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by food and field. The reader's imagination is by their means wonderfully assisted, and he is enabled to transport himself in idea into the very midst of things; a power essentially requisite to render the perusal of history either entertaining or profitable. The incidents follow one another in quick and lively succession, and are related in an easy unaffected style, which is usually vigorous, and occasionally happy. Besides, the tone of the work is so perfectly military--there is such a cheerful and hardy indifference to the casualties of war, that its horrors are partly concealed, and the reader's imagination is hurried so lightly over the stricken field, that his sensibility is never painfully awakened. Then his Swedish majesty, as the cavalier well observes, makes war in such a pleasant sort of way !-he is so certain to beat the enemy! and we move on in such a continued career of victory. The chase is so hotly and eagerly pursued, that there is no time for thought—the deed is first done, and then considered of-perpendicular walls are scaled in a twinkling, and men, in their hurry, spike themselves on the points of the enemy's weapons—a soldier falls, and becomes his comrade's stepping-stool-there is no room for ceremony or sympathy-none look aside-one object is in the view of all, and that is straight before them-in the midst of fire and smoke, the town is won-victoria !-Men have now leisure to wipe their brows and wonder at their achievements. Such was the way of fighting under the “glorious King of Sweden—the lion of the north, and the champion of the Protestant cause."
After the death of Gustavus, our cavalier quits the Swedish service, but cannot find in his heart to leave Germany, where he spends two years in wandering up and down, like a ghost around his buried treasure, sometimes in the army, sometimes out of it. But at length the tide changes-the Swedes are vanquished, and the Imperialists cry victoria! in their turn. The cavalier, who has a natural dislike of being beaten, and no satisfaction in belonging to the wrong side, at this crisis gave his friends, the Swedes, over for lost, and fairly takes his departure ; making good an observation, which is put in the mouth of Gustavus Adolphus, “You English gentlemen are too forward in the wars, which makes you leave them too soon.” .
He takes an opportunity, whilst in Holland, of seeing prince Maurice and his army, whose Dutch way of fighting is the very reverse of the King of Sweden's.
“ I spent some time in Holland viewing the wonderful power of art which I observed in the fortifications of their towns, where the very bastions stand on bottomless morasses, and yet are as firm as any in the world. There I had the opportunity to see the Dutch army, and their famous general, Prince Maurice.
It is true the men behaved themselves well in action, when they were put to it; but the prince's way of beating his enemies, without fighting, was so unlike the gallantry of my royal instructor, that it had no manner of relish with me.
Gustavus Adolphus's way was always to seek out the enemy and fight him; and give the Imperialists their due, they were seldom hard to be found, but were as free of their flesh as we were,
Whereas prince Maurice would lie in a camp till he starved half his men, if by lying there he could but starve half his enemy's; so that indeed the war in Holland had more of fatigues and hardships in it, and ours had more of fighting and blows : hasty marches, long and unwholesome encampments, winter parties, counter marching, dodging, and entrenching, were the exercises of his men, and oftentimes killed him more men with hunger, cold, and diseases, than he could do with fighting.
Not that it required less courage but rather more; for a soldier had, at any time, rather die in the field by a musket than be starved with hunger, or frozen to death in the trenches.
Nor do I think I lessen the reputation of that prince ; for it is most certain he ruined the Spaniards more by spinning the war thus out in length than he could possibly have done by a swift conquest : for had he, Adolphus like, with a torrent of victory dislodged the Spaniard of all the twelve provinces in five years, whereas he was forty years beating them out of seven, he had left them rich and strong at home, and able to keep him in constant apprehensions of a return of their power."
We do not wonder that this ungallant mode of fighting should be so little to the taste of one, whose old master had accustomed him to so very different a style, and whose“ way" he describes, above, to have been generally this :
“ When he came before any town with a design to besiege it-he never would encamp at a distance, and begin his trenches a great way off, but bring his men immediately within half musket shot of the place; there getting under the best cover he could, he would immediately begin his batteries and trenches before their faces, and, if there was any place possible to be attacked, he would fall to storming immediately. By this resolute way of coming on, he carried many a town in the first heat of his men, which would have held out many days against a more regular siege."
Arrived, and settled peaceably in his native country, he finds himself quite out of his element, and is as little good for any useful purpose as
- a sword laid by, That eats into itself and rusts ingloriously.” “ I spent my time very retired from court, for I was almost wholly in the country; and it being so much different from my genius, which hankered after a warmer sport than hunting among our Welch
mountains, I could not but be peeping in all the foreign accounts from Germany to see who and who were together. I could never hear of a battle, and the Germans being beaten, but I began to wish myself there.
But when an account came of the progress of John Bannier, the Swedish general in Saxony, and of the constant victories he had there over the Saxons, I could no longer contain myself, and told my father this life was very disagreeable to me.” &c.
However, it soon appears that if he will wait but a very little while, he may have war at his own door, “ for the winter following began to look very unpleasant upon them in England, and his father used often to sigh at it, and would sometimes lament he was afraid they should have no need to send Englishmen to fight in Germany.” He himself is quite cheered with the prospect, and his only concern is that the parties will not fall out at all, and that they shall have no fighting; for which unpatriotic sentiment he very properly takes himself to task.
" I confess, when I went into arms at the beginning of this war, I did not trouble myself to examine sides: I was glad to hear the drums beat for soldiers, as if I had been a mere Swiss, who cares not which side gets the better, provided he receives his pay. I went as eagerly and blindly about this business as the meanest wretch that listed in the army; nor had I the least compassionate thought for the miseries of my native country till after the battle at Edgehill.
I had known, as much and perhaps more than most in the army, what it was to have an enemy ranging in the bowels of a kingdom: I had seen the most flourishing provinces of Germany reduced to perfect deserts, and the voracious Crabats, with inhuman barbarity, quenching the fires of the plundered villages with the blood of the inhabitants. Whether this had hardened me against the natural tenderness which I afterwards found return upon me, or not, I cannot tell ; but I reflected upon the unconcernedness of my temper at the approaching ruin of my native country.”
It is not long before he finds the vast difference between hacking at fellows with foreign aspects, and unknown speech, and hewing down his own countrymen, and an enemy who cried out in his mother-tongue.
“Now I began to think of the real grounds, and, which was more, of the fatal issue of this war.
I say, I now began it; for I cannot say that I ever rightly stated matters in my own mind before, though I had been enough used to blood, and seen the destruction of people, sacking of towns, and plundering the country, yet it was in Germany, and among strangers ; but I found an unaccountable sadness upon my spirits to see this acting in my own native country.
It grieved me to the heart, even in the rout of our enemies, to see the slaughter of them; and even in the fight, to hear a man cry for quarter in English, moved me to a compassion which I had never been used to; nay, sometimes it looked to me as if some of my own men had been beaten : and when I heard a soldier cry, “ O God! I am shot," I looked behind me to see which of my own troop had fallen. Here I saw myself at the cutting of the throats of my friends and indeed some of my near relations. My old comrades and fellowsoldiers in Germany were some with us, some against us, as their opinions happened to differ in religion.
For my part, I confess I had not much religion in me at the time; but I thought religion rightly practised on both sides would have made us all better friends; and, therefore, sometimes I began to think that both the bishops on our side, and the preachers on theirs, made religion rather the pretence than the cause of the war."
The Parliament, it seems, were used to exclaim against the cruelties committed by the king's troops, but our cavalier's German education had taught him to look upon these as mere trifles : he, however, considers the question fairly enough, and we cannot forbear quoting this part of the work, as a specimen of the candour which the whole tenour of the narrative so remarkably evinces.
“ I cannot deny but these flying parties of horse committed great spoil among the country people, and sometimes the prince gave a liberty to some cruelties which were not at all for the king's interest: because it being still upon our own country, and the king's own subjects, whom, in all his declarations, he protested to be careful of. It seemed to contradict all those protestations and declarations, and served to aggravate and exasperate the common people; and the king's enemies made all the advantages of it that were possible, by crying out of twice as many extravagancies as were committed. . It is true the king, who naturally abhorred such things, could not restrain his men, no, nor his generals, so absolutely as he would have done. The war, on his side, was voluntarily: many gentlemen served him at their own charge, and some paid whole regiments themselves.
Sometimes also the king's affairs were straiter than ordinary, and his men were not very well paid, and this obliged him to wink at their excursions upon the country, though he did not approve of them; and yet I must own, that in those parts of England where the war was hottest there never was seen that ruin and depopulation, murders, ravishments, barbarities, which I have seen even among Protestant armies abroad in Germany, and other foreign parts of the world : and if the parliament people had seen those things abroad as I had, they would not have complained. · The most I have seen is plundering the towns for provisions, drinking their beer, and turning out horses into their fields or stacks of corn, and sometimes the soldiers would be a little rude with the
wenches : but, alas, what was this to count Tilly's ravages in Saxony? or what was our taking of Leicester by storm, where they cried out of our barbarities, to the sacking of New Brandenburg, or the taking of Magdeburg ?
I do not instance these barbarities to justify lesser actions, which are never the less irregular; but I do say, that, circumstances considered, this war was managed with as much humanity on both sides as could be expected, especially considering the animosity of parties.”
The war itself, though both parties set to work with great good-will, was not, it seems, conducted by either in that scientific style to which he had been accustomed on the continent: the following is the general character which he gives of it: ..." And now all things grew ripe for action, both parties having secured their posts, and settled their schemes of the war, taking their posts and places as their measures directed. The field was next in their eye, and the soldiers began to enquire when they should fight, for as yet there has been little or no blood drawn, and it was not long before they had enough of it; for I believe I may challenge all the historians in Europe, to tell me of any war in the world where, in the space of four years, there was so many pitched battles, sieges, fights, and skirmishes, as in this war.
We never encamped or entrenched, never fortified the avenues to our posts, or lay fenced with rivers and defiles. Here were no leaguers in the field, as at the storm of Nurenburg ; neither had our soldiers any tents, or what they call heavy baggage. It was the general maxim of this war, Where is the enemy? Let us go and fight them: or, on the other hand, if the enemy was coming, What was to be done? Why, what should be done? Draw out in the field and fight them.
I cannot say it was the prudence of the parties, and had the king fought less he had gained more; and I shall remark several times when the eagerness of fighting was the worst counsel, and proved our loss. This benefit, however, happened in general to the country, that it made a quick, though a bloody, end of the war, which otherwise had lasted till it might have ruined the whole nation.
As we have already extended our extracts to an unreasonable length, we shall forbear to quote any more from this part of the work, though it is the one which is most interesting, both from the nature of the war, and the scene where it was carried on. The story of the civil war is told with a candour and fairness, which cannot but recommend it to the reader; and the narrative possesses all the merits which we remarked of the former part of the memoirs, joined to a subject of much deeper and more powerful interest. It is said to have been a favourite work of Lord Chatham's, and was long believed by