 209. has already done what llioneus asks her to 551.] Wagn., Jahn, and Wund. seem do. See E. 2. 34, referred to above. right in taking vv. 551-558 as one sen
519.] It is difficult to determine the tence, “liceat subducere classem, ut Italiam exact point of this sentence, as 'et' may petamus si datur Italiam tendere, sin mean, besides Aeneas, i. q.“ we have other absumpta salus, ut saltem Siciliam petaprotectors who may receive us and repay mus." The old method had been to break you," or, besides Carthage, i. q. have the passage, considering 'ut petamus other cities where we may settle, and are as an elliptical expression, and the second not come to intrude on you,” or lastly, be- ' petamus optative. Subducere sides Italy, i. q.
“ we have another chance classem,' to lay up the fleet, opposed to if our hopes there are gone." The last “deducere,” to launch. Instances are given would accord with the remainder of the by Forc. Ribbeck supposes the passage to speech, which dwells on the two courses be unfinished, thinking the transition from open to them, that of fulfilling their Ita- the previous sentence to the present a lian destiny should Aeneas be alive, or harsh one; but see on v. 519. that of settling in Sicily should he and his 552.] ‘Silvis aptare trabes,' to fashion heir be dead.
planks in the woods; that is, to fit them 550.] · Armaque’ Rom., Pal., Gud., to the breaches which required mending in * arvaque' Med. The great majority of the ship's side. Comp. 5. 753, G. 1. 171 MSS. would seem to be in favour of the note. "Stringere remos,' to clear branches former : the latter is found in at least one or trees of their leaves and twigs for oars, of the Oxford MSS., that of Ball. Coll. hence called “tonsae.” Comp. G. 2. 368, In internal probability the two words seem “tum stringe comas, tum bracchia tonde.” to be as nearly balanced as possible. 'Arva' Silius has imitated the expression (6. brings out further the notion of a settle- 352), “Aut silvis stringunt remos aut ment, and is used repeatedly in connexion abiete secta Transtra novant.” Comp. with the Trojan settlement in Italy (see also A. 4. 399, “ Frondentisque ferunt reamong many other passages v. 569 below, mos et robora silvis Infabricata fugae stu4. 311, 355, and comp. 3. 136). · Arma' dio.” “Silvis,' as if he had said, "give us
Si datur Italiam, sociis et rege recepto,
Non obtunsa adeo gestamus pectora Poeni, the use of your woods for repairing our Aeneas.' ships,' while it gives the picture of hasty 561.] For voltum’ Pal, corrected and work, carried on in the woods themselves, another MS. have 'voltu.' as in the passage just quoted.
562.] •Solvite corde metum,' a variety 553.] The repetition of Italiam' has for solvite corda metu.' 'Solve metus been complained of, but it really adds has however already occurred v. 463. force, showing what is the speaker's first Pierius mentions other readings, 'metus' object. Comp. 3. 253, “Italiam cursu and 'seducite,' neither of which however petitis, ventisque vocatis Ibitis Italium.” appears to be found in any first-class MS. “ Classem sociosque receptos” below v. 563.] Res dura,' my hard case, i.e. 583.
the difficulty she had in keeping her 554.) • Italiam Latiumque :' see v. 3. ground on a hostile territory, and her Ilioneus has not previously mentioned La- fears from her brother. "Novitas' is tium, while he has spoken of Italy vv. 530 rather a favourite word with Lucr., who foll. as an unknown country; but Virg.'s uses “novitas mundi” of the infancy of the love of variety leads him to neglect these world 5. 780, 818, 943. Canon. has .co. minutiae. So Dido talks of “Saturnia git. arva” below v. 569.
564.] ‘Custode sing. in pl. sense 9. 555.] “ Pater optumus” of Aeneas 5. 380. 358.
565.] She compliments Aeneas by call556.] • Pontus habet.' 6. 362, “Nuncing the Trojans •Aeneadae' (above v. me fluctus habet versantque in litore 157). venti.” “Spes Iuli,' the hope of future 5 66.] Comp. Catull. 66 (68). 90, “ Troia manhood supplied by lulus.' So Henry, virum et virtutum omnium acerba cinis.” rightly. Comp. 4. 274., 6. 364., 10. 524. This reference however does not prove, as
557.] •Sedes paratas,' opposed to those Wagn. thinks, that virtutesque virosque' which they would have yet to build. “Ur. is to be taken as a hendiadys. The na. bemque paratam ” 4. 75.
tural sense is the gallant deeds and the 558.] Regemque petamus Acesten,' heroes. "Tanti incendia belli : comp. seek a king in Acestes, in place of Aeneas. Cic. pro Marcell. 9, “belli civilis incen
559.] Cuncti-Dardanidae' repeated dium salute patriae restinguere.” The 5. 385, where as here ‘simul' means not same metaphor occurs de Rep. 1. 1 and that they shouted all together, which is elsewhere in Cic. “Tanta,' the reading be. expressed by 'cuncti,' but that they fore Heins., has no first-class authority. shouted assent to the speaker. Ore In the parallel 7. 222 foll. the siege and fremebant,' drevohunsav. "Weidner. fall of 'I'roy are also expressed by a me
561–578.] ‘Dido welcomes them, offers taphor, but it is from a tempest and a them either a temporary sojourn or a last- deluge. ing home, and promises to search for 567.] Obtunsa,' blunted and so dull; 570
Nec tam aversus equos Tyria Sol iungit ab urbe.
the reverse of “ curis acuens mortalia see 8. 349 foll. corda ” G. 1. 123. •Pectora,' minds, not 570.] Optatis,' choose, not wish. hearts. Hor. 1 Ep. 4. 6, “Non tu corpus 571.] · Auxilio tutos,' protected by an eras sine pectore. "Gestamus pectora' escort. Tutos' is a participle, as in 6. like “Is sapientia munitum pectus egregie 238., 9. 43. “Opibus iuvabo :' she will gerat,” Attius Brutus fr. 2: see Munro on open her stores and arsenals to them, not, Lucr. 3. 1049. Comp. Pépeiv, popeiv, give them money. The line is nearly re• Obtunsa’ is of course a predicate-'the peated 8. 171. minds within us are not so dull.
572.] Wagn. and others, following Serv. 568.] Both this and the preceding line (" deest vel si”), strike out the interrogaare intended to rebut the supposition of tion at the end of this line, understanding ignorance respecting the history of Troy, it as a hypothesis without si,' on the not of want of feeling; so that the refer- ground that Dido is simply giving them ences of the older commentators to the their choice, not pressing an invitation: recoil of the sun from the banquet of They do not however attempt to prove Thyestes are quite out of place. The either that the invitation conveyed by the notion seems to be we do not lie so far interrogative form is a pressing one, or out of the pale of the civilized world-out that an invitation would be inappropriate of the circuit of the sun, and so out of the here. On the contrary the whole tenor of course of fame. Comp. 6. 796, “iacet Dido's language to the end of the speech extra sidera tellus Extra anni Solisque seems to show that she hopes they will vias." It would add great force to the settle. For the expression comp. Hor. passage if we could suppose Virg. to have 1 Od. 27.9, where no one has yet proposed conceived of the sun as the actual bearer to change the punctuation. Mecum paof news to the nations of the earth, as in riter :' pariter' has its strict sense : on the well-known passage in the dying equal terms with me. The order in Pal. speech of Ajax, Soph. Āj. 845–849, and is pariter mecum. Some inferior MSS. in Od. 8. 270, 302, Aesch. Ag. 632—676. have consistere,' Rom. “terris.' •ConsiBut it is to be observed that in these pas. dere' of settling in a country 3. 162., 4 sages the sun is the only possible witness; 39 &c. and though such a thought may possibly 573.] • Urbem quam statuo, vestra est.' have crossed the mind of Statius when This attraction of the antecedent to the imitating this passage in Theb. 1. 683 case of the relative has been abundantly (“ Scimus, ait; nec sic aversum Fama My- illustrated by the commentators. The cenis Volvit iter"), it would be hazardous commonest and perhaps the best passage to assume this to have been Virg.'s mean is Ter. Eun. 4. 3. 11, “Eunuchum quem ing when the passage can be explained dedisti nobis, quas turbas dedit.” “Urbem without it, and the simpler view is con- praeclaram statui” are Dido's words 4. firmed by the language of the parallel 7. 655. 225—227. Silius (15. 334) has imitated 574.] •Nullo discrimine agetur' is com. these words in a way which seems to show monly explained by reference to the Greek that he understood them, like the old com- byelv, to weigh or to regard, in which mentators, as having reference to the re- case we must suppose agere' to be a coil of the sun at a dreadful occurrence. variety for “ducere.” Comp. 10.108, “Tros * Iungit equos' seems to imply that the Rutulasne fuat nullo discrimine habebo." people disclaimed by Dido lie beyond the It is possible however that Virg. may have sun-rising.
also been thinking of " discrimen agere” as 569.]. Hesperiam magnam’ (7. 4) like equivalent to “discrimen facere » (comp. “ Italiam magnam” 4. 345, seemingly an “censuram," "delectum agere," &c.). ornamental epithet. 'Saturniaque arva :' Servi's “ agetur,' regetur," if intended