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peccatorem, et suis proximis compatiens de peccato pænitere voluerit.
Ibid. Palster—a pilgrim's staff. These were sometimes armed with iron, and are named among other forbidden weapons in a document printed in Anselmi Codex Belgicus Pars II.
• p. 17. See, for a full description of the pilgrim's staff, Fosbroke's British Monachism, p. 316, ed. 1843.
P. 62. Yammerde. - This word, which is clearly the same as the German Jammern, to lament, is by Gualtier modernized into “sorrowed.” It is the Anglo-Saxon Earmian, which we find in the next page, under the form ermed.
Ibid.“ A pylgrym of deux aas.' -Willems, who quotes a poem entitled Frenesie, printed by him in his Mengelingen, to show that deux as was a game,
“ Nochtan eysch ic toe twee aes," explains this to mean that the fox was only a pretended pilgrim, or a pilgrim' pour la farce.'
P. 63. Ermed.-Gualtier has altered this into“ maruayled.” It properly means lamented. See the last note but one.
Ibid. Retche not of—do not care for. From the AngloSaxon Reccan. Chaucer uses the word in his “ Man of Lawes Prologue"
« But natheles I recche not a bene." P. 69. Sybbe,-related or allied. From the Anglo-Saxon sib. It occurs in the same sense in Chaucer's “ Tale of Melibeus," they ben but litel sibbe to you, and the kin of youre enemies ben nigh sibbe to hem.”
P.71. A faste pardon-a sure pardon, as it is rightly modernized by Gualtier. It is from the Anglo-Saxon fæst, firmus, and the epithet is still used in its original sense, in the word fastness.
P. 72. Houe Daunce-Court daunce, as Gualtier has it, from the Anglo-Saxon Hof.
Ibid. Playes and esbatements. These are not pleas and abatements, as our legal friends may be inclined to suppose—but literally plays and pastimes, as Gualtier has modernized the expression—Esbatements, from the old French Esbattement, which Roquefort defines Passe-temps, &c.
P. 73. To day by the morow. In the morning, as Gualtier has modernized it. It is the old form of the word morning, from the Anglo-Saxon Morgen.
P. 74. Slonked her in.-This expressive term, which occurs again in the next line but one, in another form,“ he slange them in,” is from the Flemish Slinden, German Schlingen, to swallow greedily, to devour.
Ibid. Tho wente he his strete.-His way. From the AngloSaxon Stræt, via.
P.75. How can he stuff the sleue with flockes.-- This obscure proverbial expression is literally translated by Caxton from the old Dutch prose. “Hoe maecte hi die mouwe mit ons vol mit vlocken.” Gualtier retains the phrase, which was probably well understood in his day.
P. 76. Sire pour Dieu.—This passage in French, is transferred literally from the old poem, into the Dutch prose. The reader will instantly perceive its metrical construction.
P. 77. Gonnes, bombardes.—Bombardes are cannon. The reader will find a most complete summary of the history of guns, gunpowder, &c., in Mr. Way's edition of the Promptorium, p. 218, n. 4. Hoffman in his edition of Reinike, p. 221, refers to the Hannover: Magazin, 1798, s. 361, for a proof that cannon and their use were known as early as the
P. 81. Provande.—Provender, from the French provende, see Roquefort, who defines it “ Provisions de bouche." Shakspere uses it in Coriolanus, act ii. sc. 1.
“Of no more soul, nor fitness in the world
Than camels in their war; who have their provand
Only for bearing burdens." P. 83. Benaame-took away, from the Anglo-Saxon Bene
Ibid. The “ grete deceyte” which Reynard here relates, forms one of the most popular fables of the Middle Ages. It is alluded to by Chaucer in his Miller's Tale.
“The gretest clerks ben not the wisest men,
As whilom to the wolf, this spake the mare." It forms the 91st story of the “ Cento Novelle Antiche," and its literary history generally, may be read in Schmidt's Beitrage zur Gesch. der Romantischen Poesie, s. 181, et seq.
P. 84. I can wel Frenshe, Latyn, English.—Caxton has adapted the whole of this passage to the meridian of London. In the original there is no mention of the English language or of Oxford, &c., as the following extract will show:
“ Ich can wel walsch, latyn, ende duytsch. Ic hebbe terfforden ter scholen ghegaen. Oec heb ich mit ouden wisen meesters van der audiencien questien, ende sentencien ghegheven, ende was in loeyen ghelycenceert, &c.
P. 85. Laste,-loss, as in Gualtier's edition.
P. 86. Even Christen.—Neighbour or fellow-Christian. Even, in the sense of fellow, occurs in the Anglo-Saxon Gospels, Matthew xix. where fellow-servant is rendered efen theowa, and even-christian for neighbour, in the old Friesic, where the commandment, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself; is “minna thinne evncristena like thi selva.”
The word occurs also in Piers Ploughman, and in Hamlet. P. 87. Bywymple with kerchieuis.—
Veil or mask the truth, as women's faces were concealed by their wimples. The edition of 1650 reads, “but he that cannot wimple falshood in truthes kerchief, hath neither art nor cunning."
Ibid. He may were scarlet and gryse.-Scarlet and gryse, the
costume of a doctor of laws. Grys is a fur, and Chaucer describes his monk as having
“ His sleves purpled at the hond,
With Gris, and that the finest of the lond."-1. 193.4. See further Promptorium, p. 211, ed. Way.
P. 88. Without tatelyng-without stammering. From the Old Flemish tateren, which Killian explains by Balbutire, titubare.
P. 89. Yoned.—This word, which is modernized by Gualtier into “wished,” is from the Flemish jonnen, which Killian explains by favere.
P. 90. I crye out Harowe on them.—I denounce them. Harow was the cry by which the Normans were bound to denounce any great offence, such as theft, murder, &c. which had been committed. It is said by Roquefort in his Glossaire s. v. Harow, to be derived from Ha and Raoul, in remembrance of Raoul I, Duke of Normandy, whose memory was highly esteemed by his countrymen, for his love of justice, and the strictness with which he administered it. See further, Ducange s. v. Haro. Uncertain as is the etymology of this cry, it is probably connected with the harahus of the Lex Ripuaria, mentioned by Grimm, Rechts-Altherthümer, s. 794.
P. 91. Wyken.-Departed, or gone away, from the Flemish Wycken, cedere, recedere, &c.
P. 92. Eamerick.--This is a misprint for Camerick.
P. 93. Inwytte.-Reason, consciousness, from the AngloSaxon inwit.
P. 94. Mathes.-Worms or maggots, from the Anglo-Saxon Matha, the Flemish, Maden.
P. 96. Sondrely wise.-Extremely wise, from the AngloSaxon, sunder, separate or peculiar, or rather perhaps the German sonderlich, especially, particularly.
P. 101. Balke.—A beam, from the Anglo-Saxon balc.
P. 102. Nether kyn, ne wyn, ne frende.—Neither kinsman, nor friend, Wyn, a friend, from the old Friesic Winne. See Richthofer.
Ibid. Grete chierte.—This French phrase is introduced by Caxton ; “lief ende weert,” are the words of the original.
P. 103. A parable of a man.—This fable is one of the most frequent occurrence in the literature of the middle ages. See Robert's Fables Inédites, &c. II, p. 51. Barbazan's Fabliaux, ii. p. 73, ed. Méon.
P. 104. Avayle.—Profit. This word, which occurs several times, see pp. 107, 126, &c. is used by Chaucer in bis Court of Love :
“ By mine advice, love shall be contrarie
To his availe." P. 107. Avicen.- Avicenna or Ebn Sina, as he is properly called, was an Arabian Physician of the tenth century. He was no less celebrated as a philosopher, and his “ canon,” as the volume in which he had collected all the medical knowledge of his time was designated, was looked upon, during the middle ages, as the text-book of medical science. The original text was first published at Rome, in 1593, and has since been frequently translated. His philosophical works translated into Latin were printed at Venice, in two volumes, folio, in 1523, and again in 1564.
Ibid. Fordeel.-Profit or advantage, corresponding with the modern German, Vortheil.
P. 109. The Musehont is the weasel, mustela, according to Grimm, who tells us that in the Schildbürgern, cap. 44, the cat is called the maushund. Hoffman considers it the cat.
Ibid. The fychews is also described by Mr. Wright in his Glossary to Piers Ploughman, as a kind of weasel.
Ibid. The martron, the marten.
Ibid. The genete, the ostrole and the doussyng.—The genete is the wild cat.