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Another mode belonging to this head is that Srace, in geometry, denotes the area of of place.
any figure; or that which fills the interval or Another mode of space, is the idea which distance between the lines that terminate or we get from the feeling, and perpetually pe- bound it. Thus, rishing, parts of succession, which we call The parabolic space is that included in the duration."
whole parabola. The conchoidal space, or the Space is usually divided into absolute and cissoidal space, is what is included within the relative.
cavity of the conchoid or cissoid. And the Absolute space, is that considered in its own asymptotic space, is what is included between nature, without regard to any thing external, an hyperbolic curve and its asymptote. By the which always remains the same, and is infinite new inethods now introduced, of applying algeand immoveable.
bra to geometry, it is demonstrated that the Relative space, is that moveable dimension, conchoidal and cissoidal spaces, though inor measure of the former, which our senses finitely extended in length, are yet only finite define by its positions to bodies within it; and magnitudes or spaces. this the vulgar use for immoveable space. SPACE, in mechanics, is the line a move
Relative space, in magnitude and figure, is able body, considered as a point, is conceived always the same with absolute; but it is not to describe by its motion. necessary it should be so numerically: as if SPACIOUS, a. (spatiosus, Lat.) Wide; you suppose a ship to be, indeed, in absolute extensive ; roomy; not narrow (Cowley). rest, then the places of all things within her SPACIOUSLY. ad. Extensively. will be the same absolutely and relatively, and SPA'CIOUSNESS. s. (from spacious.) nothing will change its place ; but suppose the Roominess ; wide extension. ship under sail, or in motion, and she will SPA'DDLE. s. (diminutive of spade.) A continually pass through new parts of absolute little spade (Mortimer). space; but all things on board considered re- SPA'DE. s. (rpad, Sax, spade, Dutch.) 1. latively, in respect to the ship, may be, not. The instrument of digging (Brown). 2. A withstanding, in the same places, or have the deer three years old (Ainsworth). 3. A suit of same situation and position, in regard to one cards. another.
SPA'DEBONE. s. (named from the form.) The Cartesians, who make extension the The shoulderblade (Drayton). essence of matter, assert, that the space any SPADICEOUS COLOUR, in botany, the body takes up, is the same thing with the body colour of the spadix in the palm ; it is comitself; and that there is no such thing as mere monly translated a bay-colour, from the Greek space, void of all matter, in the universe : but Bams. Ray says it is a colour approaching 10 this see disproved under VACUUM.
bay or chesnut, but with more red in it. The Cartesians, who do not allow of any SPADILLE.s. (spadille, or espadille, Fr.) distinction between space and matter, were The ace of spades at ombre. naturally enough led to the opinion, that space SPADIX, in botany, the receptacle in or extension was a substance. Others, who palms, and some other plants, proceeding from admit a vacuum, and consequently an essential a spath. It is either branched, as in palms; difference between space and matter, assert or simple, as in dracontium, &c.-In some it also that space is a substance. Among these is one-Mowered ; in others many-flowered. we find s'Gravesande's Introd. ad Philos. sect. SPAGNOLETTO (Joseph Ribera), an 19.
eminent painter, born in 1589, at Xativa, a Others put space into the same class of be- city in Spain. He travelled into Italy, and ings as time and number; that is, they make there applied to painting under the greatest it to be no more than a notion of the mind. masters. He then went and settled at Naples, Hence, according to these authors, absolute where he acquired great wealth by his being space, of which the Newtonians speak, is a constantly employed for the viceroy, and for mere chimera. See the writings of the late the greatest potentates of Europe. His natural bishop of Cloyne, passim.
turn was to describe subjects which excite ter. Those who wish to be acquainted with all ror, whether he took them from sacred or prothe intricacies which attend the different modes fane bistory, as the Murder of the Innocents, of considering space, and to know what can and Ixion and Prometheus. The strength of - be advanced by two very acute men upon so his expression, and the force of his colouring, abstruse a subject, should read the Collection give extraordinary relief to his figures, and of Papers which passed between Mr. Leibnitz make his works universally esteemed. He died and Dr. Clarke, in the Years 1715 and 1716, in 1656. selating to the Principles of Natural Philosophy SPAIN, a kingdom of Europe, 700 miles and Religion. See also the proof that “Space long and 500 broad; bounded on the N. by is a mere abstracı idea, and does not signify any the bay of Biscay, N.E. by the Pyrenees, which thing which has a real and positive existence separate it from France, E. and S. by the Mewithout us," in Doddridge's valuable Lectures diterranean, S.W. by the Atlantic, and w. by on Pneumatology, Lect. 46.
Portugal and the Atlantie. Its capital is MaIt has been seriously disputed whether space drid, and it contains the provinces of Old and be God, or whether it be nothing!
New Castile, Andalusia, Arragon, Estremadura, Galicia, Leon, Catalonia, Granada, Va- quisition once reigned in all its horrors ; but, lencia, Biscay, Asturias, Murcia, and Upper if it still exists, it has been lately rendered, Navarre, some of which have been separate by the intervention of powerful authority, kingdoms. The extent of Spain is about comparatively harmless. There are eight arch224,970 Eoglish square miles ; and the popu- bishoprics, 46 episcopal sees, and 24 unie lation was, in 1803, estimated at 10,351,075 yersities, or rather academies. The Spanish persons. The air is dry and serene, except language springs from the Roman, but many during the equinoctial rains, but excessively of the words are derived from the Arabic, used hot, in the southern provinces, in June, July, by the Moors, who for seven centuries held and August. The vast mountains, however, dominion in this country: the speech is grave, that run through Spain, are beneficial to the sonorous, and very melodions. Spain, once inhabitants by the refreshing breezes that come the most free, is now one of the most despotic from them in the S. parts; thongh those in the monarchies in Europe. It had once its cortes N. and N.E. are in the winter very cold. The or parliaments, which had great privileges ; soil is very fertile ; but there are large tracts of but till lately, though not absolutely abolished, uncultivated ground; and the superior atten- they had no part in the government. They tion paid to the large flocks of sheep greatly are assembled indeed, occasionally, (as at the impedes the progress of agriculture. The pro- accession of the monarch) but merely as an apduce of the country is wheat, barley, saffron, pendage to the royal state, without power, or honey, silk, salt, salipetre, hemp, barilla, and any other consequence than what results from even sugar-canes, with the richest and most their individual rank. But the despotism of the delicions fruits that are to be found in France late monarchy was balanced by the power of the and Italy; and its wines are in high esteem. church, to which the nobles are submissive Wolves are the chief beasts of prey that infest devotees; and by many councils, which are Spain. The wild bulls have so much ferocity, responsible for any unwise or unsuccessful that bull-fights were the most magnificent measures. In 1808, the French attempted to spectacle the court of Spain could exhibit. overturn the government of this country; and, The domestic animals are horses, that are re having allured the royal family away, the markably swift, mules, asses, beeves, and sheep, Spaniards appointed a supreme Junta of gothe wool of which is superior to any in Europe. rernment of the kingdom, who, aided by the Spain abounds in minerals and metals: corne- British, are endeavouring to expel Bonaparte's lian, agate, jacinth, loadstone, turcois stones, . brother, Joseph, and to restore Ferdinand VII. quicksilver, iron, copper, lead, sulphur, gyp- their absent king. sum, calamine, crystal, marbles of several kinds, Our English soldiers have here shown that porphyry, the finest jasper, and even diamonds, they still retain their superiority to all other emeralds, and amethysts, are found here. And troops ; and our excellent general the marquis ciently it was celebrated for gold and silver of Wellington has, by his skill, courage, perscmines; but since the discovery of America verance, and success, gained himself a name, no attention has been paid to them. The which will descend to posterity with our Marlprincipal rivers are the Douero, Tajo, Gua- boroughs, and our Wolfes, adorned by the diana, Guadalquiver, and Ebro. Spain, for- honours and accompanied by the thanks of merly the most populous kingdom in Europe, the British nation. is now very thinly inhabited; to which various SPAIN (New). See Mexico. causes have contributed, as the expulsion of SPAIN (Pellitory of). See PYRETHRUM. the Moors, the emigrations to the colonies, the SPAKE. The old preterit of speak. vast numbers and celibacy of the clergy, and SPALDING, a town in Lincolnshire, with tle indolence of the natives. Here is a want a market on Tuesday: It is seated on the cen of the most necessary trades; and of the Welland, and from its neatness, and the tew be met with, the greatest part are in the branches of the river in the streets, resembles. hands of the French, who are very numerous a Dutch town. It has a good carrying trade in in Spain; the natives themselves, beside their corn and coal; and much hemp and Max is aversion in work, disdaining to stoop to handi- grown in its neighbourhood. It is 14 miles S. crafts. They are not, however, wholly wiih- by W. of Boston, and 97 N. of London. 0130 manufactures, but they are far short of that SPALLANZANI (Lazarus), a naturalist, fivurishing condition they might attain; for born at Scandiano near Reggio, 1729. Being they are checked by the royal monopolies, elected professor of Pavia, lie devotel bimself which extend to broad cloth, china, glass, pot- to natural history, and made various experitery, paper, saltpetre, salt, sulphur, tobacco, ments in physiology. In 1779 he began to and some others. The Spaniards in general travel, and in 1786 visited Constantinople, the are tall, their complexions swarthy, their coun- plains of Troas, and the islands of Corfu and tenances expressive. The beauty of the ladies Cythera. He afterwards came to Vienna, and reigas chiefly in their novels and romances: in in 1788, examined, with philosophical accutheir persons they are small and slender. Jea- racy, the productions of the Appenines. He lousy is no longer the characteristic of a Spanish dicd of an apoplexy in 1769, at Pavia. He husband: the married ladies have here their published, Letters on the Origin of Fountains cortejo, or male attendant, in the same manner -Experiments on the Re-production of Ania as the Italians have their cicisbeo. The estas mals-Essays on Animalculæ in Fluids-Mi. blished religion is popery; and here the in- croscopical Experiments--Memoirs on the
Circulation of the Blood-Observations on the Præstantià, et usu numismatum Antiquorum, Transpiration of Plants - Travels in the Two 2 vols. folio-Letters and Dissertations on Sicilies and the Appenines, 6 vols. &c. Medals-Julian's works edited with notes,
SPAN. s. (rpani, sponne, Sax. span, Dut.) folio—besides notes on classical authors, &c. 1. The space from the end of the thumb to SPANHEIM (Frederic), brother to the prethe end of the little finger extended ; nine ceding, was born at Geneva, in 1632, and car. inches (Hold.). 2. Any short duration (Walk.), ried to Leyden by his father. After distin
To Span. v. a. 1. To measure by the hand guishing himself as a preacher at Utrechi, he extended (Tickel). 2. To measure (Herbert). was invited to the chair of divinity professor at Span. The preterit of spin.
Heidelberg, 1665, and he removed in 1670 to SPA’NCOUNTER. SPA'NFARTHING. S. Leyden, where he succeeded as professor of di(from span, counter, and farthing.) A play at rinity and sacred history. He died in 1701, which money is thrown within a span or mark in consequence of a palsy. His writings are (Donne).
very numerous, and were printed at Leyden, SPANDAU, a town of Germany, in the 3 vols. folio, chiefly on theological subjects. middle marche of Brandenburg, surrounded on The chief is his Ecclesiastical History. all sides by morasses, and close to it is a fine SPANIEL. The name of a dog (see CAfortress. The arsenal is in subterranean vaults, NIS), of which there are many varieties. Of and there is a prison for state criminals. It is water spaniels there are two, a larger and a seated on the Havel, eight miles N.W. of smaller : of land spaniels there are two also. Berlin, and 17 N.E. of Brandenburg. Lòn. The water spaniels of both variety are chiefly 13. 23 E. Lat. 52. 36 N.
employed in wild fowl shooting, in moors, SPANDRELL, in architecture, the solid marshes, and the neighbourhood of rivers ; work on each haunch of an arch, to keep it where ducks, wigeons, teal, coots, moor-hens, from rising or spreading.
dab-chicks, and snipes, are to be found; to all SPANGLE.s. (spange, German; a locket.) which they are particularly appropriate ; not 1. A small plate or boss of shining metal. 2. more for their indefatigable industry in finding Any little thing sparkling and shining (Glan- the game, than for their surmounting every obo ville).
stacle to recover it, and bring it to hand when To SPA'NGLE, v. a. (from the noun.) To killed. They are also of wonderful sagacity, besprinkle with spangles or shining bodies fidelity, and observation; their olfactory powers (Donne).
alınost exceed belief, by which alone ihey are SPANHEIM (Frederic), divinity professor taught the most incredible performances. at Leyden, was born at Amberg, 1600. He Sticks, gloves, handkerchiefs, coin, or any refused a professorship at Lausanne, and in other article left some miles behind by the 1631 succeeded to a divinity chair at Geneva, owner upon the road, or any remote spot which he left in 1642 to settle at Leyden. Here (totally unknown to them), will they retrace he was distinguished as a professor, and as a to any distance upon a signal being given with preacher, and died in 1649. He wrote Exer. the hand, and vever relinquish the search till citationes de gratiâ universali, 3 vols. 8vo.- they bring it safe to their master. Dubia evangelica, 2 vols. 4to. &c.
The large springing and sinall cocker land SPANHEIM (Ezekiel), eldest son of the pre- spaniels, although ihey vary in size, differ, like ceding, was born at Geneva, 1629. At 16 he the two kinds of water spaniels, but little in wrote a defence of Buxtorf against Capellus, their qualifications, except that the former is in favour of the Hebrew characters, which his rather slower in action ; neither catching the antagonist declared had been lost by the Jews, scent of the game so suddenly as the latter, nor but preserved by the Samaritans. This per- seeining to enjoy it with the same enthusiasm formance he afterwards called unripe fruit, when found. The small cocking spaniel has and candidly assented to the opinion of Capellus. also the advantage of getting through the low On his father's death he left Leyden for Ge- bushy covert with much less difficulty than the neva, where he was made professor of eloquence, larger spaniel, and does not tire so soon, whatand soon after lutor to the son of the elector
have been the length and labour of palatine. He was employed by the elector as the day! Both these varieties are frequently envoy to the court of Rome, where he was used as finders in coursing with greyhounds, treated with great respect by Christina of Swe. and are indefatigable in their exertions ; from den, and other great characters. After being the time they are thrown off in pursuit of game, in several negociations in Holland, at Mentz, the tail is in a perpetual motion (called featherat the congress of Breda, and in England, he ing), by the increasing vibration of which, an entered into the service of the elector of Bran. experienced sportsman well knows when he denburg, and was his envoy extraordinary at geis nearer the object of attraction. Paris, and in London. When the elector of As it is the habit of this animal to give the Brandenburg assumed the title of king, he most outrageous proof of joy upon finding, or created him his minister, baron of the Prussian coming upon the foot or haunt of game, so it dominions, and again in 1702 employed him is equally his babit never to relax in his peras his ambassador in England. He spent there severance till he brings it to view. It is there. the remainder of his days, and died in 1710. fore necessary for all young and inexperienced He wrote much, and with great success and sportsmen, who take the field with spaniels, ability. The best known of his works are, de not to be too cardy in their own motions, but
to let their agility keep pace with the incessant SPARE. S. (from the verb.) Parsimony; fruactivity of iheir dogs ; inattentive to which gal use ; husbandry: not in use (Bacon). they may expect to cover many a weary mile SPA'RER. s. (from spare.) One who avoids without a successful shot. Young spaniels, expence (Wotton). Theo trained for the field, should be taken out SPARERIB. s. (spare and rib.) Ribs cut -:v, in company with one or more old and away from the body, and having on them
spare : dogs, to whom they will mostly attend or little flesh; as, a sparerib of pork. y action, and the sooner acquire the SPARGANIUM. Bur-reed. In botany, knowledge of the business they are a genus of the class monecia, order triandria.
If young dogs alone be taken out, Ament_roundish; calyx three-leaved ; corol.
they are safe from correction) pools, and canals of our own country.
He event of not being cor. The act of sprinkling.
necessary, to become uncertain SPA'RING. a. (from spare.) 1. Scarce ; .", and never to be relied upon. The little (Bacon). 2. Scanty; not plentiful (Pope).
svils and experienced sportsman will never 3. Parsimonious ; not liberal (Dryden). Le seen to hunt spaniels with pointers either in SPA'RINGLY. ad. (from sparing.; 1. Not or out of covert; for, although it can do little abundantly (Bacon). 2. Frugally; parsimoor no injury to the former, it may very mate. niously; noi lavishly (Hayward). 3. With rially warp the discipline, if not totally destroy abstinence (Atterbury). 4. Not with great the habits of the latter.
frequency (Atterbury). 5. Cautiously; tenSPANISH TOWN. See St. JAGO. derly (Bacon).
SPANISH BROWN, in botany. See SPAR- SPARK. s. (rpeanca, Sax. sparke, Dutch.) TIUM.
1. A small particle of fire, or kindled matter SPANISH ELM, in botany. See Cordia. (Shakspeare). 2. Any thing shining (Locke).
SPANISH POTATOES, in botany. See Con. 3. Any thing vivid or active (Shakspeare). 4. YOLYULUS.
A lively, showy, splendid, gay man (Prior). SPANISH CHALK, in mineralogy, a species 5. A lover. of talc. See TALCUM.
To SPARK. v. n. (from the noun.) To emit SPANISH FLY. See CANTAARIDES and particles of fire; to sparkle: not used (Spenser). LYTTA.
SPARKFUL, a. (spark and full.) Lively; SPANISH LIQUORICE. See GLYCYR- brisk; airy: not used (Camden). BIZA.
SPA'RKISH. a. (from spark.) 1. Airy; SPANKER. s. A small coin (Denham). gay. A low word (Walsh). 2. Showy; well
SPA'NNER. S. The lock of a carabine dressed ; fine (L'Estrange). (Howel).
SPARKLE. s. (from spark.) 1. A spark ; SPAR, in mineralogy. See SPATUM. a small particle of fire (Dryden). 2. Any lu
SPAR, denotes also a small beam ; some- minous particle (Pope). times the bar of a gate:
To SPA'RKLE. v. n. (from the noun.) 1. TO SPAR. V. n. To fight with prelusive To emit sparks. 2. To issue in sparks (Milstrokes.
ton). 3. To shine; to glitter (Waits). 4. To To SPAR. v. 2. (rparran, Saxon ; sperren, emit little bubbles as liquor in a glass. German.) To shut; to close; to bar (Spenser). SPARKLINGLY. ad. (froin sparkling.)
SPA'RABLE. s. (rparran, Sax. to fasten.) With vivid and twinkling lustre (Boyle). Small nails.
SPARKLINGNESS. s. (from sparkling.) SPA'RADRAP, s. (In pharmacy.) A cere- Vivid and twinkling lustre (Boyle). cloth (Wiseman).
SPARMANNIA, in botany, a genus of SPARAGUS. See ASPARAGUS.
the class polyandria, order monogynia. Calyx To SPARE. v. 4. (rparan, Sax. spaeren, four-leaved, petals four, reflected; nectaries Datch ; espargner, Fr.) 1. To use frugally; numerous, irregular in their surface, surroundnot to waste; pot to consume (Milton). 2. ing the stamens; capsule angular, prickly, To have unemployed; to save from any parti- five-celled. One species; a hairy shrub of the cular use (Knolles). 3. To do without; to Cape ; with alternate, heart ovate leaves, and lose willingly (Ben Jonson). 4. To onit; to umbelled white flowers. furbear (Dryden). 5. To use tenderly; to for- SPARROW, in ornithology. See TRICO. bear; to treat with pity; to use with mercy (Common Prayer). 6. To grant; to allow; to SPARROW Hawk. See FALCA. iodu.ge (Roscommon). 7. To forhear to inflict SPARROW WORT. See BASSARINA. or impose (Dryden).
SPARROW (Anthony), of Depden, Suffolk, To SPARE. v. 11. 1. To live frugally; to be was expelled froin Queen's college, Cambridge, parsimonious (Shakspeare). 2. To forbear; for refusing to subscribe to the covenant, 1613. to be scrupulous (Knolles). 3. To use merey; At the restoration he was placed at the head to forgive (Bacon).
of his college, made archdeacon of Sudbury, SPARE. 4. 1. Scanty; parsimonious; frugal and in 1667 raised to the see of Exeter, and (Lake). 2. Superfluous; unwanted (Addison). next translated to Norwich. He compiled a 3. Lean; wanting flesh; macilent (Milton). collection of articles, injunctions, canons, &c.
and also Rationale, or the Book of Common The following are coltivated. Prayer, 1657, 8vo. improved afterwards with 1. S. scoparium. Common broom: for additions. He died in 1685.
merly employed medicinally under the name of SPA'RRY. a. (from spar.) Consisting of genista, but long since disused. See GENISspar.
SPARSE, in botany. Scattered. Neither 2. S. junceum. Spanish broom. opposite nor alternate, nor in any apparent re- 3. S. radiatum. Starry broom. gular order. Applied to branches, to leaves, 4. S. monospermum.
White-flowered, as in several sorts of lily; to peduncles or single-seeded broom. flowers, to calycine scales, as in crepis barbata. 5. S. sphærocarpum. Yellow-flowered, “ With regard to branches,” says Dr. Berken- single-seeded broom. hout, “ an accurate observer will find that, 6. S. scorpius. Scorpion broom. notwithstanding their irregular appearance, 7. S.angulatum. Angular-branched broom. they form a spiral line round the trunk, regu- 8. S.
spinosum. Prickly broom. larly completing the circle in a deterininaie The flower-buds of many of these are in some number of steps.”
countries pickled and eaten as capers; and the SPARTA, a celebrated city of Peloponne- seeds have been used as a miserable substitute for sus, the capital of Laconia, situate on the Eu- coffee. The branches are employed in making rotas, about 30 miles from its mouth. It re- besoms, and in tanning leather; theold wood furceived its name from Sparta, the daughter of nishes the cabinet-maker with beautiful materials Eurotas, who married Lacedæmon. See LA- for veneering; the tender branches are sometimes CEDÆMON.
mixed with hops for brewing; and the maceSPARTACUS. The most celebrated of this rated bark may be manufactured into cloth. name is a Thracian gladiator, who, having been The three first sorts are hardy, the rest tenkept at Capua in the house of Lentulus, escap- derer, especially when young. They may be ed from the place of his confinement with 30 all raised from seeds; but the double blossomed of his companions, and took up arms against are best propagated by layers and cuttings. the Romans. He soon found himself at the SPARUS. Gilt-head. In zoology, a genus head of a considerable number of followers, of the class pisces, order thoracica. Teeth (genewith whom he attacked the Roman generals in rally) strong; the grinders somewhat obtuse the field of battle. Two consuls and other and crowded; lips double; gill-niembrane fiveofficers were defeated with much loss, and rayed, the cover scaly; body compressed ; lateSpartacus, superior in counsel and abilities, ral line curved on the bind-part; pectoral fins became more terrible. Crassus was sent against rounded. Forty species, scattered ihrough the him, but this celebrated general at first despair. seas of the globe ; four common to our own ed of success. A bloody batile was fought, in coasts. They are thus divided into sections. which at last the gladiators were defeated. A. Marked with a black spot. Spartacus behaved with great valour, and at last B. Mostly red. he fell upon a heap of Romans, whom he had C. Body marked with lines. sacrificed to his fury, B, C. 71. In this battle D. Various. no less than 40,000 of the rebels were slain, The following are chiefly worthy of notice. and the war totally finished,
1. S. auratus. Lunulated gilt-head. BeSPARTÆ, or Sparti, a name given to tween the eyes a semilunar gold spot. This those men who sprang from the dragon's teeth, species in habits the British coasts, and haunts which Cadmus sowed. They all destroyed one the boldest, deepest, and most rocky shores. another, except five, who survived and assisted They feed upon oysters and other shell-worms, Cadmus in building Thebes.
which they comminate with their strong teeth. SPARTANI, or SPARTIAT Æ, the inha. For this purpose they are furnished with fat bitants of Sparta. See Sparta, Laced Æ- back teeth, resembling the grinders of quadru." MON.
peds, and fulfilling the same office. Besides SPARTEL (Cape), a promontory on the these teeth, and small sharp ones on the fore coast of Barbary, at the entrance of ihe straits part of the jaw, the inner part of the mouth is of Gibraltar. Lon. 5. 56 W. Lat. 35. 50 N. lined with hard bones, which assist in grinding
SPARTIVENTO (Cape), a promontory of and masticating: the kingdom of Naples, at the S.E. extremity This species is a coarse fish, and in modern' of Calabria Ulteriore. Lon. 16. 40 E. Lat. times held in no great esteem, though the ca37. 50 N.
price of the ancient Romans set a high value SPARTIUM. Broom. In botany, a genus upon such as were fed with the oysters of the of the class diadelphia, order decandria. Stigma Lucrine lake, perhaps for no other reason than longitudinal, villous above ; Glaments all unit- because they were a fashionable dish at a cered, adhering to the germ; calyx produced down- tain period: they seem, from Martial's acwards. Twenty-five species, chiefly natives of count, to have thought meanly of the gilt-head Barbary and the south of Europe ; one, spare in general. tium scoparium, common to our own dry fields. The lupulated gilt-head grows frequently to They are thus subdivided into nearly equal par. the weight of ten pounds: the forin of the titions,
body is deep, resembling that of a bream; the A. Leaves simple.
back sharp, and of a dusky green ; the sides B. Leaves ternate.
golden tinged with brown; at the farther