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the mass into a woollen bag and pressing it; thick globular whorls towards the top, small by which the greatest part of the oil runs out, and white. A native of Jamaica. and then washing the residue with a warm These are both increased by sowing the seeds weak alkaline ley, which dissolves and con- on a moderate hot-bed in the spring, or in pots Ferts into soap the remainder of the oil, leaving plunged into the bed. They require afterwards behind the spermaceti untouched. This las- io be managed as exotics of the stove-kind. ter, after being repeatedly washed with soft SPERMATICAL. SPERMA'Tic.a. (sper. water, is melted by a very gentle heat, the iin- matique, French, from sperrr.) 1. Seminal; purities partly float on the surface, and partly consisting of seed (More). 2. Belonging to the sink to the bottom, and are thus got rid of; sperm (Ray). the fluid, in appearance, a perfectly pellucid
To SPERMATIZE. v. n. (from sperm.) To oil, is now allowed to cool, and forms on con- yield seed (Brown). gealing a mass of spermaceti.
SPERMATOCELE. (crapuatornan, from The colour of spermaceti is a pure, brilliant, otippa, seed, and xuan, a tumor.) In surgery, almost silvery white; it is composed of semi- a swelling of the testicle or epididymis from transparent crystalline plates; is softer and an accumulation of semen. It is known by more brittle than white wax; has very little a swelling of those organs, and from pain fiavour, and only a sight tallowy odour. Its extending to the loins without inflamma. point of congelation is 112 Fahr, By the as- tion. sistance of a wick, it burns with a clear white SPERMODERMIA, in botany, a genus flame, superior to that of tallow, and without of the class cryptogamia, order fungi. Fungus any disagreeable odour; and is hence very ge- quite simple, globular, sessile, spongy; seeds Derally employed for candles.
erowned, supplying the place of a bark. One By distillation at a gentle heat spermaceti species only, an exotic plant. passes over in the state of a fluid oil, which SPERMO'LOGIST.s. (crepMomoy.) Onc concretes on cooling, a very slight carbonace. who gathers or treats of seeds. ous residue being left in the retort. By re- To SPERSE. v. a. (sparsus, Latin.) To dispeated distillation, however, the spermaceti perse; to scatter : not in use (Spenser). becomes permanently Auid at the common TO SPET. v. a. To bring or pour abundantly temperature. It requires, according to Theu- (Milton). venel, a much less heat for its volatilization SPEUSIPPUS, an Athenian philosopher, than most of the other oils do, and therefore nephew, as also successor of Plato. He preis less decomposed by the process; in particu- sided in Plato's school for eight years, and dislar, no acid makes its appearance. But, ac- graced himself by his extravagance and decording to Crell's experiments, a greater heat bauchery. He died eaten of lice, or killed him. is required for its distillation than for that of self according to some accounts, B. C. 339. fat, the coagulated oil thus procured being He adhered very strictly to the doctrine of his partly white and partly brownish: by repeated master. Listillation it affords a yellowish acid, becomes TO SPEW. v. a. (rpepan, Saxon, speuwen, more fluid, but still coagulates in the cold. Dutch.) 1. To vomit; to eject from the stomach The acid, when rectified by distillation, is en- (Spenser). 2. To eject; to cast forth (Drytirely colourless, and affords the same salts with den). 3. To eject with loathing (Bacon). earths and alkalies as Crell's sebacic acid. The To SPEW. v. n. To vomit; to ease the oil unites with amalonia into a saponaceous stomach (Ben Jonson). epulsion.
SPEWY. a. (from spew.) Wet; foggy Spermaceli is soluble in boiling alkohol, Mortimer). though very sparingly, 150 parts of the men- SPEZZÍA, or Speria, a town of Italy, in struum being required for this purpose ; while the territory of Genoa, with a good harbour. the whole of the spermaceti appears to be re. It is seated at the foot of a hill, at the bottom precipitated as the solution cools. Warm of a gulf of the same name, 47 miles S.E. of ether dissolves it very copiously, but seems to Genoa, and 65 N.W. of Florence. Lon. 9. retain none of it when cold. It dissolves sul. 37 E. Lat. 44. 10 N. phur as other fat oils do. By long expo
T. SPHA'CELATE. v. a. To affect with a sure to the air it acquires a yellow tiuge, and gangrene (Sharp). becomes rancid.
To Sphacețate. v, n. To mortify; to SPERMACOCE. Button-weed. Corol suffer the gangrene (Sharp). one-petalled, funnel-form; seeds two, biden- SPHA'CELUS. (opaxeños, from opasw, to tate. Twenty species ; natives of the East or destroy.) A mortification of any part. See West Indies or of America. The two follow- GANGRENE. ing are cultivated :
SPHENOID BONE. (os sphenoides, from 1. S. tenuior. Slender button-weed. Grows opev, a wedge, and
sodos, a likeness ; because it to the height of two and a half feet; branches is fixed in the cranium like a wedge.) Os ia pairs ; Rowers in slender whorls towards the cuneiforme, os multiforme. Pterygoid bone. top of the stalks small, white and sessile. A The os sphenoides, or cuneiforme as it is called native of Carolina and the West Indies. from its wedge-like situation amidst the other
2. S, verticillata. Whorl-Alowered button. bones of the head, is of a more irregular figure weed. Stem shrubby, three or four feet high, than any other bone. It has been compared sending out a few slender branches; flowers in to a bat with its wings extended. This resem. VOL. XI.
blance is but faint, but it would be difficult into anterior and posterior processes. The two perhaps to find any thing it resembles latter are frequenily united into one. more.
Within the substance of the os sphenoides, We distinguish in this bone its body or immediately under the sella turcica, we find middle past, and its wings or sides, which are two cavities, separated by a thin bony lamella. inuch more extensive than its body.
These are the sphenoidal sinuses. They are Each of its wings or lateral processes is divided lined with the pituitary membrane, and, like into two parts. Of these the uppermost and the frontal sinuses, separate a mucus which most considerable portion, helping w form the passes into the nostrils. In some subjects deepest part of the temporal fossa on each side, ihere is only one cavity; in others, though is called the temporal process. The other por: more rarely, we find three. tion makes a part of the orbit, and is therefore In infants the os sphenoides is composed of named the orbitar process. The back part of three pieces, one of which forms the body of each wing from its running out sharp to meet the bone and its pterygoid processes, and the the os petrosum, has been called the spipous other two its lateral processes. The clinoid process; and the two processes, which stand processes may even then be perceived in a carout almost perpendicular to the basis of the tilaginous state, though some writers have asscull, have been named pterygoid or aliform serted the contrary; but we observe no appearprocesses, though they may be said rather in ance of any sinus. resemble the legs than the wings of the bat. This bone is connected with all the bones of Each of these processes has two plates and a the cranium, and likewise with the ossa maxilmiddle fossa facing backwards; of these plates laria, ossa malarum, ossa palati, and vomer. Its the externalone is the broadest, and the internalises may be collected from the description we one the longest. The lower end of the internal have given of it. plate forms a kind of hook, over which passes SPHÆNOIDAL SUTURĘ. Sutura sphæthe round tendon of the musculus circunilexus noidalis. The sphænoidaland ethmoidal sutures palati. Besides these, we observe a sharp mid- are those which surround the many irregular dle ridge, which stands out from the middle of processes of these two bones, and join them to the bone. The fore part of it, where it joins each other and to the rest. the nasal lamella of the ethmoidal bone, is thin SPHÆNO-SALPINGO-STAPHILINUS. and straight; the lower part of it is thicher, See CIRCUMFLEXUS, and is received into the vomer.
SPHÆNO-STAPHILINUS. See LEVATOR The cavities observable on the external sur- PALATI. face of the bone are where it helps to form the SPHÆRANTHUS. Globe-flower, In temporal, nasal, and orbitar fosse. It has like. botany, a genus of the class syngenesia, order wise two fossæ in its pterygoid processes. Be- polygamia segregaia. Calycle eight-flowered ; hind the edge, which separates these two fossæ, Horets tubular, hermaphrodite and indistinct we observe a small groove, made by a branch female ; receptacie scaly; downless. Six of the superior maxillary nerve in its passage to species; natives of India, Cochinchina, and the temporal musele. Besides these, it has the Cape. other depressions, which serve chiefly for the SPHÆRIA, in botany, a genus of the origin of n:uscles.
class cryptogamia, order fungi
. Cases filled with Its foramina are four on each side. The three roundish, naked, gelatinous seeds, Twenig first serve for the passage of the optic, superior three species, thus subdivided : maxillary, and inferior maxillary nerves; the A. Simple : cases naked, solitary, or clusfourib transmits the largest artery of the dura tered. matcr, On each side we observe a considerable B. Simple: cases imbedded, distinct, os fissure, which, from its situation, may be called
coh ring, the superior orbitar fissure. Through it pass C. Compound: cases several, imbedded. the third and fourth pair of nerves, a branch of These are natives of Europe, and all of them the fifth, and likewise the sixth pair. Lastly, indigenous to our own country; being found at the busis of each pterygoid process, we oba parasitically on cabbage-stumps, ihe beech-tree, serve a foramen which is named plerygoidean ash, and various others. and sometimes Vidian, from Vidius who first SPHÆRIDILM, in the entomalngy of described it. Through it passes a branch of Fabricius, a tribe of the coleopierous genus the external carotid, to be distributed to the Silpha, which see. nove.
SPHÆRISTERIUM. (atenistov.) In anThe os sphenoides on its internal surface af- tiquiry, the seventh part of the ancient gymfords three fossæ. Two of these are consider- nasium; being that wherein the youth pracable ones; they are formed by the lateral pro- tised tennis-playing. cesses, and make post of the lesser fosse of The sphærisieriuin, or tennis court, was be. the basis of the skull. The third, which is tween the place named palestra, and that where sinaller, is on the top of the body of the bone, they ran races, which was between the portiand is called sella turcica, from its resemblance coes and the onter wall, though Vitrovins does 10 a Turkish saddle. In this fossa the pirni- not make mention of it in the description he tary gland is placed. At each of its four angles gives of the ancient gymnasium. is a process.' They are called the clinoid pro- The exercise here performed was called cesses, and are distinguished by their situation opcipisixvis sphæristica, which some suppose *Wered from the modern tennis; but obstacle. Impressed, therefore, with the inawn wherein the difference con- portance of the subject, I wrote to you on the
9th of January last, and have now the pleasure ROBOLUS, in botany, a genus of of communicating to the Society of Arts, &c.
cryptogamia, order fungi: Fungus for the benefit of the public, farther particulars zlobular-concave, with a radiate or en- of the mode I have discovered ; and by which Couch, and ejecting a globular capsule. Two I am convinced, from actual experiments, trees sies only, both common to our own country. or plants of all kinds may, with ease and cer
SPHÆROCARPUS, in botany, a genus tainty, be transported from any part of the globe of the class cryptogamia, order hepaticæ. Calyx to this country and our colonies ; being confiinflated, perforated at top: seeds very numerous, dent, that our commerce will be improved by collected into a globe. One species only: com- a more certain mode of exporting the numermon to our own country.
ous fruits with which our nurseries exclusively SPHÆROMACHIA. (opaspopaxvee.) In an- abound. tiquity, a particular kind of boxing, wherein “ I had, some time ago, an opportunity of the combatants had balls of stone or lead in viewing a large heap of moss (sphagnum palustheir hands, which were called cpauzas. tre, Linn.) which had been collected for deco
SPHAGNUM. Bog.moss. In botany, a rating a grotto. I observed, that, although it genus of the class cryptogamia, order musci. had lain exposed for several months in the heat Capsule with the mouth naked, vail cut round, of summer, yet, with the exception of the very its base remaining on the lower part of the cap- outside of the heap, its particles appeared in sule. Seven species : four common to our own the same state as when first collected, and that country; three exotics. The common bog- a gentle state of vegetation was still going on. moss grows on our bogs in wide patches, so as I moreover observed, that several species of frequently to cover a large portion of their sur- heaths, grasses, and plants, that had been by face. The stalks are from two inches to two chance collected in the heap, were preserved, feet, irregularly surrounded with numerous and in several instances had the same appearconical pendant branches, and terminated with ances as when growing; others were a little a rotaceous cluster of erect short ones. The blanched for want of light; but even these Lapland matrons dry and lay up this moss in were alive, and capable of growing by proper their cradles to supply the place of bed, bolster, management. These circumstances led me to and bed coverings; and being changed night make some experiments to ascertain how long and morning, it keeps the infant clean, dry, and trees of different kinds might be preserved in warm. It is sufficiently soft of itself; but the this substance, when excluded from the extender mother, not satisfied with this, covers ternal air ; and I so far succeeded, as to keep the moss with the downy hairs of the rein-deer; them for six months, part of which time had and thus provides a most delicate nest for the been extreme hot weather, and I had afterward babe.
the pleasure of getting them to grow in my Several of these species have a peculiar power garden equal to any that had been transplanted of preserving their vegetation for months and the same season. perhaps years, when packed up in boxes, or “ As I have endeavoured to discover what suspended in the atmosphere, from which, like property this particnlar moss possesses, when the epidendrum flos aetis, it is probable that it compared with others generally used for packing continues to derive a considerable portion of its plants, I shall remark, that, as its name imnotriment.
plies, it is in a great measure an aquatic, and In consequence of this extraordinary faculty consequently not liable to injury from moisture, it has lately been employed by Mr. Salisbury, which it has the power of retaining in a wonof Brompton, as a material for packing other derful degree, while all the species of hypnum plants, and keeping their roots moist during a cannot be prevented from rotting, unless they long voyage, and that with a success that pro- are kept perfectly dry; and although the mosses mises to be of the utmost importance. The in general, when moistened with water, are history of this curious and valuable faci is 100 useful to wrap round the roots of trees when ilicresting for us to suppress, and we shall packed up, yet they gradually undergo a decomtherefore copy it from Mr. Salisbury's own ar- position; and consequently, if plants were comcount as communicated to the Society for the pletely enveloped therein, they would decay in Encouragement of Arts and Commerce. time from the same cause, which I have proved
* Much still remains to be accomplished by in many instances, the assiduous botanist ; for instance, neither “ I was therefore led to ascribe the advantages, the plants producing the cinchona, or which which the sphagnum palustre possesses, to its nourish the cochineal, have yet reached our property of holding water, and resisting feroil, nor are we even acquainted with those mentation; and I am confirmed in this opinion, which yield many of our most useful drugs. by a letter, which I have received from my This is owing, in a great measure, to the dilli- worthy friend Mr. A. T. Thompson, to whom culty of procuring perfect seeds, it being a well I had submitted some of that moss, for a cheknown fact, that many kinds will not vegetare, mical analysis. if left dry but a short time after gathering; and “ The manner in whi;
been accus the difficulty of keeping, plants alive during tomed to pack up plan
When loaz voyages has been almost an insuperable the moss is collecte
grows, it should be pressed, in order to drain when they will also receive the benefit of the out as much moisture as possible, and having dews during the night. In the moming the .boxes prepared of sufficient sizes for the young shades should be replaced, and the plants thus trees (which may in some instances be short- protected till they can stand the open air, to ened in their branches), I lay in the bottom of which they should gradually be inured by rethe box as much moss as will, when pressed moving the shades daily more and more, till with the foot, remain of the thickness of four they can be wholly taken away: inches. A layer of the plants should then be “ The plants should be planted in rows put thereon, observing that the shoots of each across the beds, about three inches distance other do not touch, and that the space of four from each other, and the rows should be about inches be left round the sides ; after this, an- nine inches apart; and when the plants have other layer of moss, about two inches thick, is grown thus for one year, they may be removed placed, and then more plants; and I thus pro- to the places where they are iniended to receed, till after the whole of the plants are main.” pressed down as tight as possible, and the box The following is Mr. Thompson's account filled within four inches of the top, which of the chemical properties of the sphagnum. space must be filled with the moss : The con- “ The analysis of the moss, which you pat tents are then trodden down with the foot, and into my hands, has afforded the following the box nailed closely.up.
result. " When trees are intended to be sent to “ A portion of it macerated in boiling disdistant countries I should advise such to be tilled water, for twenty-eight hours, yielded a selected as are small and healthy; and when pale straw-coloured, slightly mucilaginous inarrived at their place of destination they should fusion, which was nearly insipid, and of a disbe cut down quite close, even to the second or agreeable odour. third eye from the graft, or, in trees not graft- “ The infusion of litmus was reddened when ed, as near the former year's wood as possible; added to it. With the nitrate and acetite of and having prepared beds according to the fol- barites, insoluble precipitates were thrown lowing mode, let them be planted therein, to down, as was also the case with the acetite of serve as a nursery; for trees of every description lead. Sulphate of iron gave a very slight olive suffer so much from removal, that, unless the tinge to the infusion, after standing eight weather is particularly favourable, they do not hours; and with the solution of gelatine i recover it for some time, even when only trans- small quantity of a whitish flocculent precipiplanted in their native climate. I do not think tate was formed, after standing twelve hours, it advisable, therefore, to plant them at once, The oxalic acid, a solution of pure ammonia, where they are liable to suffer from want of and the nitrate of silver, produced no effect on water, and other attentions necessary to their the infusion. perfect growth. I therefore recommend beds “ The conclusion to be drawn from these to be thus prepared for them, viz. On some results is, that the moss contains in its compolevel spot of ground, inark out beds five feet sition, beside the ordinary principles of vegewide, and leave walks or alleys between them, tables, a very small portion of gallic acid, and of two feet wide, throwing a portion of the of tannin, some sulphuric acid in an uncomearth out of the beds upon the alleys, so as to bined state, mucilage, and extractive matter. leave them four inches higher than ihe beds. No inference can, therefore, be drawn from
“ If the ground is shallow, and the under these results, which explains in any degree the stratum noi fit for the growth of trees, the effects of the moss in preserving the vegetables whole should be removed, and the beds made that are enveloped in it; nor is there any effect good with a better soil.
produced in the air by it, inore than is produced “ The advantage arising from planting trees by mosses in general, when in an uncorrupted in this way is, that, the bes being lower than state; other causes to explain the preservative the walks, the water which is poured on, for property of the moss must therefore be looked support of the trees, is preventerl from running for, and these are to be found, in my opinion, off. The plants are also less exposed to the in the peculiar qualities of the moss, connected influence of the winds; and, if a dry and hot with its own existence as a living plant. season should immediately follow after they are “ Plants which are taken from the earth, planted, hoops covered with mats, straw, or and packed up to be sent abroarl, or to any canvas, may be placed over them, to prevent distance so considerable as to keep them for the sun from burning the plants, and to hinder some length of time in the package, will not a too speedy evaporation of moisture.
vegetate when again taken out of it and planted, “In warm climates, canvas cloth will answer unless some degree of vitality has been prebest for the:e shades, to be fixed during the served during the period that they have been heat of the siay, so as to prevent the surface of out of the ground. the mould from becoming dry; and is a little “ To preserve this, four circumstances are water be sprinkled upon the canvas, once or essential in the packing material ; softness, in twice during the day, it will keep it tight, and order that the delicate parts of the enveloped produce a moist atmosphere underneath, which vegetable be not injured; looseness, that a cerwill greatly facilitate ihe growth of the plants. tain portion of air be contained in it, and that
“ These shades should be removed at the an equal temperature may be preserved; moissetting of the sun, and the plants then watered, turo; and the power of resisting fermentation,
and the putrefactive process. All of these cit. • A number of fruit and other trees, anong cumstances this moss possesses in a temarkable which are the white and red mulberry, vincs, degree ; its power of absorbing and retaining &c. have been sent from London, by order of moisture is niore considerable than that which the African Institution; all of which are at perhaps any other moss possesses, it is light, present growing here, in a very fourishing soft, and loose in its texture, and its vitaliig is state ; and a piece of ground is clearing in the so considerable, as to carry on the powers of mountains, to which they are intended to be vegetation, and consequently to enable it to re- removed the next season. sist fermentation and putrefaction for a very “ I requested the gentleman, to whose magreat length of time.
nagement the plants were entrusted, to acquaint “ Placed under sach circumstances, the me how they succeeded, and to use the same plants, which are packed up in the nioss, en- moss in packing up for me some of the wild joy a kind of life in some degree similar to that plants of that neighbourhood, which he did in enjoyed by an animal in a torpid state, the Jane last; and at the same time I received a fonctions of life are supported at a very low letter from Mr. Macaulay of that place, with state, but still sufficient to preserve thein in a the following intelligence. The plants which situation to be acted upon by favourable circum- were bought of you, and sent out by the African stances, when again planted. Such is the Institution, all thrive very well, except the tca theory I have formed of the effect of this moss tree, sour sop, and a few others. The mulia preserving plants; the many necessary calls berries, &c. grow most luxuriantly; most of of iny profession have not allowed me time suf- the trees have been removed to a more temficient to investigate the subject with all the perate situation, about three miles hence, where attention I could have wished to have bestowed the remainder will soon also be planted.' on it, and must also plead my apology for the “ This letter arrived by the Derwent, caphasty manner in which my opinion is presented tain Colombine, who also brought me a box of to you. I consider the discovery of much value, plants packed up in the moss, which had been both to botany and agriculture."
previously sent with the above; and although Mr. Salisbury accompanied the notice of his the package did not arrive at Bronipton before new and valuable mode of preservation to the the 5th of October last, the plants were in a Society of Arts with a box containing speci- fine state of vegetation, and are now growing mens of tulip trees and liquid amber trees, in my hot-house; and even the moss itself had " which," says he, “ were packed up close preserved its vegetative state, and was perfect. from September, 1807, till March, 1808: they “I have been thus particular in my descrip. were then planted in my nursery ; and the tion of the fact, as it is a corroborating proof whole, amounting to several hundreds, have of the utility of this moss for such purposes ; grown equally as well as they would have done, and as the removal of trees cannot be otherwise if only transplanted from one part to another of effected in long voyages, without great expense the same ground.
and inconvenience." “In February last,” he continuės, “ I sent SPHENE, in mineralogy, a species of the to Boston in New England two packages in genus TITANIUM, which see. this way, each containing upwards of nine SPHENOCLEA, in botany, a genus of the hundred trees of different kinds; and I have class peritandtia, ordet monogynia. Corol fivelately received the pleasing intelligence, that cleft, less than the calyx; capsule two-celled, they have all arrived safe and done well, but compressed, opening transversely all round; that some fruit trees sent to the same gentle- stignia capitate, permanent. One species only, man, packed in the usual way, were all spoiled, s. zeylanica, a native of Malabar and Ceylon. owing to the heat of the hold of the vessel, in SPHENOIDES (Os). See SPHÆNOID which all the packages were placed.”
BONE. And in a subsequent communication he ob. SPHERE. s. (sphæra, Latin.) 1. A globe ; sertes, “ In addition to the account which I an orbicular body; a body of which the cendelivered to you, respecting my method of tre is at the same distance from every point of packing plants for exportation in the sphagnum the circunference (Milton). 2. Any globe of palustre moss, I beg leave to observe, that, at the nundane system (Dryden). 3. A globe the tiine the case was packed up, which I sent representing the earth or sky (Dryden). 4. to the Adelphi in January last, a similar pack. Oib; circuit of motion (Milton). 5. Proage was sent from me to Sierra Leone, by de- vince; compass of knowledge or action; em. sue of the African Institution, who wished to ployment (Shakspeare). introduce into that colony the mulberry tree for To Sphere. v.a. (from the noun). 1. To feeding silk worms ; also different kinds of place in a sphere (Shakspeare). 2. To forin vines, and other fruit trees, amounting in the into roundness (Millon). whole to nearly fifteen hundred trees.
SPHERE, is a solid contained under one utja “ They arrived there in about four months form round surface, such as would be formed after the package was made up, and the trees by the revolution of a circle about a diameter were planted under the direction of a gentle- thereof as an axis. See GEOMETRY. man, to whom I gave a copy of the instruc- Properties of the Sphere are as follow : tions, which accompanied my former letter to 1. A sphere may be considered as made up you of last January. The following account of of an infinite number of pyramids, whose coinihem bas since appeared in the African Herald. mon altitude is equal to the sadius of the sphere,