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Namque humeris de more habilem suspenderat arcum
Venatrix, dederatque comam diffundere ventis,
Nuda genu, nodoque sinus collecta fluentis.
Ac prior, Heus, inquit, iuvenes, monstrate, mearum
Vidistis si quam hic errantem forte sororum,
Succinctam pharetra et maculosae tegmine lyncis,
Aut spumantis apri cursum clamore prementem.

Sic Venus ; et Veneris contra sic filius orsus :


Soph. Ant. 981 foll. (a passage which cor. or the chlamys, and whether the ‘nodus' responds remarkably with this story of is the knot or bunch into which the folds Harpalyce), we have the expression Bopeds were gathered, the brooch, or the belt. Zuerros. Comp. Jeremiah 12. 5, “If The usage of Virg. seems in favour of thou hast run with the footmen, and they taking nodus' strictly of a knot. Comp. have wearied thee, then how canst thou 6. 301. Heyne's note on this passage is contend with horses ?” Both ‘praevertor' perhaps scarcely consistent with his third and 'praeverto' are used in this sense : Excursus on Aen. 11. comp. 7. 807., 12. 345. •Fuga' of rapid 321.] •If you have by any chance seen movement in general, G. 3. 142, 201. one of my sisters, point out to me where

318.] Humeris suspenderat · arcum: she is ;' not tell me whether you have 76] Wulon éxwv, Il. 1. 45. The bow, and seen,' a sense which “monstrate will not sometimes the arrows, appears to have been bear. placed in the bow-case, or ywputós (10. 323.] “Maculosae tegmine lyncis :' this 169, “ Gorytique leves humeris "), and so would be worn as a chlamys or scarf. Seo slung over the shoulder. See Dict. A. Dict. A. 'chlamys.' 'Pharetram,' which 'arcus.' Habilem' is perhaps best taken is found in some inferior MSS. and (from closely with 'suspenderat,' the bow being a correction) in Rom., would seem to have slung conveniently. Comp. 9.305, “habi- been an old reading, as Priscian, p. 1081, lem vagina aptarat eburna.” “De more' says “pharetram .... sed melius in quiis explained by v. 315 above, v. 336 below. busdam codicibus sine m pharetra abla.

319.] Venatrix,' as a huntress :' comp. tivus invenitur: quidum tamen lyncis cur. 11. 618 pote, and perhaps ib. 780; also sum a communi accipiunt,” á strange in. below v. 493. • Dederat comam diffundere terpretation. Madvig however would take ventis,' a Grecism; comp. Hor. 1 Od. 26. 'cursum' with lyncis' as well as with 2, “Tradam protervis in mare Creticum "apri:' and Ribbeck, Prolegom. p. 328, Portare ventis." It is difficult to obtain admitting the justice of the objection to an exact grammatical analysis of the ex. this, that “tegmen " is the hide of a dead pression, which may be explained either beast, not the skin of a living one, would by making comam diffundere' jointly the adopt tegmina' froin Gud. (originally), object of dederat' ('gave the dishevelling supposing that 'teginipa lyncis premenof her hair to the winds'), or by making tem'could mean 'hunting the lynx for its *comam'the object and diffundere' an hide.' epexegetical acc. (“her hair, namely, its 324.] ‘Apri cursum prementem’ is opdishevelling'); or, lastly, by making posed to "errantem.'. Clamore premen'comanı'the object and diffundere'a cog- tem ;' see G. 3. 419, where the dogs, to nate acc. expressing the effect of the gift. which clamore' refers, are the principal

320.] Nuda genu,' i. e. her tunic did subject of the paragraph. Apri cursum not reach the knee. Ov., M. 10. 536, = "aprum currentem,” a boar that has “Nuda genu, vestem ritu succincta Dianae" broken covert. See Hor. Epod. 5. 28, and (quoted by Forb.). A representation of Macleane's note. Diava with her tunic girt up above the 325–334.] 'Aeneas replies, supposing knee, and the folds gathered into a knot her to be a goddess, and inquires the naine or bunch on the breast, is given in Dict. of the country.” A. Schlamys. It is difficult however, on 325.] · At,' the reading of some of the a comparison of parallel passages (4. 139., early editions, is supported by Serv. on 9. 11. 776; Stat. Theb. 4. 265; Claud. Cos. 656; but Wagn. justly observes that, Prob. et Olyb. 1. 89), to determine whe- coupled with contra,' it would create too ther the sinus' is the folds of the tunic strong an opposition.


Nulla tuarum audita mihi neque visa sororum,
0—quam te memorem, virgo ? namque haud tibi vultus
Mortalis, nec vox hominem sonat : O dea certe;
An Phoebi soror ? an Nympharum sanguinis una ?
Sis felix, nostrumque leves, quaecumque, laborem, 330
Et, quo sub caelo tandem, quibus orbis in oris
Iactemur, doceas : ignari hominumque locorumque
Erramus, vento huc et vastis fluctibus acti:
Multa tibi ante aras nostra cadet hostia dextra.

Tum Venus : Haud equidem tali me dignor honore ; 335
Virginibus Tyriis mos est gestare pharetram,

Purpureoque alte suras vincire cothurno. 326.] *Audita' is commonly rendered as equivalent to “generis” (“sanguis heard of;' in which sense “auditus” is meus,” 6. 835), not as an attributive geni. frequently coupled with “visus,” even in tive. Comp. however 6. 778, “ Assaraci the case of persons. Here however there quam sanguinis llia mater Educet.” Perwould be no particular force in it, and it haps it may be regarded here as a conseems better, on the whole, to follow the fusion of two modes of expression. suggestion of Serv., and suppose the refer 330.] ‘Sis felix,' be propitious.' Comp. ence to be to clamore.'

E. 5. 65, “Sis bonus o felixque tuis.” 327.] :0' as Wund. remarks, should Wund., following a hint of Heyne, thinks have been followed by a vocative of the it may stand for xaipe, which is so common name of the goddess ; for he is sure she is in Greek hymns; but the passage just a goddess (0 Dea certe'), though he cited is against this. «Quaecumque (es),' knows not what goddess. Wund. comp. a sort of vocative clause: comp. 8. 122, Demosth. de Cor. p. 232, Elt' ol av Egredere o quicumque es." "For the είπών σε τις ορθώς προσείπoι ;-έστιν όπου thought comp. Οd. 16. 183. 8.7.1. To which may be added Aristoph., 331.) Tandem' does little more than Clouds, 1378, à tío' eltw; Weidner refers lend emphasis, like sń. to a passage in Ad Herenn. 4. 4, “tu istud 333.] Vastis et fluctibus' is the readausus es dicere, homo omnium mortalium ing of Pal. and other MSS. Rom. and -quonam te digno moribus tuis appellem Med. a m. pr. read 'et vastis fluctibus, nomine ?” which is given as an example which is approved by Pierius, and restored of oratorical “dubitatio.” There is pro- by Heinsius and Heyne. It is undoubtbably some sense of solemnity in 'memo- edly true, as Wagn. says, that the former

Virgo’ is not to be pointed as a rhythm is that which we most frequently separate interrogative sentence (“what shall find in Virg.'s hexameters. The other I call thee? a virgin ?'), as some have however is by no means uncommon, It is supposed, the word being applicable to a therefore a question of ear in the parti. goddess as well as to a mortal maiden. cular passage, and the fuller close which, * Haud-nec' 7. 203 note.

as Pierius says, is produced by et vastis' 328.] • Hominem sonat :' "humanum seems appropriate here. sonat” would be the common idioin. Per 334.] Comp. Od. 16. 181 foll. sius however (3. 21) has “sonat vitium." 335-371.] Venus informs him that he “Sapimus patruos” (Pers. 1. 11) is a similar is in the territory of Carthage, and tells expression. There is a slight similarity to the story of Dido's flight from Tyre to this passage in Od. 6. 149 foll., and a some Africa.' what stronger one in Apoll. R. 4. 1411 foll. 335.] *Honore,' i. e. being addressed as

329.] Heyne appears to be right in di. a goddess or nymph, not a sucrifice, as viding this line into two separate ques. Serv. and Heyne say: tions. Hand's notion (Tursell. 1.315) that 336.] *This garb is not that of a goddess it is a case similar to those in which .certe' of the chase, but merely of a Tyrian hunt. follows “nescio an," whether or not-at ress.' all events,' seems far-fetched. Looking to 337.] Comp. E. 7. 32 (note), "Puniceo “una,' it seems better to take sanguinis' stabis suras evincta cothurvo" (of Diana).



Punica regna vides, Tyrios et Agenoris urbem
Sed fines Libyci, genus intractabile bello.
Inperium Dido Tyria regit urbe profecta,
Germanum fugiens. Longa est iniuria, longae
Ambages; sed summa sequar fastigia rerum.
Huic coniunx Sychaeus erat, ditissimus agri
Phoenicum, et magno miserae dilectus amore,
Cui pater intactam dederat, primisque iugarat
Ominibus. Sed regna Tyri germanus habebat
Pygmalion, scelere ante alios inmanior omnis.
Quos inter medius venit furor. Ille Sychaeum
Impius ante aras atque auri caecus amore
Clam ferro incautum superat, securus amorum



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• Alte' refers to the height of the co 344.] • Miserae,' because her love was thurnus, which rose, more than half way ill-fated. to the knee.

345.] ' Iugare' is similarly used of 338.] • The city in whose domain you marriage, Catull. 62 (64). 21, quoted by are is that of Agenor (one of Dido's ances. Cerda. tors); but the country around is Libya.' 346.] •Ominibus,' the omens of the mar“Cocyti stagna alta vides,” 6. 323.

riage sacrifice, and so the marriage rite. 339.] Henry compares 4. 40, Hinc Comp. Prop. 4. 20. 24, “Contineant nobis Gaetulae urbes, genus insuperabile bello,' omina prima fidem." Primis' with re. in support of Heyne's interpretation, which ference to 'intactam.' refers genus intractabile" bello' to the 347.] •Inmanior ante alios omnis :' the Libyans, against Wagn., who refers it to comparative is pleonastie. Comp. 7. 55, the Carthaginians. Intractabile,' šaftos. "petit ante alios pulcherrimus omnis Tur

340.] ‘Inperium regere' occurs Ovid, nus,” and Hand, Tursell. 1, p. 387. 3 Pont. 3. 61, cited by Wagn. •Inperium' 348.] •Medios' is the reading of Med. is the command, not, as an English reader and some other MSS.; but medius' is might think, the domain. Elsewhere Virg. the idiomatic expression, and the origin of talks of “regere in perio aliquem” (v. 230 the variation is obvious. Serv. and Do. above); here he varies the expression. natus connect these words with the pre

341.] 'It is a long and intricate tale of ceding line, so as to make 'omnis' the wrong. Longis ambagibus,” Lucr. 6. antecedent to 'quos,' ac si diceret, Sce. 1081.

leratior Atreo et Thyeste, vel Eteocle et 342.] •Summa fastigia' is nearly equi. Polynice;" but this punctuation, though valent to "capita." "Sequar' = "perse. approved by Trapp, is clearly less natural. quar," "recount in order.'

• Furor' may perhaps refer to the un343.] • Ditissimus agri' has been ob- natural character of the quarrel, as in jected to as inappropriate in the case of Hor. Epod. 7. 13, Lucan 1. 8. the Phoenicians, who were a commercial, 349.] Atque' couples caecus' with not an agricultural, people; and ditissi. 'impius.' He was so blinded with the mus auri' has been proposed by Huet, ap- love of gold that he did not even respect proved by Heyne, and adopted by Ribbeck. the altar.' Henry refers 'impius' to the But ditissimus agri' is a common phrase, unnatural character of the murder, comp. occurring 10. 563 (comp. 7. 537), Sil. 5. Ov. Her. 7. 127 ; and this is doubtless in260. Wagn. (Q. V. 39) suggests that Virg. cluded in the notion of the word here: was thinking of the great estates of the but that it also denotes impiety in our Roman nobles in his own time. The ortho- sense is plain from such passages as 2. 163. graphy ‘Sychaeus' was introduced by “Aras,' the altar of the Penates. Comp. 4. Heins. from Med., and is supported by 21, and see on v. 355 below. Pal. For the variety of the quantity in 350.] ‘Superat’ is compared by Heyne the first syllable (comp. v. 348) see the with dauộ (lays him low'), as not necesnote on v. 258 above.

sarily implying a struggle. With the pas

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Germanae ; factumque diu celavit, et aegram,
Multa malus simulans, vana spe lusit amantem.
Ipsa sed in somnis inhumati venit imago
Coniugis, ora modis attollens pallida miris;
Crudelis aras traiectaque pectora ferro
Nudavit, caecumque domus scelus omne retexit.
Tum celerare fugam patriaque excedere suadet,
Auxiliumque viae veteris tellure recludit
Thesauros, ignotum argenti pondus et auri.
His commota fugam Dido sociosque parabat.
Conveniunt, quibus aut odium crudele tyranni


sage generally comp. 3. 332. "Securus that of Atreus, in the house of the muramorum’in a different sense 10. 326. derer, and the concealment would then have

352.] Malus,' to be taken adverbially. been more easy. But where the data are Comp. the phrase “ dolo malo." The best so few conjecture degenerates into licence. commentary on' vana spe lusit amantem' 356.] •Nudavit' will bear the general is Keats' Isabella, st. 29,

sense of revealed, which is applicable to “ Poor girl! put on thy stifling widow's both the objects of the verb (see Forc.) : weed,

but it is more probably to be referred And’scape at once from Hope's accursed specially to “pectora,' so that we shall have bands :

a zeugma. Whether the poet intended a To-day thou wilt not see him, nor to vision strictly speaking or a dream, is not morrow,

quite clear; if the former, 'nudavit’ and And the next day will be a day of

tellure recludit' must be taken of words sorrow."

spoken by the apparition; if the latter,

Dido was actually made to see the altar 353.] •Inhumati,' as Heyne suggests, and the cavern where the treasure lay. may account for the unrest of the shade The former seems more consistent with (comp. II. 23. 71 foll.), as it enhances the analogy; but the latter is supported by barbarity of the murderer.

2. 297, where Hector, after appearing 354.] Burm., followed by the recent in much the same way as Sychaeus here, editors, places a semicolon at coniugis,' brings out the sacred things from the and a comma at miris ;' but ‘ora modis penetralia. “Domus scelus,' the domestic attollens pallida miris' is obviously a de- crime,' as perpetrated by her brother, not scription of imago.' Comp. Lucr. 1. 123, as perpetrated before the Penates. “simulacra modis pallentia miris,” already 358.] Pierius's Medicean MS. reads copied by Virg. G. 1. 477. See on 10. 'auxilioque viae,' which might be worth 822. Attollens’ in fact expands ‘venit,' adopting if it had more authority. “Tel. much as Byron makes the witch of Endor lure, from the earth,' a construction call up Samuel in the words,“ Samuel, frequently found with words compounded raise thy buried head !”

with ‘re,' as Wund. remarks. Comp. 5. 355.] ‘Crudelis aras,' not unlike “cru. 99. The course of the narrative, especially delis terras,” 3. 44. There the co-opera- v. 349, shows that these are hereditary tion of the country in the crime of its king treasures belonging to Sychaeus, not au might be assumed naturally; here it is ancient and forgotten hoard. uncertain whether the Penates are those 359.] •Ignotum' is explained by "re. of Pygmalion, and so concerned in the cludit. murder, or those of Sychaeus, and so 360.] - His' must be taken with 'com. merely witnesses of it. Perhaps 4. 21, mota,'* by these revelations,' not ‘bis (theOv. Her. 7. 113, point rather to the latter, sauris) parabat.' With 'fugam parabat' which is also more probable if we suppose comp. “cursum parari,” 4. 299, with ‘socios that Dido is made actually to see the altar para bat, “deos parant comites,” 2. 181. and the treasure (see on next line). On 361.] ‘Crudele' seems to mean 'fierce,' the other hand, we should more naturally or savage.' Sery. and others call it a think of the crime as perpetrated, like hypallage, and probably the juxtaposition

Aut metus acer erat; navis, quae forte paratae,
Corripiunt, onerantque auro; portantur avari
Pygmalionis opes pelago; dux femina facti.
Devenere locos, ubi nunc ingentia cernis

Moenia surgentemque novae Karthaginis arcem,
Mercatique solum, facti de nomine Byrsam,
Taurino quantum possent circumdare tergo.
Sed vos qui tandem, quibus aut venistis ab oris,
Quove tenetis iter? Quaerenti talibus ille

Suspirans imoque trahens a pectore vocem :

O dea, si prima repetens ab origine pergam, of 'tyranni' partially accounts for the 367.] Mercatique' (sunt) to be couepithet. Metus acer occurs again 3. pled with devenere.' Jahn makes it a 692, of the Trojans escaping from the part., supposing that Venus interrupts Cyclops. The epithets here are emphatic. herself at the end of v. 368,-not a very The word 'tyrannus ' in Virgil sometimes natural thing, as there is no abruptness in seems to bear a neutral sense, but more the context (the case of 2. 100 foll. is obfrequently it occurs in connexions which viously different); and Ribbeck thinks the imply the notion of arbitrary if not of passage unfinished, and encloses this and abused power. Here the circumstances the next line in brackets. Byrsa, whence of the story rather remind us of Greeks the legend of the bull's hide (Búpoa) arose, Hying from a τύραννος.

appears to have been the Greek corruption 362.] For the omission of the verb subst. of Bosra, the Phoenician name for the after a participle in a relative clause, citadel of Carthage. •Facti de nomine’is Weidner comp. 9. 675, E. 8. 24, G. 4. 89, copied by the author of the Ciris, v. 487. to which may be added A. 10. 162, 655, 368.] *Taurino tergo.' The story was 827.

that they cut the hide so as to make one 364.] The 'opes' are evidently the thong; the bargain being that they should 'atrum ;' not, as Henry and after him have as much ground as they could com. Forb. suppose, the resources which con pass with a bull's hide. stituted the power of Pygmalion, a sense 369.] «Tandem :' see on v. 331. Rom. which would not well agree with 'por- and some others have advenistis' for tantur.' Pygmalion may not have actu. aut venistis,' which was restored by ally taken possession of the treasures, but Heins. Med. has `aud,' altered into aut;' they were his from the time when he slew and other MSS. show signs of correction their owner.

The epithet 'avari’ should be remarked. The wealth for which he 370.] 'Quove tenetis iter ?' 9. 377. has committed the crime is wafted away For ve’ following 'aut'comp. 6. 842 foll., from him over the sea. The expression is where “vel” is similarly used. There meant to be terse and almost epigram- seems to be no means of determining matic, as dux femina facti'shows. Comp. whether talibus' should be taken with Dido's words Ov. Her. 7. 149,“ Hos potius quaerenti’ or with ille,' as in itself it populos in dotem, ambage remissa, Accipe, may refer either to a speech just made or et advectas Pygmalionis opes," where there to one to come. is evident reference to paying a dowry in 371.] Apoll. R. 2. 207, de ÚÁTOLO treasure.

στήθεος αμπνεύσας. . 365.] Heyne and Ribbeck, from Pal., 372–386.] •Aeneas tells his name and Rom., and Gud., read.cernes ;'' which you

fortunes.' will see when you are at the top of the 372.] The thought seems to be from bill ;' but Wagn. with apparent justice ob. Od. 11. 330 (comp. ib. 3. 113 foll.). The jects that nunc'with the future could not words ' prima repetens ab origine' are remeau, you will see by and by: Cer- peated from G. 4. 285, where the object of nis' is the reading of Med., and may be repetens' (“ famam ”) is expressed, not as rendered with sufficient accuracy, where here left to be implied from the context. now meet your eye.'

*If I should tell my story throughout, 366.] Novae Karthaginis:' see on v. 298. beginning at the first.

or erasure.

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