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Kóngas uerpos ény, dentós, deurós, daruxalans,
κράτα φέρων πολίην, ολόλευκον προς δ' άρ' υπήνην.
Τυδείδης δ' άρα σώματι ήεν τεσσαράγωνος,
ευσχήμων, σίμος, στειναύχην, ξανθογένειος.

This he may have borrowed from Dares Phrygius, whose work, as we now have it, abounds in notices of the sort. But he is probably original when he says that he cannot tell what was the precise occasion on which Ulysses fell temporarily into the hands of the Trojans, his attention to the incident having been distracted by the cruel treatment he received from “ the crafty wife of Isaac,” or when he censures Trypbiodorus for talking of the horse as crowned with flowers when it was the depth of winter, and professes that he, Tzetzes, had been taught by Orpheus never to tell a falsehood. But it is an insult to Virgil even to mention such absurdities in connexion with the Second Book of the Aeneid.

A curious critique of Virgil's narrative from a military point of view by Napoleon 1. may be found in an abridged form in the Classical Museum, vol. i. pp. 205 foll. It is needless to say that the story does not stand a test which it was never meant to stand : much of the Emperor's censure however falls really, not on Virgil, but on the legend which, as we have seen, he necessarily followed.

CONTICUERE omnes, intentique ora tenebant.
Inde toro pater Aeneas sic orsus ab alto:

Infandum, Regina, iubes renovare dolorem,
Troianas ut opes et lamentabile regnum
Eruerint Danai ; quaeque ipse miserrima vidi,
Et quorum pars magna fui. Quis talia fando

1, 2.] · Aeneas begins thus.'

as it is in telling about sorrow once felt 1.] Ora tenere is not, as in G. 4. that the renewal of the pain consists. 483, equivalent to "linguam continere," Häckermann, followed by Ladewig, Haupt, but means 'to hold the countenance in and Ribbeck, ingeniously puts & period attention,' as in 7. 250 (where observe after dolorem,' so as to connect.ut... the epithet “defixa," and comp. 6. 156), fui' with 'quis talia fando,' v. 6, the sen. 8. 520. •Intenti' then must be taken tence thus created being a sort of expan. adverbially as part of the predicate, like sion of v. 3, 'fando' answering to infan“ defixi” in the passage last referred to. dum :' but this, though rhetorically effecSilent attention is bowever the general tive, would be hardly in Virg.'s manner, notion : and it is probable that Virg. did while it would detract from the pronot carefully distinguish the two senses of priety of the clause 'quaeque . . . fui,' if 'ora.' See 1. 256, " oscula libavit.” indeed it would not lead us rather to ex

3–13.] The story is a painful one, but pect viderim . . . fuerim. I am glad to I will tell it.'

see that Wagn. (Lectt. Vergg. p. 415) de3.] Imitated from Od. 7. 241, åpyaréov, fends the old pointing on similar grounds. Baolela, dinvekéws åyopeurau Knde': the Lamentabile is used proleptically. How conception of the speech itself however is the power of Troy and its empire met with of course taken from Ulysses' later narra- piteous overthrow from the Danaans.' tive, books 9–12. Observe the order: 5.] Quaequemet quorum,' &c., also • Too cruel to be told, great queen, is the epexegetical of dolorem,' which is first sorrow you bid me revive.' *Infandum,' explained generally, then limited, as Henry note on 1. 525. The word here seems to remarks, to the scenes which Aeneas wit. bear its transferred as well as its original nessed and those in which he took an sense.

active part-his personal narrative. 4.] Ut' follows renovare dolorem,' 6.] * Pars magna. Comp. 10. 426, which is practically equivalent to narrare,' “Lausus, Pars ingens belli," G. 2. 40.

Myrmidonum Dolopumve aut duri miles Ulixi
Temperet a lacrimis ? et iam nox humida caelo
Praecipitat, suadentque cadentia sidera somnos.
Sed si tantus amor casus cognoscere nostros

Et breviter Troiae supremum audire laborem,
Quamquam animus meminisse horret, luctuque refugit,

Fracti bello fatisque repulsi
Ductores Danaum, tot iain labentibus annis,
Instar montis equum divina Palladis arte


Fando,' in the course of speaking, v. 81. itself imitated by Sen. Ag. 417, “refugit Wagn. aptly refers to Livy 8. 17., 21. 34, loqui Mens aegra tantis atque inhorrescit for instances of this use of the gerund in malis," which seems to show, as Wund. prose, illustrating it also by an imitation thinks, that 'refugit' as well as horret' of this passage in Sil. 2. 651, "quis tristia goes with meminisse.' The perf. seems fata piorum Inperet evolvens lacrimis ?” best explained as expressing the instanwhich shows that it is equivalent to the taneous and instinctive action of the feel. present participle.

ing. Prof. Munro comp. Sen. H. F. 1200, 7.] Myrmidonum Dolopumve,' not con. “quid hoc? manus refugit: bic errat structed with miles.' The Myrmidons scelus,” where however the structure of and Dolopes (Il. 9. 484) were the soldiers the sentence makes the tense more exof Achilles, the greatest, and Neoptolemus, plicable. Weidner thinks “horret” is a the most savage, enemy of Troy. So the sort of perf. of“ horrescit," and so explains epithet duri' is intended to mark the its combination with “refugit,' appealing soldier by the general, perhaps with a re. ingeniously to Sen. Ag. 1. c., where “in. ference to his Homeric title rolútlas: see horrescit'is coupled with “refúgit,' the on 3. 94.

pres. He explains 'refugit' on the ana8.] . Et iam,' an additional reason for logy of dédouka &c., a single past act leaddeclining the task : imitated from Od. 11. ing to a continuing state. 330, where Ulysses breaks off in the middle 13–39.] Despairing of reducing Troy of his narrative with a similar excuse. by siege, the Greeks feign departure, having

9.] . Praecipitat' is hurrying down the first built a wooden horse, which they fill steep of the sky, midnight being past. with armed men, and leave behind them Possibly also it denotes the fall of the dew, as a pretended offering to Pallas. We being connected with 'humida,' as "ruit” pour out of the town, and question what is with “imbriferum,” G. 1. 313. For the should be done with the horse, some being intrans. use of the verb comp. Cic. de for taking it in, others for destroying it. Orat. 3. 55, 209, “ sol praccipitans me ad 13.] Incipiam'appears rightly undermonuit."

stood by Henry, 'I will essay, ' rather than 10.] Od. 11. 380. ‘Amor, as in 6. I will begin. E. 5. 10, G. 1. 5, Lucr. 1. 133, where it is immediately explained 55. So the ordinary sense of “inceptum.” by "cupido." For the construction, see • Fracti,' nearly the same as “fessi,” v. 109, on G. 1. 213.

but stronger. Repulsi,' beaten back from 11.] ‘Supremum laborem,' its destruc- the attack on Troy. tion, as "dies supremus” is the day of 14.] *Ductores Danaum,' Lucr, 1. 86. death, and "sors suprema” (5. 190, the Labentibus,' the present, is to be distin. final doom. Claud. Eutrop. 2. 289, “Phry. guished from“ lapsis,” though the stress giae casus venisse supremos.” •Labor 'by falls as much on tot' and 'iam. Now itself means no more than távos or ubxoos that the flying years had begun to number in Greek, sorrow or suffering, 1. 597., so many: 2. 362., 4. 78., 9. 202. "To hear the brief 15.) | Instar montis,' with reference to tale of Troy's last agony.'

the height rather than to the bulk. So 9. 12.] Muretus thinks this passage imi- 674, "abietibus iuvenes patriis et montibus tated from Cic. Phil. 14. 3, “refugit ani- aequos," and Od. 9. 191., 10. 113, where mus, P. C., eaque formidat dicere.” It is the Cyclops and the queen of the Laostry.

Aedificant, sectaque intexunt abiete costas;
Votum pro reditu simulant; ea fama vagatur.
Huc delecta virum sortiti corpora furtim
Includunt caeco lateri, penitusque cavernas
Ingentis uterumque armato milite conplent.

Est in conspectu Tenedos, notissima fama
Insula, dives opum, Priami dum regna manebant,

Nunc tantum sinus et statio male fida carinis; gonians are compared to mountains. Comp. 1. 54, and not unlike the double acc. in also vv. 186, 187, “Hanc tamen inmensam Greek, TÚRTW OE Reparhv. “Delecta virum Calchas attollere molem Roboribus textis corpora :' Od. 4. 272, (TTQ év: ČEOTQ Yu caeloqne educere iussit.” Divina Palladis évhueda Távtes plotou 'Aprelwr. Thus arte' is a translation of Eur. Tro. 10, "sortiti'must mean simply. having picked unxavaioı Malládos. Hom. Od. 8. 493 out,' as in G. 3. 71, unless we suppose a has tov’ETTEIDs étoinoer oùv'Aohun. Pallas sortitio' to have taken place among the is selected from the deities favourable to delecti,' so as to assign to some their the Greeks as the patroness of art. So places in the horse, while others, such as she is the builder of the Argo, the first Agamemnon and Diomede, remained to ore ship. See the next note. Rom. has ‘di- ganize the forces at Tenedos. “Delecti' vinae.'

is the epithet of the chieftains at Aulis, 16.] · Aedificant' and `intexunt' are Lucr. 1. 86. In Od. 8. 495, Ulysses is the both terms of ship-building. Catull. 62 main agent in putting the warriors into (64). 9, “Ipsa (Pallas) levi fecit volitantem the horse, which he enters himself. Cor. flamine currum, Pinea coniungens inflexae pora,' periphrastic, like Déuas, 5. 318., 6. texta carinae,” which Virg. perhaps had 22, 391., 7. 650., 10. 430, though in cach in his mind. See further on 11. 326. case there is of course a special significance Even costa’ is used in speaking of a ship, in the word, as here to suggest the notion Pers. 6. 31. Lucr. 5. 1297 has “in equi of occupying space. conscendere costas.” “Intexunt'form by 19, 20.] Henry seems right in taking interlacing, 6. 315., 10. 785, “ abiete' being the latter part of the sentence as simply instr. abl. But for these parallels, 'secta explanatory of the former, the 'armato abiete' might be, as has been suggested to milite' being identical with the delecta me, material abl. with costas,' intex. corpora,' but it is not so certain that these unt' meaning interweave with the horse. are summed up in the nine who come out • Intexunt' has nearly the force of “inters of the horse in v. 260, as vv. 328, 401, texunt,” as “insere" G. 2. 302 of “inter would lead us to suppose that the number

was larger, even if we do not suppose 17.] •Votum,' to Pallas, as explained Virg. to be in agreement with Hom., who v. 183. Serv. quotes from Attius (Deiph. in Od. 4. 287, mentions one, Anticlus, not fr. 1), "Minervae donum armipotenti hoc included in Virg.'s list. •Penitus' goes abeuntes Danai dicant,” which he says with 'conplent.' was the inscription on the horse; and so 21.] 'Notissima fama,' as Wagn. reHyginus (fab. 108), “ In equo scripserunt; marks, is said rather by the poet than by Danai Minervae dono dant.” Pallas is the hero (comp. 3. 704), though in Hom.'s sent down, II. 2. 156, to prevent the Greeks time (II. i. 38) the island is famous for a from departing. The custom of making temple of Apollo Smintheus. vows for a safe return is largely illustrated 22.] •Dives opum,' 1. 14. by Cerda. Taubmann quotes an epigramo 23.] The island is said to be a 'sinus,' a matic expression from Petronius, "in voto bay, forming a doubtful roadstead, being latent (Danai).” • En fama vagatur:' the all for which it was then remarkable. emphasis is on ea' rather than on 'vaga. Male fida,' opposed to "statio tutissima,” tur. 'Such is the story they spread,' not G. 4. 421. Forb. rightly distinguishes

the story spreads far and wide.' So 'statio' from “portus,” and Henry appo. “ fama volat," 3. 121.

sitely refers to Vell. Pat. 2. 72, “Exitia. 18.] Huc' is further defined by caeco lemque tempestatem fugientibus stativ pro lateri' ("huc includunt,” G. 2. 76), a mode portu foret.” of expression illustrated by Wagn. on E.


Huc se provecti deserto in litore condunt.
Nos abiisse rati et vento petiisse Mycenas.

Ergo omnis longo solvit se Teucria luctu.
Panduntur portae ; iuvat ire et Dorica castra
Desertosque videre locos litusque relictum.
Hic Dolopum manus, hic saepus tendebat Achilles ;
Classibus hic locus; hic acie certare solebant.

Pars stupet innuptae donum exitiale Minervae
Et molem mirantur equi; primusque Thymoetes
Duci intra muros hortatur et arce locari,

Sive dolo, seu iam Troiae sic fata ferebant. 24.] 'Huc may be taken with con. rected, Canon., and others, and given as an dunt, as Forb. (G. 1. 442, "conditus in alternative by Serv. nubem"), but it had perhaps better go 31.] Donum Minervae,' “non quod with 'provecti,' as otherwise we should ipsa dedit, sed quod ei oblatum est.” have expected in litus.' •Deserto in Serv., rightly, as is shown by the parallel litore' shows that the change in the for v. 189, and by the passage from Attius tunes of Tenedos had already begun. quoted on v. 17, from which Virg. doubt

25.] Wagn. is hardly right in explain. less took the words. The epithet innuping 'vento petere' here and v. 180 to tae,' which is rather in the Homeric style mean no more than "navibus petere.” than appropriate to anything in the con. In 1. 307., 4. 46, 381, where similar text, makes it likely that he was referring expressions are used, the meaning evie also to Eur. Tro. 536, zápiv a cuyos à Bporodently is that the person is supposed to abov, which according to the ordinary be driven by the winds : here the notion interpretation is understood in precisely scems to be that of dependence on the the same way, though Hermann questions winds, though we are meant to infer the applicability of åßpototárov to the that the winds are favourable. Thus goddess, and supposes & Guž åßpotónwlos Heyne's interpretation “vento secundoto be the horse. The offering was made is virtually true. In 3. 563 the addi. to Minerva as one of the tutelary deities of tion of remis’ makes the case somewhat Troy, whom the Greeks bad outraged, and different.

as such it was virtually an offering to Troy 26.] From Eur. Tro. 524, where the and the Trojans—a consideration which Trojans address each other it', à retau reconciles the present passage with those μένοι πόνων. .

where it is spoken of as a gift to the 27.] ‘Panduntur portae,' as a sign of Trojans (vv. 36, 44, 49), and accounts for peace. Hor. 3 Od. 5. 23, A. P. 199. the epithet “exitiale.' That some such Cerda. Dorica castra : see on v. 462. object was pretended before Sinon came 28.] Nearly repeated 5. 612.

forward to develope the story we have seen 29.] This and the next verse express in inov. 17. “Minervae' seems still to be an objective form what is said or thought the gen., as in Cic. Verr. 2.3. 80, “civium by the parties of Trojans. Comp. 7. 150 Romanorum dona,” presents made to Rofoll., where however the discoveries of the man citizens (referred to by Gossrau). reconnoitrers are put in oratio obliqua. 32.] 'Molem equi,' v. 150 below. Thy• Dolopum :' note on v. 7. *Tendebat,' moetes is one of the old men sitting on the pitched his tent, 8. 603, a military word, wall, Il. 3. 146. Diodorus Siculus, 3. 87, whence“ tentorium.” For the implied inakes him son of Laomedon. anachronism see on 1. 469.

33.] In Hom. (Od. 8. 504) the Trojans 30.] • Classibus hic locus. The ships, first drag the horse to the citadel (which as Henry remarks, were drawn up on the in Virg. does not happen till v. 215), and shore, and the tents pitched among them. then deliberate as here what to do with it, The opposition is between classibus' and the party of Thymoetes being represented acie.' . Here they pitched; here they by the words À láav uby' ěyaxua Beñv fought with us.' *Acie' was restored by θελκτήριον είναι. Heins. from Med., Rom., and other MSS. 34.]" Dolo :' because, according to the · Acies’ is however supported by Gud. cor. legend mentioned by Serv., and a scholiast


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At Capys, et quorum melior sententia menti,
Aut pelago Danaum insidias suspectaque dona
Praecipitare iubent, subiectisque urere flammis,
Aut terebrare cavas uteri et temptare latebras.
Scinditur incertum studia in contraria volgus.

Primus ibi ante omnis, magna comitante caterva,
Laocoon ardens summa decurrit ab arce,
Et procul: O miseri, quae tanta insania, cives ?
Creditis avectos hostis ? aut ulla putatis
Dona carere dolis Danaum ? sic notus Ulixes ?
Aut hoc inclusi ligno occultantur Achivi,




on Lycophron, Thymoetes had a grudge thinks, whatever it may bave elsewhere. against Priam, who in consequence of an • Cavas latebras,' a translation of Koinov oracle that a child born on a certain day nóxov, Od. 4. 277., 8. 515. would be the ruin of Troy, put to death an 39.) 'Scinditur in studia contraria' im. illegitimate son of his own by Cilla, wife of plies that they take opposite sides, appa. Thymoetes, not Paris, who had the same rently those of Thymoetes and Capys, with birthday. *Iam,' now at last,' as Henry warmth, studia' being almost an antici. takes it. Sic ferebant' seems to mean pation of Tacitus’ use of the word in the were setting that way: see on 11. 345. sense of factions, “Ultio senatum in studia So apparently Cic. Pis. 2. 5, “quod ita diduxerat,” Hist. 4. 6. The line is doubtexistimabam tempora reip. ferre.” Virg. less meant, as it is generally quoted, to may have thought of Il. 2. 834, kîpes gàp characterize a mob contemptuously ; but άγον μέλανος θανάτοιο. το φέρον is the it points as much to party spirit as to Greek synonyme for Fate.

giddiness. 35.] Capys, a companion of Aeneas, 9. 40-56.] 'Laocoon warmly denounces 576., 10. 145. Quae sit dubiae sententia the horse as a Greek stratagem, and hurls menti” 11. 314.

his spear at it.' 36.] • Insidias' for the horse itself, like 40.] •Primus ante omnis' is not said, “ doli” y. 264. Od. 8. 494, 8v TOT' és as Heyne thinks, with reference to åkpórov dónov Gyaye sios 'Osvogeús, un. 'magna comitante caterva,' which would less dórov be an adverbial or cognate acc. be jejune. The meaning is, at this juncSo Eur. Tro. 530, 86/1ov drav, also of the ture Laocoon, followed by a large numhorse. Dona :' see on v. 31.

ber, plunges into the arena and takes 37.] It may be doubted from the word the lead. Thymoetes had been called praecipitare' whether Virg. meant to “primus” v. 32, as having first made translate Od. 8.508, 9 Katà Tetp:wv Bal éery himself heard. épúoavtas étákpns. Subiectisque' is 41.] ‘Ab arce :' Pergamus, which overthe reading of the MSS. Heyne intro. looked the shore. Heyne. duced subiectisve,' on a warrant from 44.] ‘Has this been your experience Servius. Wagn. (Q. V. 34. 1) adduces of Ulysses ?' who is mentioned not as other instances where 'que' couples no- actually having been a principal in the tions which though not strictly compatible scheme, which the Trojans could not with each other have some point in com. have known, but as the natural author mon,-as here burning and sinking are of fraud,“ hortator scelerum Aeolides," two modes of destroying the horse, and so 6. 529. are distinguished from any plan of exa 45.] The two cases put in this and the mining it.

two following lines are that the horse is a 38.] Od. 8. 507, where the three propo- receptacle of soldiers, and that it is a means sitions debated are breaking open the of scaling the walls. In the former case it horse (Batuñgat, stronger than 'tere would be fatal if admitted within the city, brare '), casting it from a precipice, and in the latter even if left outside. There accepting it as a peace-offering to the is not the slightest reason to suppose with gods. • Temptare' here is simply to Ribbeck that v. 45 and vv. 46, 47 were search, with no notion of danger, as Forb. left as alternatives by Virg., who would

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