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its speedy termination—and great good fortune only whets his appetite for greater;
As in the dropsy, if indulged the thirst,
The patient joys, but his disease is nurst.' He soon finds that he is incapable of a higher effort than discussing the merits of a scheme, or lounging upon the counter of a lottery office, so that that which was resorted to as promising a great blessing, has become the bane of his happiness, and the solemn business of his life. When his means are exhausted, and his friends lose their confidence, he cannot gratify his passion for the game, or his pruriency for its successes, by appealing, like the regular gamester, to the fortunate winner for a new supply. Driven, as well by the desperate necessity of ministering to his excitement, as by depraved principles and reckless despair, he is ready for the perpetration of any enormity. Which, then, has the preponderance of evil as an engine of state ? If the risks be greater, by which the prospect of loss must be commensurately increased—if it be more likely to lead to incurable idleness--if its inevitable and certain tendency be to intemperance, to perfidy, to fraud, and to crime—and if its pernicious influence be more widely diffused—we can be at no loss to which to attribute the loathsome superiority.”
The spirit of speculation is indeed one of the evil tendencies of American character, and should be repressed in every possible way, or, at least regulated and kept within proper bounds. When so repressed, it may prove, and has indeed proved, the prompter and the successful agent in the noblest enterprises.
We present a single additional extract on account of the useful information which it contains. It furnishes an abstract of what has been done in other states of this Union in the shape of legislative enactments upon the subject of lotteries.
“In New York the lottery system has prevailed to an alarming extent. During the year 1830, schemes were drawn, in the city of New York alone, to the overwhelming amount of nine millions two hundred and seventy thousand dollars. The year 1833 witnessed its termination in that great commonwealth, by virtue of an act passed in pursuance of the spirit which dictated a salutary provision in her revised constitution. That constitution, in the spirit of enlightened and genuine philanthropy, has disabled the legislature fronı ever making the grant of a lottery. The provision is in these words:
“ Art. 7. Sec. 11. “No lottery shall hereafter be authorized in this state; and the legislature shall pass laws to prevent the sale of all lottery tickets within this state, except in lotteries already provided for by law.'
“Through the statute book of Virginia there are scattered forty or fifty acts of assembly authorizing lotteries for various objects of a local nature, connected for the most part with the cause of improvement. At the session of 1832–3 alone, no less than twelve new ones were enacted. Of this frightful number, it is consolatory to hope, from the diminutive sums mentioned in the grants, that only three or four will be rendered injurious by being carried into execution. An act of 1825 prohibited the sale of foreign tickets, but as it could not be executed, licenses were substituted." “It is not a little remarkable that the Virginia legislature at the sesVOL. XXI.—NO. 42.
sion of 1832–3, should authorize 'twelve new lotteries to be drawn,' while an act to suppress them altogether was substantially passed by both houses ! The bill for their suppression had received the sanction of the delegates, and was returned with an unimportant amendment from the senate, which, as it was the last day of the session, the former had not time to consider. It remains for us to hope that it will be revived and concurred in with unanimity.
• In Ohio, Vermont, Maine, and Michigan, the loitery system is destroyed; and in Louisiana, where twenty grants have been authorized since the year 1810, its existence is to terminate on the first day of the coming year.
" The constitutions of Maryland and Tennessee have wisely interfered in the destruction of all power on the part of the legislature, to license so pernicious a species of gambling:
New Hampshire passed a law in 1791 for the suppression of the evil, the penalty of which was altered in 1807, and this again by an act of 1927, which is still in operation. This statute makes it penal to dispose of any property by means of a lottery, or to sell foreign lottery tickets. There is no grant in existence, but until recently foreign tickets were sold in almost every bookseller's shop in the state in open defiance of the law."
“ In North Carolina the system is virtually abandoned by the suspension of schemes, and the absence of lottery offices for the sale of tickets; although the grant for the Neuse river is said still to be in being.
“In Massachusetts the clandestine sale of lottery tickets, which had been extensively carried on in Boston, was arrested at the session of the legislature for 1832–3, with an energy and unanimity of sentiment highly gratifying.
“ The legislature of New Jersey, for the last twelve or fifteen years, has uniformly resisted the most urgent applications for grants of lotteries, but in defiance of the penalties annexed to selling foreign tickets, they are exposed in every part of the state. We are informed upon the best authority, that extraordinary arts are employed to induce their purchase. Newspaper publications, personal solicitations and importunities, handbills thrown in at almost every door, and the exposure of artful and gaudy signs to public view, are among the means resorted to. It is to be hoped that this violation of their laws will be stopped, both from considerations relating to their own citizens, as well as to those of Philadelphia. If the practice be connived at by the authorities of New Jersey, she inay expect, now that lotteries in Pennsylvania are terminated, to be darkened by the flight into Camden, and the neighbouring towns, of the numerous lottery brukers with which Philadelphia was recently swarming. Will she consent to receive into her bosom two hundred greedy lottery brokers to prey upon the vitals of her national prosperity ? Will she consent to render inoperative the legislation of Pennsylvania, by presenting to her citizens an easy opportunity of evading the law in going beyond the reach of its penalties?
“ There exists no lottery in Illinois, but, owing to the absence of statutory prohibition against the sale of foreign tickets, they have been offered for sale during the past summer. Bills for the introduction of the lottery system have been from time to time presented to the legislature, but without success. At the last session of the senate, a bill received its sanction for the purpose of improving the condition of Purgatory ;' but a large majority of the house defeated the proposition.
The name of a road well known to travellers passing between Vin
“In Connecticut there are two unexpired grants; the Retreat for the Insane, and the Enfield Bridge Company. The sale of tickets, not authorized by these grants, is prohibited by the revised criminal code of 1830, under the penalty of fine or imprisonment.
“The laws by which lotteries are guarded in this state, are so judicious that we propose to introduce an abstract of their provisions.
" The revised criminal code of 1830, prohibits all unauthorized lotteries in any form.”
“In Georgia there have been thirteen grants since the year 1825. A penalty exists against the sale of foreign tickets, but the law, from long evasion, is regarded as obsolete. The system which obtains in this state of disposing by lottery of the public lands, is no otherwise pernicious than as it keeps alive a gambling propensity, and has been the means of giving them to unworthy recipients without a just equivalent."
“The last legislature of Missouri granted two lotteries, one for the construction of a rail-road, and the other for the benefit of a hospital at St. Louis, to be under the direction of The Sisters of Charity. It is much to be regretted that Missouri should now for the first time embark in a system which the other states are endeavouring to abolish, under an impression that the cause of improvement or true benevolence can be promoted by it. But the argument in favour of the bills was that, as foreign lottery tickets were not prohibited, they found admission into the state, and there was no way to remedy the evil but by the encouragement of a domestic system !
“In Kentucky and Alabama grants are in being, and foreign lottery tickets sold without any legal impediment. Lotteries exist in Rhode Island and Delaware, but to what extent and under what circumstances, we have no means of ascertaining."
We have remarked above, that the first edition of Mr. Tyson's pamphlet was issued in January 1833, and extensively circulated throughout the Union. Shortly after, the Young Men's Society of Boston—a very praiseworthy institution-invited Mr. George W. Gordon, of that city, to deliver an address upon the subject of lotteries, which had then begun to attract much attention in that quarter. He delivered a lecture on the 12th day of March of the same year, which was very well written, and received justly a favourable consideration at the hands of the critics. Among other notices was a short one in a leading eastern periodical, which passed very considerable encomia upon the interesting facts which Mr. Gordon had collected, and the great industry and research which he had displayed. That gentleman himself had, in his preface and notes, rendered due credit to Mr. Tyson for the array of facts which he had presented in sketching the history of this species of gambling, and the melancholy incidents attendant upon its progress. Many cennes and St. Louis. It is observed of the object of this bill by a correspondent who has kindly given us the information, that it would be certainly a very proper application of money raised by means of lotteries, as, through their agency, many are fitted for this dreadful place.'
1 The North American Review for October 1833, No. 81, Art. 8, entitled “Lotteries."
parts, in fact, of Mr. Gordon's lecture were but copies of passages in Mr. Tyson's “Survey," and others, the same ideas clothed in slightly variant language. Mr. Gordon, as we have remarked, pretended no concealment or denial upon the subject, but freely acknowledged his obligations. His reviewer, however, contented himself with the praise of Mr. Gordon's accuracy and research, without reference to the sources of his information, which were apparent upon the face of the lecture itself. The omission did injustice to the original collector of these facts whose pamphlet had been extensively circulated by those individuals in the city of Philadelphia who had embarked in the cause with so much zeal, and who were fully sensible of the merits of Mr. Tyson's sketch. Those merits should have been recognised in every notice of the subject.
With respect to this new edition, it may be sufficient to say, that the former editions appear to have become exhausted, and the demand for new copies to have increased. The author has nearly rewritten the whole performance, and added many new facts of an interesting nature.
ART. V.- The Complete Gardener, or Directions for Culti
vating and right ordering of Fruit and Kitchen Gardens, with divers reflections on several parts of Husbandry. By the famous N. DE LA QUINTINIE, chief director of the gardens of the French king. Made into English by JOHN EVELYN, Esq.; illustrated with copper plates. London: Matthew Gillyflower, at the Spread Eaglc in Westminster Hall, and James Partridge, Charing Cross : 1793.
Tillage is an art of great antiquity, of great importance, and of infinite diversity and use. It comprehends agriculture and horticulture, both of these arts being indebted to the plough and the spade. Horticulture, of which it is our intention to speak, although a distinct branch in itself
, has the privilege of referring to the rules of tillage, with which agriculture is more immediately and constantly connected—the plough is the emblem of the latter art, and the spade of the former.
These terms-agriculture and horticulture—were not formerly applied to farming and gardening; nor was a man of education and refinement at all ambitious of engaging in either
of these pursuits. Fifty years ago a farmer stood very low in the scale; but revolutions and wars have driven an entirely new description of artists into the field-not of blood-not of the sword—but of the ploughshare. Revolutions and embargoes are great evils while they last, yet a state of things has arisen from them which shows that a permanent good has been extracted from the evil. But for the revolution, but for the embargo, the non-intercourse, our farmers would still have been stigmatized as clodhoppers; they would still be considered as a thick-headed, heavy-footed, sordid race-stupid and stubborn.
The heavy-footed craft is extinct, or rather the grub has been transformed into an enviable shape; a farmer, now, is frequently a man of education and taste, having a mind stored with knowledge of the most attractive kind. Although the business of farming is the same as it was formerly, yet how differently is it conducted—even the name of the art has changed ! There is a charm about it which none but those who cultivate the earth can enjoy, which none but those can comprehend- the charm of independence.
An agriculturist is a maker of fences, a grower of grain and grasses, a breeder of cattle, hogs, and poultry—not of sheep, for that belongs to a separate branch of the art, requiring undivided attention—he is likewise a dairyman, a seller of butter and cheese. All this, with a thousand nameless things which necessarily spring out of these important radicals, are quite enough for the management of one man, if we add to them a bird's-eye knowledge of farriery, carpentry, and natural philosophy. He is likewise a husband and a father, and has to observe the courtesies of hospitality and the rules of good neighbourhood, as well as his duties as a Christian and citizen. All these labours and pleasures, well performed and enjoyed, will send a man tired enough to his ten o'clock bed, and to his dreamless, healthy sleep, without meddling with horticulture, that book of many leaves, each one requiring a distinct and alert faculty to comprehend it.
The horticulturist is likewise a tiller of the earth, but his duties and pursuits are of a more varied nature. He frequently uses the plough, but then it requires a different attention. There have to be more doublings and windings—more care in its management, than when in the hands of a farmer. But the additional care required is not that the furrows may be deeper, or the sod turned more evenly, but that the roots of trees may not be injured.
A horticulturist cultivates the ground on a small scale, and depends greatly on the spade; in fact, the period is fast approaching when a labouring horse will never be seen in the