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Instant ardentes Tyrii pars ducere muros
Molirique arcem et manibus subvolvere saxa,
Pars optare locum tecto et concludere sulco;

Iura magistratusque legunt sanctumque senatum ;
Hic portus alii effodiunt : hic alta theatri
Fundamenta locant alii, inmanisque columnas
Rupibus excidunt, scaenis decora alta futuris.
Qualis apes aestate nova per

florea rura

430 423.] A semicolon is commonly placed connexion 3. 137., 5. 758. Virg. was pro. at • Tyrii ;' but ‘ivsto’ is found with an bably thinking of the republican instituinfin. 2. 627, Lucr. 4. 998. ' Pars--pars:' tions of Rome and her colonies, without part are at work on the fortifications, part considering how this action of the people on the houses. Such seems the general was to be reconciled with the authority distinction ; but there is no occasion, with of Dido (comp. v. 507). "Sanctus' is the Forb., to suppose that 'muri' must be the regular epithet of the Roman senate. “Iura walls of the citadel, as if . pars could only magistratusque legunt' is a zeugma,“ iura mean a party actually engaged in the same constituuut magistratusque legunt,” as work on the same spot. It is doubtful Forb. gives it. whether • ducere muros,' which occurs here 427.] “Effodiunt appears to be strictly and in Hor. 4 Od. 6. 23, means 'to trace' correct, as the harbour of Carthage, which or 'to build' (carry) the wall. Serv. Serv. calls Cothon, was artificial. “Thequotes a fragment froin Sall. Hist. 2 (“ Mu- atri’ is the reading of Med., “theatris of rum ab angulo dextri lateris ad paludem Rom., Pal. (originally), and fragm. Vat. ; haud procul remotam duxit ") which makes but the latter would be too great an exfor the latter interpretation; and so the aggeration, and may easily have sprung Greek phrase enaúveiv toixov, which occurs, from 'portus,' and scaenis. For • alta' According to one reading, in a passage of fragm. Vat. has lata,' which Ribbeck Hom. (Od. 7. 86), immediately following adopts; but Weichert seems right in saythat which Virg. has just been imitating. ing that the repetition of .alta, v. 429, is

424.] ‘Moliri,''to build,' as in 3. 132, excused by the change of meaning. Hor. A. P. 399. Arcem,' the citadel 428.] Ribbeck follows fragm. Vat. in proper, as distinguished from the arces,' reading “petunt'for • locant,' apparently v. 420. 'Subvolvere saxa,' to roll them regarding the latter as introduced froin up to the eminence on which the citadel 4. 266; but such a thing is hardly prowas being built.

bable in the face of authorities so inde. 425.] Optare,'' to choose,'as in 3. 119, pendent as Med., Pal., and Rom. In the 132. There is a reading “aptare, found previous line he adopts ‘hinc' from a in some MSS., including Rom. as originally quotation in Nonius, p. 340, who however written, and rather preferred by Henry, has ·locant,' while fragm. Vat. apparently seemingly without reason. • Sulco' is has hic,' so that not much can be made generally taken as the trench for the out of this coincidence.

The temporary foundations. Lersch however (Antiqg. wooden theatre of M. Aemilius Scaurus Vergg. § 19) understands 'optare' of bad a 'scaena' of three stories, supported choosing with auspices, and concludere by 360 columns, Pliny 36. 15. sulco' of drawing a trench of demarcation 430.] 'Qualis apes exercet labor,''like round the houses, supposing that Virg. the busy labour of bees.' 'Aestate nova :' has transferred the solemnity of founding comp. G. 4. 52, note. In the first bright a city to the foundation of private dwell. days of summer,' when the hive, awakened ings. Henry makes 'tecto' general, so as from its winter torpor, is busiest and most to include citadel as well as private houses, like a young colony. These lines are resupposing the distinction marked by“ pars peated with slight variations from G. 4. ---pars,' to be between actual building and 162–169; a reference to which passage laying out.

proves that the divisions here introduced 426.] Heyne and Ribbeck think this by 'cum'imply, not different times, but line spurious, as interrupting the enumera- different parties, and so are parallel to the tion of buildings; but legislation (“iura different occupations of the Carthaginians. dare”) is mentioned in nearly the same The variations are ‘liquentia' for puris

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Exercet sub sole labor, cum gentis adultos
Educunt fetus, aut cum liquentia mella
Stipant et dulci distendunt nectare cellas,
Aut onera accipiunt venientum aut agmine facto
Ignavum fucos pecus a praesepibus arcent:

Fervet opus, redolentque thymo fragrantia mella.
O fortunati, quorum iam moenia surgunt !
Aeneas ait, et fastigia suspicit urbis.
Infert se saeptus nebula—mirabile dictu-
Per medios, miscetque viris, neque cernitur ulli. 440

Lucus in urbe fuit media, laetissimus umbrae,
Quo primum iactati undis et turbine Poeni
Effodere loco signum, quod regia Iuno
Monstrarat, caput acris equi; sic nam fore bello

Egregiam et facilem victu per saecula gentem. 445 sima,' and `dulci' for 'liquido;' the first but it is as likely to mean delighting in necessitated the second, and was natural the task For sacred groves in cities, in a passage where bees and honey are not see Livy 1. 8. the main subject celebrated, but only an 442.] • The spot in which the Poeni illustration.

after their wanderings first found the sign 432.] Liquentia,' from “liqui,” not which Juno had taught them to expect.' from "liquere,” Lucr. 4. 141.

The horse's head is to the Carthaginians 437.] The want of a city is the key-note what the white sow is to Aeneas. Comp. of the whole Aeneid. Aeneas envies the 3. 388 foll., “ Signa tibi dicam” &c. There Carthaginians as he envies Helenus and is perhaps an intentional parallel between Andromache, 3. 493 foll. For the indica- the dawn of hope to the Carthaginians on tive 'surgunt comp. G. 2. 458 foll. this spot and to Aeneas on the same spot.

438.] *As he looks up to the battle. Comp. v. 450, where the expression is much ments of the city ;' he having now de. the same. From this it would seem that scended the hill.

primum' is an adverb, not an epithet of 439.] Comp. Od. 7. 39 foll., 139 foll., signum,'as Wagn, suggests. Comp. how. where Ulysses walks invisible through the ever 3. 537. Phaeacians. Infert se saeptus,'like" sese 4 44.] Monstrarat'is commonly taken as tulit obvia,” v. 314 above.

“obiecerat” or “monstro dederat," which 440.] · Miscet' probably borrows 'se' would not agree with the pluperfect tense, from the previous line, as no other in- or with the dependent words . sic uam fore' stance is quoted of its intransitive use. &c., which follow. Caput acris equi :'

441–493.) Aeneas enters a grove, Justin (18.5) has a story that the Carthawhere a temple is in building to Juno. ginians on first digging found an ox's head, There he sees represented the various in- which seemed to portend servitude; that cidents of the Trojan war.'

they then dug again, and found a horse's 441.] • Umbrae:' most MSS., including head; and that the two were tben taken Med., Rom., Pal., and Gud., have “um- to portend plenty and success in war combra ;' 'umbrae' however is the original bined. Caelius Rhodius (referred to by reading of fragm. Vat., and has the Taubmann) says that Cacabe, the old name authority of Probus ap. Serv., and Pom- of Carthage, meant a horse's head, which, ponius Sabinus; and it is recommended if true, would account for the legend. A both by harmony and as the less usual horse's head is common on Punic coins. expression. It is not easy to establish an •Acris equi’is paraphrased by Silius (2. argument on any peculiar construction 411), “bellator equus.” In 3. 539 (“bello of laetus' according to its senses, as it armantur equi”) horses are taken as an seems to have no uniform meaning with omen of war. either case. “Laeta laborum,"11. 73, may 4 45.] Facilem victu,' wealthy. Comp. possibly mean prodigal of her labour; G. 2. 460, “Fundit bumo facilem victum

Hic templum Iunoni ingens Sidonia Dido
Condebat, donis opulentum et numine divae,
Aerea cui gradibus surgebant limina nexaeque
Aere trabes, foribus cardo stridebat aenis.
Hoc primum in luco nova res oblata timorem
Lenüt, hic primum Aeneas sperare salutem
Ausus et adflictis melius confidere rebus.
Namque sub ingenti lustrat dum singula templo,



iustissima tellus” (of which expression beams of the roof, which rest on brazen this, as Heyne remarks, is only a variety), columns. Wagn. makes' trabes' the doorand A. 8. 318, “asper victu venatus.” posts, and understands ‘nixae aere’ in the Cerda comp. the Homeric 8col deia (cortes, sense of “stantes erectae aere,” simply a and “ facillime agitis,” Ter. Adelph. 3. 4.56, periphrasis for 'brazen.' Ladewig makes is cited by Serv. • Bello egregiam et fa trabes' the architrave, which rests on cilem victu’ thus answers to the two cha pillars or jambs of brass. Of these the racteristics of Carthage v. 14, “dives opum third seems the only one that can stand, studiisque asperrima belli.” Sen. Ep. 90, the first being objectionable as introducing as Cerda remarks, uses the expression in a particular about the rest of the building an opposite sense, “ sapiens victu facilis," between two particulars about the door ; .easy of maintenance. The horse may be a the second as giving a forced and unnasymbol of plenty, either as an appendage of tural sense to nixae aere. Understanding wealth, or because a war-horse is high fed. “trabes' with Wagn. of the doorposts, I

447.] Condebat' seems to imply that believe “nexae aere' stands for “aeratae,” the work was not complete, though as “ vinctae" “iunctae” might have Weidner thinks otherwise. "Opulentum done, the word being employed, not only donis et numine' is a zeugma, enriched to express the coherence of the plating by offerings and by the especial presence with the thing plated, but to indicate the of the goddess. See on “coluisse,” v. 16. coherence of the posts with the threshold There was doubtless a statue, though this and the lintel, much as in Soph. El. 837 is implied rather than expressed byónumen' (which Wund. comp.) xpvoodeTous épreot both here and 4. 204. Something of the is used of the necklace of Eriphyle, in the sanie conjunction of notions appears in

sense of gold-binding,' rather than in “pinguis et placabilis ara,7.764., 9. 585, that of 'gold-bound.' Perhaps Claud. where the thought seems to be richly Rapt. Pros. 1. 237 (cited by Heyve) gifted and therefore propitious,' or richly means the same thing when he says “fergifted because believed to be propitious.' rati postes inmensaque nectit Claustra

418.] .Limen,' in its strict sense. The chalybs,” strengthens and fastens them, threshold was of brass, with steps leading so as to make them good fasteners.' 'Surup to it. The latter particular is an or gebant' is probably to be supplied to mental one, and need not be understood trabes;' but nexae aere' will still be a as if the steps were of brass also. Brazen predicate. thresholds are Homeric, e. g. Od. 7. 89, 449.] The doors with their grating of the palace of Alcinous, åpyúpeor otad. binges were of brass.' We hear both of uol ev xal kén ég tao ay ovda, a passage brazen and of brass-bound doors. The which may have been in Virg.'s mind. conjunction of brazen doors with brassThe next clause presents a greater diffi- plated jambs seems merely a variety. culty. All the first-class MSS. seem to “ Stridentes cardine portae,” 6. 573. have .nexaeque? (Wagn. excepts fragm. 452.] There seems no reason for sepa, Vat., but Ribbeck is silent); ‘nixaeque’ is rating confidere? from 'adflictis rebus,' mentioned by Serv., found in some MSS., and taking the latter as “in adflictis reand adopted by Wagn. (ed. mi.), Forb., bus," as the commentators propose. The Henry, Ladewig, and Haupt. The external

sense appears to be, “confidere fortunae authority is quite sufficient to support the quae adhuc adversa fuerat.” change, which is itself a very natural one 453.] These representations are probably (see on 4. 217., 5. 279, G. 4. 257); but its on the doors or external walls of the temadvocates are not agreed on the sense. ple. Comp. the sculptures mentioned G. Henry and Forb. take 'trabes’ of the 3. 26, A. 6. 20. “Sub' then will express


Reginam opperiens, dum, quae Fortuna sit urbi,
Artificumque manus inter se operumque laborem
Miratur, videt Iliacas ex ordine pugnas
Bellaque iam fama totum volgata per orbem,
Atridas, Priamumque, et saevum ambobus Achillen.
Constitit, et lacrimans, Quis iam locus, inquit, Achate,
Quae regio in terris nostri non plena laboris ? 460
En Priamus. Sunt hic etiam sua praemia laudi;
Sunt lacrimae rerum et mentem mortalia tangunt.
Solve metus; feret haec aliquam tibi famą salutem.
Sic ait, atque animum pictura pascit inani,
Multa gemens, largoque humectat flumine voltum.
Namque videbat, uti bellantes Pergama circum


that Aeneas is looking up. Heyne dis 457.] This line gives the reason why cusses in an excursus the question whe- the battles have been painted, and prether these were sculptures or paintings, pares us for the thoughts that follow. observing that the former was the only 458.] The two Atridæ are first menmode of representation known in the tioned in the enumeration of the heroes, Homeric times, and that other poets, such then Priam ; after which Achilles is na: us Val. Fl. 5. 411 foll., Sil. 3. 32 foll., de. turally introduced as saerus ambobus,' scribe similar temples with sculptures; but i. e. to the Atridae no less than to Priam. that the latter is more suited to the lan. This seems a sufficient explanation of the guage of the present passage, and would loose use of “am is,' with which åupobe a natural anachronism, paintings on tépous in Od. 4. 339 bas been aptly com. temple-walls or in porticoes being common pared. The other objection that Achilles' in later times. There is a similar question quarrel was with Agamemnon alone, is of about the description of the temple of little weight, as the brothers were united Delphi in the Ion of Euripides.

in interest, and Menelaus as the husband 454.] It has been asked how Aeneas of Helen suffered most. Achilles includes knew that Dido was coming. Probably both in his taunts Il. 1. 159., 9. 340. Sen. the idea is that he sees the senate assem. Ep. 104 quotes the passage with Atriden.' bled and the crowd waiting. "Quae For 459.] :lam,' by this time. What tuna sit urbi miratur,' for “miratur For: place is there left which is not full &c. ?' tunam urbis," marvels at the prosperity 460.] Nostri laboris,' our of the city, shown in the splendour of its “ Et breviter Troiae supremum audire temple. Aeneas sees everything in the laborem,” 2. 11. light of his own great enterprise ; so his 461.] · Here too worth finds its due thoughts would naturally pass from the reward, here too there are tears for human temple to the city, of whose greatness it is fortune, and hearts which are touched by an evidence. For · Fortuna, see on G. mortality. • Laus' of worth 5. 355. 4. 209.

462.] ‘Rerum’ v. 178 above. 455.] ‘Artificum manus inter se,''the 463.] ‘Haec fama,' this knowledge of skill of the rival artists, which he com our glory. pares together. One or two MSS. have 464.] Inani' is not a mere general . intra se,' whence Ribbeck needlessly and epithet, but has a pathetic sense in conunpoetically conjectures 'intrans. Ma. nexion with pascit,' implying that the nus' of skill 12. 210, as elsewhere of subjects are numbered with the lost and strength. Operumque laborem 'probably past. refers to the magnitude of work rather 465.] The weeping is doubtless from the than to the elaborate detail. Comp. G. 2. tears of Ulysses during the song of De. 155, “ Adde tot egregias urbes operumque modocus Od. 8. 521 foll. laborem.”

466.] Comp. E. 6. 31, " Namque cane456.] He sees the battles and heroes bat, uti” &c. Weidner arranges the of the Trojan war.'

various pictures into two groups of four



Hac iugerent Graii, premeret Troiana iuventus,
Hac Phryges, instaret curru cristatus Achilles.
Nec procul hinc Rhesi niveis tentoria velis
Adgnoscit lacrimans, primo quae prodita somno
Tydides multa vastabat caede cruentus,
Ardentisque avertit equos in castra, prius quam
Pabula gustassent Troiae Xanthumque bibissent.
Parte alia fugiens amissis Troilus armis,
Infelix puer atque inpar congressus Achilli,
Fertur equis, curruque haeret resupinus inani,



scenes each : but the notion, though in 474.) Troilus is mentioned by Priam, 11. genious, seems fanciful.

24. 257, with the epithet of intioxdpuns, as 468.] ‘Curru' ablative, not dative. The having been killed in battle (before the crest of Achilles is described Il. 19. 380, tiine of the Iliad). The tradition that he and again 22.314 foll., just as he is going was killed by Achilles must have been to give Hector his death-wound, so that drawn by Virg. from other sources, such we are doubtless intended to be reminded as those represented by Quintus Smyr. of its terrors.

naeus, Tzetzes, Dictys, and Dares, who 469.) For the story of Rhesus see Il. however differ about the period in the 10, and the play of that name ascribed to Trojan war when his death occurred. Euripides. Niveis tentoria velis' is an Heyne conjectures from a Schol. on Hom. anachronism. The Homeric kilocal, as ap- l. c. that Soph. in his lost tragedy of pears from Il. 24. 448, were huts of planks Troilus represented the youth as thatched with grass.

prised by Achilles while exercising his cha470.] Primo somno' is proved by a riot, and killed. See bis Excursus on this number of instances (2. 268., 5. 837) to passage. Plautus, Bacchid. 4. 9. 29 foll., mean‘in their first and deepest sleep;' not, speaks of the death of Troilus as one of the as Wagn. thinks, the first time they slept three fatal events in the siege of Troy, the at Troy. “Prodita,' betrayed to him, other two being the loss of the Palladium and so surprised. Possibly. Henry may and the fall of the top of the Scaean gate. be right in making somno instrumental, Ribbeck transposes this passage so as to • betrayed by sleep.'

make it follow the next scene; but this 471.] · Vastabat tentoria,' was spread. would be to bind Virg. to follow servilely ing havoc through them. Perhaps it is the Homeric order, with which indeed there more forcible to take multa caede' with would still be a disagreement, as in Hom. 'vastabat:' 'with wide carnage;' not the mission to the temple of Athene prewith 'cruentus,' 'covered with much cedes the Dolonen. The intention of Virg. blood.' But the point is very doubtful. doubtless is to mention first two fatal 472.] · Ardentis' is the Homeric ailw. blows to Troy, and then the despairing

• Ardentis equos' 7.781. One MS. effort of the Trojan women to propitiate has 'albentis,' which was the colour of the angry goddess. the horses of Rhesus, Il. 10. 437. But the 475.] Atque' couples 'inpar conmention of the colour as exactly repre. gressus' with infelix.' sented here might be thought rather 476.] ‘Fertur equis,' is run away jejune, especially after “niveis velis.' with. G. 1. 513, “ frustra retinacula * Avertit,' as “avertere praedas” 10. 78. tendens Fertur equis auriga neque audit

473.] Gustassent—bibissent.' The subj. currus habenas.” He has fallen backdenotes the intention of Diomede. Homer wards from the car (which of course had and the Pseudo-Euripides know nothing no back), but hangs by the reins, which of this intention, which Eustathius on were passed round the body, and which 11. 10. 435, and the Scholiast, followed he still grasps with his hand. “Hasta' is by Serv. on this passage, say was to pre. the spear of Troilus. Virg., as Heyne revent the accomplishment of an oracle that marks, has departed from the Homeric cusif the horses of Rhesus tasted the grass or tom, in which two warriors ride in the same water of Troy, Troy should not be taken. car, ope to drive and the otber to fight.


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