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than by Homer, as there seems to be more propriety in representing the inferior god of the winds as counteracted by the superior god of the sea, than in making a sea nymph rescue one whom the god of the sea is seeking to destroy. But if Virgil has obtained an advantage over Homer, it is with the help of Homer's weapons, as the interview between Juno and Aeolus obviously owes its existence to the interview between Here and the God of Sleep. The dialogue of Venus and Jupiter appears to be another appropriation from Naevius; but, as in the former case, Virgil seems to have established his right to what he has borrowed by the perfect fitness with which a prophecy of the destiny of Rome is introduced at the commencement of a poem intended to be a monument of Roman greatness. The remaining incidents of the First Book need not detain us much longer. As a general rule, they are borrowed from Homer ; but we may admire the skill with which Virgil has introduced varieties of detail, as where Ulysses, listening to songs about Troy, reappears in Aeneas looking at sculptures or paintings of Trojan subjects, and the art with which a new impression is produced by a combination of old materials, in making the friendly power that receives Aeneas unite the blandishments of Calypso with the hospitality of Alcinous, and so engrafting a tale of passion on a narrative of ordinary adventure. The suggestion of the employment of Cupid by Venus was evidently taken from the loan of Aphrodite's cestus in Homer and the assistance rendered by the God of Love in Apollonius; but the treatment of the thought is original and happy; and the few lines which describe the removal of Ascanius to Idalia might themselves suggest a subject for poetry to some Keats or Shelley, in whose mind the seed casually dropped by Virgil should expand and germinate.
ARMA virumque cano, Troiae qui primus ab oris
1-7.] •I sing the hero who founded an integral part of the first sentence; and the Trojan kingdom in Italy, his voyages that it is, to say the least, remarkable that and his wars.
the exordium should be so constructed as 1.] This line is preceded in some MSS. to be at once interwoven with the context, by the following verses,
and yet capable of removal without detri"Ille ego, qui quondam gracili modulatus
ment to the construction, just at the point
which forms a much better commenceavena Carmen et egressus silvis vicina coegi
ment. The words 'arma virumque' are Ut quamvis avido parerent arva colono, 9
quoted by Martial, 8. 56., 19. 14., 185. 2, Gratum opus agricolis : at nunc hor
and Auson. Epig. 137. 1, evidently as a rentia Martis."
real commencement of the Aeneid; while
Ovid, Trist. 2.533, and Persius, 1.96, quote They are not found in Med., Rom., Gud., 'arma virumque,' or 'arma virum,' as imor the Verona fragments (Pal. and the portant and independent words, which they fragments of Vat. and St. Gall seem to cease to be the moment ‘arma’ is viewed fail here), and the only MS. in Ribbeck's in connexion with the words supposed to list which contains them (the Berne MS. precede it. Virg. himself, 9. 777, has (of No. 172) has them written in the margin the poet Clytius) “Semper equos atque by a later hand. They appear to have arma virum pugnasque canebat.” Comp. existed in the time of Servius and of the also Ov. 1 Amor. 15. 25, Prop. 3. 26. 63, Pseudo-Donatus, who say that Nisus the which point the same way. Macrob. Sat. grammarian had heard a story of their 5. 2 quotes · Troiae qui primus ab oris' as having been expunged by Tucca and part of the first verse of the Aeneid. Varius; on which Heyne remarks, “Si res On the other hand Priscian 940 P cites ita se habet, acutior sane Varius Vergilio Ille ego qui quondam gracili modulatus fuit.” The external evidence of such a avena' as Virg.'s. Henry's view that story it is impossible to estimate, but its "arma Martis' is happily contrasted with existence suspiciously indicates that the 'arma agricolae' (comp. G. 1. 160) seems lines were felt to require apology. Those to be favoured by the structure of the who speak of them as an introduction to sentence, and may very possibly have been the poem, forget that if genuine they are present to the mind of the author of these
Italiam, fato profugus, Lavinaque venit
lines; but it clearly was not present to fugus quidem, sed fato profugus," a glorithe minds of those who quoted arma' by ous and heaven-sent fugitive. So Livy itself as war. Tastes may differ as to the 1. l., comp. by Weidner, “ Aenean ab simili rival commencements, on which see Henry clade domo profugum sed ad maiora rerum in loco, and on 2. 247; but it may be sug. initia ducentibus fatis." For the poetic gested that Virg. would scarcely in his accus. •Italiam-Lavina litora,' without first sentence have divided the attention of the preposition, see Madv. § 232, obs. 4. the reader between himself and his hero The MSS. are divided between Lavinaby saying, in effect, that the poet who que,'' Laviniaque,' and perhaps · Lavinia.' wrote the Eclogues and the Georgics, sings The last, however, though adopted by the hero who founded Rome. Wagn. Burm. and Heyne, and approved by Heins., and Forb., however, as well as Henry, con- seems to rest solely on the authority of sider the lines as genuine; and they have Med., which has · Lavinia' (corrected into been imitated by Spenser in the opening of Lavina'), with a mark of erasure after the the Faery Queene, and Milton in the word. •Laviniaque’is found in the Verona opening of Paradise Regained.
fragm., and is supported by quotations in Arma virumque:' this is an imitation Terentianus Maurus and Diomedes, and in of the opening of the Odyssey, ávöpa uot single MSS. of Priscian, Censorinus, and ÉVVETE K.T.A. It may also be taken from Servius in artem Donati. •Lavinaque’ is the first line of the Cyclic poem of the found in Rom., Gud., and probably most Epigoni, preserved by the Schol. on Aris. other MSS., and is supported by quotations toph. Peace 1270, Núy alo' OTAOTÉpwv åv. in Macrobius, Gellius, Marius Victorinus, opãy ápxáuela, Monoar. It is followed by Pompeius, the Schol. on Lucan, most all the other Roman writers of epic MSS. of Priscian, and one of Censorinus. poetry, Lucan, Flaccus, Statius, and, above Servius mentions both readings, saying, all, Silius, the most faithful copier of Virg., “Lavina legendum est, non Lavinia.” with a unanimity which strongly sup- •Lavinia' is supported by 4. 236: but the ports the view taken in the preceding note. synizesis, though not unexampled (comp. The words are not a hendiadys, but give 5. 269., 6. 33, and see on G. 4. 243), is first the character of the subject and then perhaps awkward, especially in the second the subject itself. “Arma'may have been line of the poem, and the imitation in Prop.3. intended to suggest, though it does not 26. 64,"Iactaque Lavinis moenia litoribus," express, a contrast between this and is in favour of the form ‘Lavina.' Juv. Virg.'s previous poems.-In commencing 12. 71 has “novercali sedes praelata Lawith 'cano' he has followed his own ex. vino," though there as in Prop, the quadriample in the Georgics, rather than that syllabic form might be introduced and of Homer, who at once invokes the Muse; explained by synizesis. On the whole, I and the Latin Epic writers have followed have preferred Lavinaque,' believing the Virg. The earlier commentators have form to be possible in itself (comp. “Camfound a difficulty in reconciling 'primus' panus," “Lucanus," “ Appulus,” &c.), and with Antenor's previous migration (below, more probable in this instance; the modern vv. 242 foll.), and suggest that Aeneas had editors however are generally for · Laviniafirst reached Italy proper, though Antenor que.' Lachmann on Lucr. 2. 719 speaks had previously reached Venetia. On the doubtfully. The epithet which belonged other hand, 'Heyne and Wagn. make to the place after the foundation of the
primus' equivalent to olim,' thus weak- city by Aeneas is given to it here, as in 4. ening a word which from its position and 236, by a natural anticipation at the time its occurrence in the first line of the poem of his landing. must be emphatic. The more obvious sense 3.] The imitation of the exordium of is that Aeneas is so called without refer the Odyssey continues, "multum ille iacence to Antenor, as the founder of the tatus . . multa quoque passus,' being great Trojan empire in Italy.
modelled on monà #dyxon . . monde de 2.7 • Fato,' a mixture of modal and in- ye . . nálev: “ille,' as so often in Virg., strum. abl., as in 4. 696., 6. 449, 466, &c. standing for the Homeric dye. Multum, Here it seems to go with profugus,' &c., used to be pointed as a separate thougb it might go with 'venit:' comp. sentence; it is however evidently con10. 67. Perhaps the force may be “prjstructed with 'venit,' so that ille' is vir
superum, saevae memorem Iunonis ob iram,
Musa, mihi caussas memora, quo numine laeso,
Quidve dolens, regina deum tot volvere casus tually pleonastic. Comp. 5. 457., 6. 593., on E. 7. 19.—There are various ways of 9. 479. Here it appears rhetorically to taking 'quo numine laeso.' Some think be equal to 'quidem. Iactatus' is natu- there is a change of construction, and that rally transferred from wanderings by sea “inpulsus fuerit,” or something like it, to wanderings by land. In such passages should have followed; so that Virgil should as vv. 332, 668, we see the point of have imitated Homer, Il. 1. 8, tis ráp transition. So 5. 627, “cum freta, cum σφωε θεών έριδι ξυνέηκε μάχεσθαι; But terras omnis .. ferimur."
this, as Heyne remarks, though not up. 4.] ‘Vi superum’expresses the general exampled, would be a singular piece of agency, like fato profugus,' though Juno loose writing so early in the poem, and was his only personal enemy. Gossrau's would moreover involve the inconsistency fancy that 'vi superum’ = Blą dewv, 'in of first saying that it was Juno, saevae me. spite of heaven,' has no authority. For morem Iunonis ob iram,' and then asking • memorem iram'comp. Livy 9. 29, “ Tra- the Muse what god it was. Others make ditur censorem etiam Appium memori 'numine' nearly equivalent to voluntate,' Deum ira post aliquot annos luminibus citing 2. 123, “quae sint ea numina dicaptum.” So Aesch. Ag. 155, uváuws vom;" but even supposing that 'numen' unnis. Ob iram,' below, v. 251, “to sate in this sense might be taken distributively, the wrath.'
which the passage above quoted does not 5.] •Passus, constructed like iactatus.' prove, “laeso' would scarcely be approQuoque' and 'et' of course form a priate to 'numine' in this sense, while the pleonasm, though the former appears to be words frequently occur in conjunction in connected with multa,' and the latter the sense of outraged majesty. Comp. 2. with • bello.' • Dum conderet’ like “dum 183, Hor. Epod. 15. 3, and Macleane's fugeret,” G. 4. 457, where see note. Here note. Heyne accepts Serv.'s proposal of we might render 'in the struggle to build separating quo' from ‘numine, and taking his city. So Hom. Od. 1. 4 foll., monà it in the sense of “qua re,”.“qua caussa, πάθεν åpvúmeros k.T.A. The clause be- which would be extremely harsh. It relongs to ‘multa bello passus,' rather than mains then, with Wagn., to regard the to iactatus.'
expression as equivalent to "quam ob laesi. 6.] “Victosque Penatis inferre,” 8. 11. onem numinis sui;” referring it to the Unde'may be taken either as “qua ex re, cases already noticed on E. 1. 53, where or as “a quo,” as in v. 568., 6. 766, &c. the pronoun or pronominal adjective stands The latter seems more probable. "Genus for its corresponding adverb. Thus the Latinum,' Albani patres,' altae moenia negative answer to quo nomine laeso' Romae,' denote the three ascending stages would be “nullum numen Iunonis laesit." of the empire which sprang from Aeneas, Or we may say that numen laesum ' alone Lavinium, Alba, and Rome. Comp. 12.823, would stand for “laesio numinis” (see foll., which is a good commentary on the Madv. § 426), and that in such a construc. present passage. * Albani patres 'probably tion the question could hardly be asked means not our Alban ancestors, but the otherwise than by making the interrogasenate, or rather the noble houses of Alba, tive pronoun agree with the noun. No of which the Julii were one.
charge of impiety strictly could be brought 8–11.] 'Why was it, Muse, that Juno against Aeneas, but there might be doso persecuted so pious a hero?'
lores,' such as are mentioned vv. 23-28, 8.] 'Caussae ' is not unfrequently used which impelled Juno to persecute even one where we should be content with the sing., renowned for piety, e. g. v. 414., 2. 105., 3. 32., 6. 710, the last 9.] “Volvere :' see on G. 2. 295, “Multa of which will illustrate the epexegetical virum volvens durando saecula vincit." clause 'quo—inpulerit.' •Memora'
is ap. The misfortunes are regarded as a destined propriate, as the Muses were connected circle wbich Aeneas goes through. with memory : comp. 7. 645, and see note
Insignem pietate virum, tot adire labores
Urbs antiqua fuit, Tyrii tenuere coloni,
10.) • Insignem pietate' (6.403) charac- to the stern pursuits of war.' “ Ad bella terizes the hero, as TORÚT potov does Ulysses studium,” G. 3. 179. in the commencement of the Odyssey. 15.] Germ. comp. Od. 8. 284, Hoi gaidwv The contrast, however, between piety and Toù piatern dativ åtagéwy. • Unam sufferings is made in the case of Ulysses magis omnibus coluisse' = "unam om. himself, Od. 1. 60 foll., 66 foll. * Pietas' nium maxime coluisse.” The Astarte of includes the performance of all duties to the Phoenicians is identified, in the loose gods, parents, kinsmen, friends, and coun way common among the ancients, with try. "Adire periculum” is not uncommon Juno. On the temple of Hera at Samos, in Cicero; see Forc.
see Hdt. 3. 60. 11.] It is difficult to say whether animis 16.] Coluisse,' as dweller in the temple. caelestibus' is a dat. with an ellipsis of the Comp. v. 447. “ Pallas quas condidit arces verb substantive or the ablative.
Ipsa colat,” E. 2. 61. For Juno's arms, 12–33.] ‘Juno was patroness of Car. comp. 2. 614, note. Her chariot is from thage, which, she had beard, was destined Il. 5. 720 foll. The Phoenician Astarte one day to be crushed by a nation of Tro was represented seated on a lion. jan descent. Hence she persecuted the 17.] · Regnum gentibus,''the capital of Trojans, who were already her enemies, the nations,' instead of Roine. The dative, and kept them away from Italy.'
as in 8. 65., 10. 203. For the pronoun 12.] 'Urbs antiqua,' said with reference taking the gender of the following substanto Virg.'s own age. For the parentheti. tive, see Madv. § 313. cal construction. Tyrii tenuere coloni,' 18.] Si qua' is similarly used 6. 882. comp. v. 530 below," Est locus, Hesperiam “Fata sinebant,” 4. 652., 11. 701. Med. Graii cognomine dicunt.” “ Tyrii coloni,' 2 m. p. has 'sinunt.' Iam tum,' in that
settlers from Tyre,' as “Dardaniis colo- early age, long before it became the actual nis,” 7. 422, are settlers from Troy. rival of Rome. Tendit' determines the
13.] ‘Longe,'as contrasted with the ad. construction, the infinitive being the object jacent islands. The sense is clear (“Against of both verbs. Tendere 'is often followed the Tiber's mouth, bat far away,” Dryden), by an infinitive, the subject being the same though it is not easy to determine the as the nominative to the verb, as “aqua exact grammatical position of longe. The tendit rumpere plumbum,” Hor. 1 Ep. 10. choice seems to lie between connecting it 20, “si vivere cum love tendis,” Pers. 5. with 'contra' and making it an adverbial 139. •Foveo, on the other hand, takes adjunct of ostia,' i.q. 'longe distantia.' an accusative, as “fovere consilium." The latter is a Grecism (Wund. comp. Toû These two constructions are united, the Teaqu@vos Tnabdev otrov, Soph. Aj. 204), sentence 'hoc-esse' standing in the re. but may perbaps be supported by the use lation of an ordinary infinitive to “tendit,' of " super” 3. 489, note. It appears that and of an accusative to ‘fovet.' Three somo in the time of Serv. actually took MSS. give ‘fnvet,' and `vovet' has been • longe' with dives.'
conjectured. Somo have thought hoc 14.] • Dives opum, 2. 22. Opum’iņ: regnum-fovetque' spurious, the cludes all sources of power. • Asperrima' strength of a notice of Serv., which really is the epithet of war (9. 667., 11.635., 12. refers to v. 534 beiow. 124) applied to the warlike nation. Given 19.] 'Sed enim, 2. 164, &c., aard gáp, VOL. II.
Audierat, Tyrias olim quae verteret arces;
Et genus invisum, et rapti Ganymedis honores; however,' or 'nevertheless. The present apparently the only one known to the infinitive, 'duci,' denotes the event as ex MSS. of Virg. : but the word must be isting in the designs of fate. •Duci,' as in derived from "exscindo," as " discidium " 10. 145. Gossrau, following a suggestion from “discindo,” unless, deriving it from of Serv., thinks the 'progenies’ is Scipio, “excido," we pronounce it as a trisyllable which is very improbable, and besides makes by synizesis. “ Excidio
on the other hinc,' v. 21, inexplicable; and the same hand seems clearly to come from “excido," objection applies to Ladewig's more plausi- like “occidio" from “occido,” so that we ble explanation of progenies 'as the great must suppose a synizesis in Plaut. Curc. Trojan families among the Romans. 4. 3. 2, “Sed eapse illa qua excidionem
20.]. Quae verteret,' 'to overturn.' facere condidici oppidis.” See on 7. 99. Vertere,' as in 2. 652, &c. 23.] “Veteris' and 'prima' are applied As might be expected, some MSS. have to the Trojan war, as contrasted with this "everteret.'
new antipathy of Juno to the Trojans, 21.] Late regem,' comp. e úpurpelwv, and caused by her anxiety for Cartbage, as the “ late tyrannus,” Hor. 3 Od. 17. 9. • Popu former had been caused by her love for lus’is a personification, and therefore takes Argos. • Prima,'adverbially, as in G. 1.12. the epithet' rex.' Hinc,' i. e. “Trojano a 25.] The words from necdum' to 'ho. sanguine,' rather than 'ex hac progenie;' nores are parenthetical. These 'causae but it is not very clear, as, though in the irarum’are distinguished from the vetus latter case the distinction between the bellum,' in other words, from the 'irae' progenies' and the populus' springing themselves, the bitterness displayed in or from it seems unmeaning, the former view produced by the war. V rg. had already, creates a tautology. In v. 235, where the v. 24, suggested one cause in her love for expression is somewhat parallel, “revocato Argos; but though this supplies a parallel a sanguine Teucri” seems epexegetical of to her present feeling, it scarcely accounts “binc.” Serv, mentions that Probus marked for its existence; so he goes back to show this and the next line as doubtful; but that her old quarrel with Troy had other it seems to have been merely a critical grounds. “Dolores' is the pang, put for opinion. “Superbus' here seems to be the affront. It is only in the sense of the equivalent to‘praestans,' as in Sil. 10. 573, affront that it can properly be joined with “Í, decus Ausoniae, quo fas est ire super 'exciderant animo, understood of being bas Virtute et factis animas."
forgotten. So “dolens,” v. 9. Or if •do22.] ‘Venire excidio,' like "venire aux- lores’ is taken in its ordinary sense,' exciilio” and “subsidio,” Libyae' being pro- derant animo' will shift its ineaving, 'had bably the dative, as · Dardaniae' seems to passed from her soul.' be 2. 325. But there is room for doubt in 27.] *The injury which consisted in her both instances. It is hard to fix the pre- beauty being scorned,' explaining the 'iucise meaning of volvere.' The passage 3. dicium Paridis.' The legend does not ap375, "sic fata deum rex Sortitur volvit. pear in Hom. earlier than Il. 24. 29 foll. que vices,” is equally obscure ; and we are 28.] ‘Genus invisum,' the hated stock,' left to choose between the ideas of a cycle referring to the birth of Dardanus, who of events (which is recommended by “is was the son of Jupiter by Electra, daughter vertitur ordo” in the passage in A. 3), of Atlas. The carrying off of Ganymede, an urn in which lots are shaken, the threads who belonged to a later generation of the of a spindle (which is the view of Serv.), royal house of Troy, was a further proroAnd a book. I have returned to the com cation, mon orthography Sexcidium,' as being