NUMERATION AND NOTATION OF U. S. MONEY. 9. In the currency of the United States one hundred cents make a dollar. The sign $, called the Dollar Sign, is written before the number. Thus, one dollar is written $1, or $1.00; and fifteen dollars and twenty-five cents is written $15.25. The period between the dollars and cents is called the decimal point. Cents occupy the first two places at the right of the decimal point. 13. Five dollars. Fifty dollars. Five hundred dollars. 14. Four dollars and 25 cents. 15. One hundred and forty-seven dollars and thirty-seven cents. 16. Six hundred and twenty dollars and nine cents. 17. Three thousand and ten dollars and fifty cents. DEFINITIONS. 10. A Unit is one of any kind. A Number is a unit or a collection of units, or rather the "how many" of the collection. Arithmetic treats of numbers and their uses. 11. There are three ways of expressing numbers: 1. By words; as, one, two, three, etc. 2. By letters, called the Roman method; as, I, II, III, etc. 3. By figures, called the Arabic method; as, 1, 2, 3, etc. SECTION II. FUNDAMENTAL PROCESSES. ADDITION. ORAL EXERCISES. 12.-1. A class has 4 boys and 9 girls in it; how many pupils in the class? 2. Horace is 5 years old; how old will he be in 8 years? In 9 years? In 6 years? In 5 years? 3. A farmer has 6 cows; how many will he have if he buys 5 more? 8 more? 7 more? 6 more? 9 more? 4. Arthur has 7 marbles; how many will he have if he buys 5 more? 6 more? 9 more? 8 more? 7 more? 5. Ruth has 8 cents; how many will she have if May gives her 6 more? 5 more? 9 more? 8 more? 7 more? 6. A teacher has 9 pupils in arithmetic; if 9 more are added, how many will there be in the class? If 8 more? If 7 more? If 6 more? If 5 more? If 4 more? 31. From 1 to 8. Count by 2's from 2 to 30. From 30 to 60. From 31 to 61. 9. Count by 3's from 3 to 45. From 1 to 46. From 2 to 47. 10. Count by 4's from 4 to 48. From 1 to 49. From 2 to 50. From 3 to 51. 11. Count by 5's from 5 to 100. From 1 to 51. From 2 to 52. From 3 to 53. From 4 to 54. 12. In the same way count by 6's, 7's, 8's, 9's, 10's, to 50. 13. To each of the following numbers, 8, 6, 7, 9, 5, 4, 3, 5, 9, 7, 8, add 2, 5, 4, 3, 9, 8, 7, 6, naming the results only; thus, 10, 8, 9, etc. 40. Add 7 to 18, 15, 16, 29, 24, 15, 13, 12, 21, 30. Add 8; 4; 6; 8; 9; 5. 41. Add 6 to 36, 42, 48, 24, 35, 52, 49, 78, 63, 88. Add 4; 5; 3; 7; 8; 9. 48-71. Add rapidly by columns and by lines 6 + 4 + 3 + 4 +7 +8 3 + 7+ 8+ 5+ 4 +7 4+ 8 +6 +9+4+7 2 + 3 + 8 + 6 + 3 + 5 4 +8 +7 + 5 + 6 + 3 2 +7 +6 +7 +7 +7 = = = = 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7+ 8+ 9 5 + 6 + 7+ 8+ 9+ 4 6 + 7+ 8+ 9 +5+4 7 +9 +8 +7 +6 +2 4 + 8 + 7 + 6 + 3 + 2 = = = = = DEFINITIONS. 13. Addition is the process of finding a number which shall contain as many units as the numbers added. The Sum is the result obtained by adding. The Sign of Addition is +, and is read plus. It indicates that the numbers between which it is placed are to be added. 14. The Sign of Equality is =, and is read equals. Thus, 538 is read 5 plus 3 equals 8. |