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Praesidet, horrendaeque procul secreta Sibyllae, 10
Daedalus, ut fama est, fugiens Minoia regna,
Aeneas in the course of a conversation referring to the power of insight,'animus' with which, as we are told, they beguile to energy of conception, language, and the hardships of their journey. We must gesture, as Forb. says. The rhythm and remember however that Ovid's business is expression are from Lucr. l. 74: see to tell marvellous stories, and that the Munro there, who regards the words as Sibyl's naturally came in as one of these. a mere poetical tautology. But there is Henry is doubtless right in regarding the still a question, which Heyne states, as to Sibyl's cave as the adytum of the temple the construction of inspirat,'—whether it of Apollo, in opposition to Heyne and means that Apollo breathes a mind and Wagn., who make the two independent spirit into the Sibyl, or, as we should say, and at some distance from each other. inspires her mind and spirit, i.e. with the He cites the parallel instance of Delphi. knowledge of the future. If we adopt the “The hill of Cumae," he says, “is a nearly latter, which Heyne prefers, we must take circular or orbicular hill, rising from the 'magnam' closely with “inspirat,'='mag. plain, and on one side overhanging the nopere,' as multa' 4. 3 = saepe. But sea.” On the lower part of this hill, on though inspirare aliquem aliqua re' is one of the sides not next the sea, he places doubtless an admissible construction, the the sacred grove, • Triviae lucos;' on the instances quoted by Forc. are both from sloping part of the hill a hypaethral tem. later writers (“ quibus viribus inspirat" ple, having the grove on both sides and in Quinct. 12. 10,"qui inspirari solent fatuari front: in the front sculptured doors : on dicuntur” Justin 43. 1), while the conthe fourth or hinder side, consisting merely ception of mens’as a thing communicated of the bare perpendicular rock of the hill, is abundantly supported by such passages a number of other doors, leading into a as 1. 304., 12. 554, G. 3. 267. vast cave in the substance of the rock. 12.] The Delian prophet' is not an *Arces' seems to point to the hilly position unmeaning description of Apollo bere, as as well as to the height of the temple. it implies that the same power which is “ Altus Apollo" 10. 875, where majesty manifested at Delos is manifested at Cumae. seems the prominent notion. Here it As Heyne remarks, Apollo is Jupiter's prowould be difficult to exclude the notion of phet, just as the Sibyl is Apollo's: comp. physical elevation, already indicated by 3. 251, Aesch. Eum. 19. 616 foll., * arces' (comp. “alta sedet” 11. 837): 13.] They enter first the grove that perhaps also height of stature is intended. surrounds or abuts the temple, then the This would agree with the fact, mentioned temple itself. by Serv, on the authority of Caelius, that 14.] For Daedalus and the stories conthe statue of Apollo at Cumae was fif- nected with him see Dict. Myth. The bulk teen feet high.
of tradition seems to point to Sicily as the 10.] Horrendae ' seems rightly taken place where he took refuge after leaving by Forb. in its strict sense, as the aspect Crete: but Sardinia was also mentioned as of the Sibyl under the divine afflatus might a spot to which he went. Italy as well as well inspire horror : comp. vv. 47 foll., 77 the adjoining islands would naturally assofoll. Procul' is explained by Heyne and ciate his name with its works of art : and Wagn., in conformity with their general so Sil. 12. 102 makes him the builder of a view, of the distance of the cave from the temple of Apollo at Capua, under circum. temple : by Henry, of the distauce of both stances similar to those in the text-one from the place where Aeneas landed. Per- of Silius' many imitations of Virg. Reg. haps it rather denotes the depth of the na' probably includes the government as cavern, stretching far into the distance. well as the kingdom. At any rate · Minoia' Secreta' 8. 463, G. 4. 403.
is significant, as it was on Minos' account 11.] Mentem animumque' is doubtless that Daedalus fled from Crete. the Homeric katà opéva kal kara Avuóv, 15.] Virg. might have spoken of flying as Cerda and others have remarked, 'mens' as either trusting to wings or trusting to
Insuetum per iter gelidas enavit ad Arctos,
the sky. Here he has chosen the latter, he has used for the last time. “Remigium ‘pennis' being the instrumental abl. This alarum’1. 301 note. Cerda is doubtless is better than to make pennis' dat., right in regarding the temple also as a . caelo' abl., whether caelo' be connected votive offering. Posuit templa’ G. 3. in that case with wbat precedes, or, as 13. Heyne suggested and Wakef. punctuates, 20.) For sculptures on the door of a with what follows. “Credunt caelo” G. temple comp. G. 3. 26 note. “Letum' 4. 192 is different: see note there. Prae. (erat): for Androgeus and the different petibus' here merely means “swift,' and accounts of his death see Dict. Myth. s. v. has no augurial reference.
For the spelling ‘Androgeo' or Androgei' 16.) We have already had nare' and see on 2.371. Here the majority of MSS. one of its compounds used of flying, 4. 245, (Med., Pal., Rom., &c.) is for the Latin G. 4. 59. But Virg. may have been think- genitive, Androgeo' being only found in ing of Lucr. 3. 591, “Quam prolapsa later copies: but the grammarians are foras enaret in aeris auras, of the soul (Serv., Charisius, Priscian, Probus) for the quitting the body. "Gelidas ad Arctos' Greek form here, and I have followed Wagn. has perplexed the commentators : but in restoring it, though with considerable Wagn. after Hand. Turs. 1, p. 82, seems hesitation. • Tum' indicates that the right in explaining it as meaning no more Athenians sending their children to death than that Daedalus flew northward, which was a second subject represented. How it would be the case whether we think of his was represented may be gathered from v. rising from the ground, or of the position 22, "stat ductis sortibus urna.”
With of Cumae as north of Crete.
'pendere poenas' comp. Catull. 62 (64). 17.] Marius Plotius De Metris quotes 173, “ Indomito nec dira ferens stipendia • Chalcidicas- arces,' and Med. exhibits tauro," of the Minotaur. traces of a reading ‘arcem,' which Heins. 21.] · Miserum’interjectional, like “inprefers. “Chalcidica :' see above on v. 2. fandum,' nefas,' &c. Heinsius' latest no.
Levis’of easy motion, 5. 819,='volans.' tion that it could stand for ‘miserorum' • Arce :' “ the ancient citadel or arx (still is contrary to Virg.'s usage: see on 3. 704. called the Rocca di Cuma), an isolated and 'Septena :' the story mentioned seven precipitous rock, very difficult of access, youths and seven maidens: but Virg. has and on that account regarded as a very chosen only to name the former. strong fortress :" Dict. G. Cumae.' 'Ad. 22.] Corpora natorum : see on 2. 18. stitit' 1. 301 note.
The force of the periphrasis here is the 18.] Redditus' &c. gives the reason of same as when in the writ of Habeas Corpus what follows. This being the place where the body of a prisoner is required to be be alighted, he paid a thank offering to produced. “Stat ductis sortibus urna' Apollo here. One MS. gives hic,' wbich "stat urna, et sortes inde ducuntur.' Comp. Burm. prefers and Heyne approves : but G. 2. 141, “ Invertere satis dentibus.” Wagn. rightly remarks that · his' is more 23.] • Respondet,' like 'contra,' implies poetical, as it includes hic. Comp. 1. that the sculpture of Crete was a pendant 534 note. With 'primum'Wagn. comp. to the sculpture of Athens, as Henry re3. 209, “ Servatum ex undis Strophadum marks. • Elata mari:' see on 5. 588. Pal. me litora primum Accipiunt.”
has Cnosia. 19.] Daedalus hangs up his wings, as a 24.] We need not inquire how many of mariner rescued from shipwreck hangs up the subjects hinted at by Virg. were sepahis garments, or a soldier the arms which rately represented. It is sufficient to say
Pasiphae, mixtumque genus prolesque biformis
that there was a plurality of sculptures in but those of Theseus—another instance of the Cretan part, as there had been in the Virg.'s ambiguity. The expression is from Athenian. “Crudelis amor” E. 10. 29. Catull. v. 113, “ Errabunda regens tenui Here the epithet is meant to excite our vestigia filo,” where Theseus is the subject pity for Pasiphae as a victim, as she actually of the sentence. Comp. also 3. 659. was, the passion having been Venus' re- 31.] “ Opere in tali” Lucr. 6.815. On venge on her for revealing the goddess' the construction ‘sineret dolor' see Mady. adultery with Mars. Furto' = 'fur. § 442 a. obs. 2. Icare, haberes' is tim ' 4. 337. Comp. 7. 283, “Supposita omitted by Rom. and some other MSS., de matre nothos furata creavit.”
Ribbeck thinks on account of the length 25.] • Mixtum genus' is explained by of the line. proles biformis.
32.] Conatus erat,' Daedalus, whose 26.] “. Veneris nefandae,' nefandi amo. name has to be inferred from the context, ris” Heyne. Monumenta,' pl, for sing., especially 'patriae manus. •Effingere in referring only to the Minotaur. The licence auro :' " caelata in auro facta” 1. 610. is one of the many metrical licences of 33.] Patriae manus' like “patrius Roman epic poetry.
amor" 1. 643. Protinus,' successively, 27.] Forb. would make domus' nom. G. 4. 1. The choice lies between regard. in apposition to labor,' like 7. 248, “ Ilia. ing.omnia' as a dactyl, and compressing dumque labor vestes :" but it is doubtless it into a spondee by synizesis : a hypergen., probably to be explained as definitive meter, which Macrob. Sat. 5. 14 talks of, (Madv. § 286), like opus Academicorum,' is not to be entertained, as in the case of • familia Scipionum.' The labour is that other hypermetric verses in Virg. the fol. of Daedalus, not, as Heyne thought, that lowing line begins with a vowel. See on of the wanderers in the labyrinth. Per. G. 2. 69. The hypothesis of a dactylic haps also domus' is to be constructed ending would not be impossible in itself, with error' as in Catull. 62 (64). 115, but becomes highly improbable in the face which Virg. had in his mind, « Tecti frus- of the fact that of all the possible instances traretur inobservabilis error,” though the in Virg. some, like G. 2. 69., 3. 449, may construction would not be quite the same be regarded as hypermeters; others, like as that with labor.' “Falleret indeprenthe present one and 7.237, may be resolved sus et inremeabilis error" 5. 591. . by synizesis. Omnia' then will be a
28.] Virg. recapitulates the heads of the dissyilable, like 'taeniis' 5. 269. Copyists story briefly, and, to one unacquainted sought to get rid of the anomaly by subwith it, unintelligibly. Magnum reginae stituting.omne' (actually found in Rom.), amorem'is not, what it would seem from 'omnem,'' omnes,' as in 7. 237 they subthe context it must mean, the passion of stituted 'precantum,''precantis' for 'pre. the queen Pasiphae, but that of the prin cantia.' cess (comp. 1. 273 : so Valerius Flaccus 34.] Terentius Scaurus in his treatise uses it repeatedly of Medea : see Forc.) De Orthographia contends that Virg. wrote Ariadne. Sed enim'1. 19 note, 2. 161. pellegerent,' a form printed by Ritschl
29.] •Ipse :' the framer of the puzzle in some passages in Plautus on MS. auconsented to solve it. Dolos tecti' like thority. For the rhetorical use of the “ tecti error" Catull. l. c. : comp. also 5. imperf. for the pluperf. see Madv. 347 b. 590.
obs. 2. The plural is used because Aeneas 30.] · Vestigia,' not his own footsteps, had several companions with him : comp.
Adforet atque una Phoebi Triviaeque sacerdos,
grege de intacto septem mactare iuvencos
Excisum Euboicae latus ingens rupis in antrum,
vv. 13, 41, 54. * Praemissus, sent on by done, and making the thing to be done call Aeneas, that the Sibyl might be ready for for the time. It might even be urged him on his arrival at the temple. “Prae. that as 'non' apparently goes not with mittit Achaten" 1. 644. 'Iam' probably 'ista' but with hoc,' the latter is here with “adforet' rather than with 'prae- the more natural expression. “Poscit' missus.'
however is more likely to have been altered 35.] “Phoebi Triviaeque sacerdos" 10. into “poscunt'than vice versa, as copyists 537, of Haemonides. Holdsworth and are apt to alter the number to make the Spence (Miscellanea Virgiliana, pp. 207 verb agree with the noun immediately prefoll.) distinguish between the priestess and ceding. See Wagn. Q. V. 8. Serv. re. the Sibyl, who, they say, being a goddess, commends' poscit.' required some other person to introduce 38. ] •Intacto' by the yoke, more fully worshippers to her. But their distinction expressed G. 4. 540 (pote) by "intacta is not really borne out by Virg., who must cervice.” The sacrifice is to Apollo and have intended the same person in vv. 46 Diana. foll. and 77 foll., a patent fact which they 39.] Praestiterit:' the subj. has the are compelled to deny. The Sibyl is no- force of the Attic optative with ăv, courtewhere called a goddess by Virg., as in v. ously avoiding a direct and dogmatic asser258 dea’ is Hecate: she is called a tion. Lectas de more bidentis' 4. 57 priestess v. 321, as they admit. It is true, note. Fragm. Vat. has ex more.' as they assert, that in Silius Italicus, Book 40—55.] They pass through the tem13, where Scipio goes down into the shades, ple towards the adytum, when the Sibyl he deals in the first instance not with the feels the power of the god, and calls on Sibyl, but with the priestess Autonve: but Aeneas to pray fervently, that the doors Silius' Sibyl is not alive, but dead: she is may open and the response be given.' like Homer's Tiresias, who drinks the 40.] Sacra' is a substantive, so that blood of the victim, and then acquires the 'iussa sacra ’ is like "iussos honores” 3. power of speech, and tells the visitor what 547, “iussos sapores ” G. 4. 62. •Moranhe wishes to know. They object that Dei. tur' then will mean to delay to execute, or phobe the daughter of Glaucus was not execute slowly, as in Val. F. 7. 60, “Haud the Sibyl's name; but there were several ipse morabor Quae petitis,” possibly an Sibyls, and the Cumaean Sibyl in particu. imitation of Virg. lar had several names (Dict. Myth. ‘Si 41.] Alta in templa :' see on v. 9. bylla '), so that Virg. may have followed They had been standing before the gate, some legend unknown to us, or may have and now are summoned within. thought himself liberty to invent a 42.] A description, as Henry rightly
On the whole subject see Heyne's takes it, not of the temple but of the Excursus. Glaucus, as the commentators adytum, which, as at Delphi, was a cavern remark, is a natural personage to be a in the rock. •Euboicae rupis,' the rock Sibyl's father, being himself a prophetic god. or hill of Cumae: see on v. 9. Latus
36.] • Regi’ of Aeneas, as in v. 55 &c. rupis excisum in antrum' is a variety, as, Some MSS. leave out ‘fatur--regi.' Heyne observes, for “antrum excisum in
37.] • Poscunt' is found in Rom., and is latere rupis.” the earlier reading of Med. The editors 43.] · Aditus' and 'ostia' seem rightly think it intrinsically inferior to “poscit :' explained by Henry as a sort of Virgilian but there is little difference between hendiadys, 'aditus per centum lata ostia.' making the time call for the thing to be But it is not easy to understand what
Unde ruunt totidem voces, responsa Sibyllae.
these entrances were. On the whole the we need not press the poet so closely. consistency of the description seems to re Unbound or dishevelled hair was usual quire that we should understand them to when a priest or prophet approached the be the entrances of the adytum, opening gods : and Virg. has chosen to represent into the temple (comp. 3. 92, where the the hair of the Sibyl as becoming dis• adytum 'is opened similarly at the giving ordered at this particular point of the of the response) : but a hundred doors story. communicating from one side of the temple 49.] “Rabie' with “tament. As the to a cavern beyond form a picture which is forms of the gods and of the dead were not readily grasped. Meanwhile the gene- supposed to be larger than those of ordinary ral tenor of the narrative is well illustrated humanity (see on 2. 773), so the Sibyl by a graphic description of a worshipper at seems to increase in stature under the Delphi approaching the adytum' in the divine aflatus. In less poetical language Oxford · Arnold Prize Essay for 1859, by we should say that she rises to her full my friend Mr. Bowen of Balliol College. height, and every liinb is stretched with I quote it in an Appendix to this book, as excitement. The picture is virtually the it is too long for a note.
same as that of Wordsworth's Laodamia, 44.] “Ruunt expresses the general expecting an answer to her prayer : practice : through these doors the responses of the Sibyl are habitually com. “Her countenance brightens, and her eye municated.
expands : 45.] • Limen,' sc. Santri ;' whether Her bosom heaves and swells, her stature identical with any of these doors we are grows." not told. The Sibyl goes into the cave (comp. v. 77); Aeneas and the Trojans Videri’might be regarded as a historical remain outside. * Poscere fata' is ex. infinitive, with Serv. and some of the early plained by what follows, v. 52. The sacri- editors : but Heyne rightly constructs it fices had been performed, but prayer was with ‘maior,' as if it were a translation of still necessary to obtain the response, and welcwv cloideiv. Wagn. comp. “niveus this was the time for prayer, the god videri” Hor. 4. Od. 2. 59, “lubricus adhaving already manifested himself. The spici” Id. 1 Od. 19. 7. Some notion equiwords seem to mean 'to ask Apollo for valent to 'facta est' must of course be oracles," "fata ' being used as in 1. 382 &c. supplied from the context. Comp. G. 3. 456, “meliora deos sedet 50.] Sonare' of a person speaking omina poscens,” and possibly A. 3. 456, loudly, 12. 529. With the expression where however see note. Elsewhere, as in generally comp. 1. 328, “haud tibi vol. 7. 272 &c., the fates themselves are said tus Mortalis, nec vox hominem sonat."
poscere. “Tempus poscere” 9. 12. For "Quando’ is causal rather than temporal, the construction see on G. 1, 213.
so that Heyne's suggestion, adopted by 47.] · Ante fores' like 'ad limen.' Jahn, to place a period at 'sonans,' and • Unus' = idem,' with which it is not connect adflata est' with what follows, unfrequently joined : see Forc. The sense would be no improvement. With the is not that her countenance and colour position of quando comp. 10. 366, “askeep changing, but that they are different pera quis natura loci dimittere quando from what they were before.
Suasit equos.” Serv. explains adflata' 48.] • Comptae :' Heyne remarks that “nondum deo plena, sed adflata vicinitate her hair would be already unbound, as the numinis ;” but adflare' and 'adflatus' sacrifice had been made (see on 3. 370), so (subst.) are terms regularly used of divine that Virg. must here mean that the hair inspiration (see Forc.), like & inveîv and its stood on end or was tossed about. But cognates.