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man mercenaries under General Howe. After the capture of Fort Washington on the Hudson it was called Fort Kniphausen. · L. 28. 2. Brunswickers and Hessians were hired by the administration. As the pay in Germany was not so large as that in England, the difference was paid to the respective rulers, – the Duke of Brunswick and the Landgrave of Hesse. Soldiers were impressed from the plough, the workshop, and the highway. Cf. Bancroft, IV., Ch. XXII.

P. 185, 1. 9. 1. After the victory of Howe at Long Island, the English people seemed beside themselves with pride, and hurled all manner of reproaches against the colonists. A general fast was proclaimed, and the king prayed for the rebels “as a Spanish inquisitor might be supposed to pray for the conversion of a miserable Jew at an auto-da-fè.”

P. 187, 1. 5. 1. This assertion is most conclusively proved by the three publications in this volume. That Burke could have so thoroughly understood the position of the colonies, when at a distance of three thousand miles from them, seems almost incredible.

P. 188, 1. 9. 1. In December, 1776, Congress at Baltimore voted to “assure foreign courts that the Congress and people are determined to maintain their independence at all events.” Treaties were to be made with Prussia, Vienna, and Tuscany, and an alliance was to be made with France and Spain. After the battle of Trenton, Lord George Germain said, “All our hopes are blasted.”

L. 26. 2. Up to the time of the battle of Trenton, Congress had left on its journals the suggestion that a reunion with Great Britain might still be possible.

P. Igo, l. 14. 1. Admiral Howe and his brother the General were appointed on a Commission of Peace, and had said that peace would be made within ten days after their arrival. They had power to grant free and general pardons, and promise “due consideration to all persons who should aid in restoring tranquillity.” This declaration was sent, addressed to Washington as a private citizen, and he declined to receive it. Congress said that Washington “acted with a dignity becoming his station."

P. 191, 1. 1. 1. To Franklin Lord Howe said that his ambition was to prevent the commerce of America from passing to foreign nations, and Franklin replied, “ It is painful to me to see you engaged in a war, the ground of which is the necessity of preventing American trade from passing into foreign channels.'”

L. 24. 2. “Every thicket will be an ambuscade of partisans; every stone-wall a hiding-place for sharpshooters; every swamp a fortress; the boundless woods an impracticable barrier; the farmer's house a garrison.” - BANCROFT.

P. 196, 1. 6. 1. Cf. Bancroft, IV., Chs. XIII., XXVII., XXVIII.

P. 197, 1. 6. 1. An island of the East Indies, valuable for its production of spice. It has been the property of Portugal, Spain, Holland, and England. In 1622 the Dutch massacred the English settlers, and took possession of the island of which they had been deprived by the English in 1615. In 1672, Charles II. persuaded Louis XIV. to join him in making war upon the Dutch. The English were not favorable to such an undertaking, and to excite them, Charles had the massacre acted upon the stage.

P. 198, 1. 14. I. Cf. note, page 190, line 14.
P. 199, 1. 4. 1. Cf. note, page 188, line 26.

L. 30. 2. This position of Burke should be emphasized, when so many make use of the caricature in Goldsmith's Retaliation as if it were a characterization.

P. 200, 1. 11. I. Cf. De Tocqueville, Democracy in America, Vol. I., Ch. II.

P. 202, l. 4. 1. Established in 1584, the one having jurisdiction over men's consciences, the other over their actions, became so hateful to the people, that they were repealed in 1641.

P. 203, 1. 8. 1. The Ancient Legislature of the Church of England, having an upper and a lower house.

P. 204, 1. 10. 1. Court of a province on the coast of Hindostan.
P. 206, 1. 16. 1. Cf. Carlyle's French Revolution.
P. 209, 1. 9. 1. Cf. Provincial, Proprietary, and Charter Governments.

P. 211, 1. 8. 1. “The joy of the colonies was for a time unmixed with apprehension,” says Bancroft.

L. 16., 2. Lord Rockingham.

P. 215, 1. 29, 1. Bentinck was the family name of the Duke of Portland, a leader of the Whig Peers.

L. 31. 2. Cavendish, the family name of the Duke of Devonshire, a leading Whig Commoner.

P. 220, 1. 5. 1. No statesman in history presents such a life of suffering for great causes. He believed that success was measured, not by a party vote, but by the devotion to right.

Three years had not gone since Burke moved his plan of conciliation, and yet the commissioners sent by the king to sue for peace, and to grant most ample and complete concession, only reserving to the king the very right for which the colonies contended, — this dignified commission, armed cap-a-pie for an interview with the American Congress, — were fleeing at the tail of a retreating army, and letting fly “their Parthian shafts of manifestoes and remonstrances.” To this issue had the dissension come,

- a dissension which might have been prevented by the repeal of the miserable duty upon tea, — a badge of the royal prerogative to tax whom he pleased. The royal commission, when at safe distance from the halls of the American Congress, performed that last and valiant act of issuing a proclamation against the rebellious subjects of their sovereign. This was a scene of buffoonery which Burke must have enjoyed to the utmost.

The colonists went from success to success, until, upon the very day when new supplies were setting sail for America, the war was being ended by the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown. The news reached Lord North in a few weeks, and in the deepest agony he exclaimed, “O God! it is all over !" Yet he strove still to palliate the blow, until at last General Conway, who had before acted with the administration, moved that an address should be presented to the king against continuing the contest; and after a most aggressive discussion, at half-past one o'clock in the morning, on loud cries of Question ! Question !' the division was ordered, and the government was beaten by a majority of nineteen, and Westminster Hall was a scene of the wildest confusion; joy knew no bounds; the whole metropolis was aroused. At two o'clock Burke left the house, and wrote to his friend, Dr. Franklin: “I congratulate you as the friend of America - I trust as not the enemy of England - I am sure as the friend of mankind - on the resolution of the House of Commons carried by a majority of nineteen, ... I trust that our happiness may be an introduction to that of the world at large.” The resignation of the minister followed, and the last act which Lord North was to play in this tragedy of action and passion was deeply pathetic as on that bitterly cold night, amid the falling snow driven by keen March winds, on stepping into his carriage at Westminster Hall, he exclaimed to a group of the opposition, “ Good. night, gentlemen!”

REFERENCES.

BANCROFT's History of the United States, Vols. III., IV., V., VI.
May. Constitutional History.
MORLEY J. BURKE. English Men of Letters Series.
GOODRICH, C. A. Select British Eloquence.
STEPHEN, L. English Thought in the Eighteenth Century.
MACAULAY. Essay on Burke.
HAZLIIT. Political Essays and Eloquence of the British Senate.
MACKNIGHT. Life and Times of Edmund Burke.
TAINE. English Literature.
Gosse. Eighteenth Century Literature.
MAURICE. Friendship of Books. – Burke.
MINTO. Manual of English Prose Literature.
BASCOM. Philosophy of English Literature,
FISKE. American Political Ideas.

“ Beginnings of New England.

" War of Independence.
For periodical literature upon Burke, see Poole's Index.

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