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“He spake, his speech a muttring short befell,

Next after solitary Peter rose,
Though private 'mongst the princes at counsell

As he from whom that voyage chiefly grows,
What Godfrey doth exhort I say as well,

No doubt here fals.

The olde man silenst here. What thoughts, what breasts,

Are shut from thee, breath sacred! heat divine !
Thou in the hermite dost enspire these heasts,

And in the knights' harts thou the same dost shrine ;
Th'ingraft, th' inborne affections thou outwrests,

Of rule, of libertie, of honours' signe.
So as both Gwelfe and Gwilliam chiefe in place
Did Godfrey first with name of chieftaine grace."

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“This said, the Hermite Peter rose and spake,

(Who sate in counsell these great lords among)
At my request this war was undertake

In private cell who earst liv'd closed long,
What Godfrey wills of that no question make,

There cast no doubts where truth is plaine and strong.

And therewith staid his speech. O gratious Muse!

What kindling motions in their brests doe frie?
What grace divine the hermit's talk infuse,

That in their harts his words may fructify;
By this a virtuous concord they did chuse,

And all contentions then began to die;
The princes with the multitude agree,
That Godfrey ruler of those wars should be.”

How very much superior are the first lines of this last stanza in Carew's translation, and how finely they breathe the spirit of their great original, which is absolutely lost in Fairefax's tame imitation.

“Qui tacque il veglio. Hor quai pensier, quai petti,

Son chiusi a te, sant ’aura, e divo ardore?” · Carew. “ The olde man silenst here. What thoughts, what breasts,

Are shut from thee, breath sacred! heat divine !"

Fairefax. And therewith staid his speech. O'gratious muse!

What kindling motions in their brests doe frie?"

The first of these stanzas too is very incorrectly translated by Fairefax. We completely lose the fine idea in the first line of the original,

“Disse: e ai detti segui breve bisbiglio," and the characteristic epithet, il solitario Piero, is weakened and extended through a whole line,

“In private cell who earst liv'd closed long." while Peter is made to declare himself the cause of the war, words which, both in Tasso and Carew, are not put in the mouth of the Hermit, but form part of the narrative.

There is one verse in the Episode of Sofronia and Olindo, of which we give both the versions, and which may serve as a proof that we cannot always trust Fairefax in point of accuracy, though, at the same time, we must observe that his deviation, in this instance, has been productive of additional beauty.

It is Sofronia about to depart on her magnanimous purpose : Fairefax. “And forth she went, a shop for merchandize

Full of rich stuff, but none for sale expos’d;
A vail obscur'd the sunshine of her eyes,

The rose within herself her sweetnes clos'd.
Each ornament about her seemley lies,

By curious chance, or carelesse art, compos’d;
For what the most neglects, most curious prove,

So beautie's helpt by nature, heav'n, and love.
Carew. This maide alone through preace of vulgar went,

Beauty she covers not, nor sets to sight;
Shadow'd her eyes, in vaile her body pent,

With manner coy, yet coy in noble plight,
I note where car'de, or carelesse ornament,

Where chance or art her fairest count'nance dight.
Friended by heav'n, by nature, and by love,
Her mere neglects most artificial prove."

Now Tasso has nothing like the simile which Fairefax has introduced at the commencement of this stanza, and which certainly is not the most poetical one which was ever inventedthen, the sense of the second line, which is most literally translated by Carew,

Non coprì sue bellezze, e non l'espose ;"

a line beautifully characteristic, is altogether neglected; but, to counterbalance these inaccuracies, Fairefax has inserted a line of his own, of singular deliciousness

“ The rose within herself her sweetnes clos'd ;"

there is, however, nothing of the kind in the original. We shall
draw another parallel, in which we think Carew will not be
deemed inferior to his successor. It is the description of
Night, at the end of the second book-a description evidently
taken by Tasso from Virgil.
Fairefax. “Now spread the Night her spangled canopie,

And sommon'd every restlesse eie to sleepe:
On beds of tender grasse the beasts down lie,

The fishes slumb'red in the silent deep,
Unheard was serpents' hiss, and dragons' crie,

Birds left to sing, and Philomele to weepe,
Only that noise heav'ns rolling circles kest,

Sung lullabie, to bring the world to rest.*
Carew. Now was it night, when in deepe rest enrold,

Are waves and winds, and mute the world doth show,
Weari'd the beasts, and those that bottome hold

Of billow'd sea, and of moyst streames that flow,
And who are lodgde in cave, or pen’d in fold,

And painted flyers in oblivion low,
Under their secret horrours silenced,
Stilled their cares, and their harts suppelled.”

The following is the description, given by our translators, of the youthful Tancred preparing for the fight. Fairefax. “Mast-great the speare was which the gallant bore,

That in his war-like pride he made to shake,
As windes tall cedars tosse on mountaines hore.

The king, that wond'red at his brav’rie, spake
To her that neere him seated was before,

Who felt her hart with love's hot fever quake,
Well should'st thou know (quoth he) each Christian knight
By long acquaintance, though in armour dight.

* As a proof of the very unwarrantable alterations in the edition of Fairefax, published in 1749, we may observe that this line is given thus :

Sooth'd mortal cares, and lull’d the world to rest.”


Say who is he showes so great worthinesse,

That rides so ranke, and bends his lance so fell ?
To this the princesse said nor more nor lesse,

Her hart with sighes, her eies with teares did swell ;
But sighes and teares she wisely could suppresse,

Her love and passion she dissembled well,
And strove her love and hot desires to cover,
'Till hart with sighs, and eyes with teares ron over.

Book III.
So strong great launce he beares, and in such guyse

This youth comes on, both fierce and faire in sight :
That king, who from aloft his port descryes,

Him deemes amongst the best a chosen knight,
And sayes to her, who in next seat him nyes,

And now her heart feels in a panting plight,
Through so long use you may to me declare
Ech Christen, though in armes they closed are.
What then is he that doth so seemely frame

Himselfe to just, and so fierce semblance beare?
Unto the ladie, for an answer came

On lips a sigh, and in her eyes a teare;
But breath and weeping backe she doth reclame,

Though so as yet they make some muster theare,
For her swolne eyes, a purple circle faire,
Tainted, and hoarse halfe sigh brake forth to aire.”

We may again remark the interpolation of a simile in the first book of these stanzas from Fairefax.

As windes tall cedars tosse on mountaines hore."

Carew's translation of the combat between Clorinda and Tancred is very spirited, though quaint.

“ Tancred's assault this while Clorinda plyes,

T'encounter, and in rest her launce bestowes ;
Ech t other's beaver hits, the splints to skyes

Up start, and she in part disarmed showes :
For buckles broke, foorthwith the helmet flyes

From off her head, (a blow whence wonder growes,)
And golden lockes unto the wind display'd,
She midst the field appeares a youthly mayd.
Her eyes do flash, her lookes do lighten bright,

Sweet ev'n in wrath, in laughter then what grace

They hold ? Tancred, whereon think'st thou ? thy sight

Where bend'st thou? know'st thou not this noble face?
This is that visage faire whence thou in light

Flames burnost, thy hart (her picture's shrine) the case
Can show, this same is she whom quenching thirst
At solitarie spring thou sawest first.
He that of painted shield, and of her crest

Tooke earst no keepe, now seeing her doth grow
A stone, she bared head covers, as best

She may, and him assayles, he gets her fro,
And fell blade whirling, makes against the rest,

Yet at her hand peace cannot purchase so;
But threatfull him pursewes; and turne, she cries,
And to deathes twaine at once she him defies.
Stroken this knight, no strokes againe replyes,

Nor so from sword himselfe to guard attends,
As to regard her cheekes and fairest eyes,

From whence his bow Love uneschewed bends;
T'himselfe he sayes, ech blow unharmefull dyes,

Which force of her right hand (though armed) lends,
But never blow from her faire naked face

Falles vaine, but in my heart findes lighting place.”

The description of Armida in the following stanza, though fantastic, is exceedingly beautiful—the four last lines are quite singular for the minute accuracy, yet happy elegance, of the translation.—Had it been possible that the whole Poem could have been so perfectly transmuted into English, we might, indeed, believe that we were reading Tasso.—The copy is absolutely verbatim.

“ The winde new crisples makes in her loose haire,

Which nature selfe to waves re-crispelled,
Her sparing lookes a coy regard doth beare,

And love's treasures and hers up wympelled,"
Sweete roses colour in that visage faire

With yvorie is spirst and mingelled,
But in her mouth whence breath of love outgoes,

Ruddy alone and single blooms the rose."
The four last lines in Tasso run thus:

“Dolce color di rosse in quel bel volto

Fra l'avorie si sparge, e si confonde:

* Concealed.A wimple is a covering for the neck.

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