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above all, of the diagnostician means that may be faith-healing, it may confidently be affirmed that employed in order to avoid terrible blunders by one is dealing not with actual organic maladies, enabling the physician to discriminate with but with hysterical affections. There is, howcertitude between symptoms of hysterical origin ever, this additional and most important fact to and symptoms caused by organic maladies be noted: that, nine times out of ten, not even requiring treatment by drugs or by the surgeon's hysteria will yield to such rough-and-ready knife.
theraphy, but requires the most delicate manipu
lation to make sure of a permanent cure. And 'N the cases I have cited we see hysteria simu- this for an excellent reason.
lating the symptoms of tuberculosis, paraly- Hysteria, as was said, is caued by distressing sis, epilepsy. There is, without exaggeration, experiences of an emotional character. These scarcely a disease which it cannot mimic, thus may occur long before the appearance of any leading in thousands of instances, to useless symptoms of disease, and, so far as conscious drugging and unnecessary and dangerous opera- recollection is concerned, may have been quite tions. If, for this reason alone, it is a duty forgotten by the sufferer. Indeed, whether they incumbent on every physician to learn all he can occur immediately prior to, or long before, the about hysteria-for which purpose I would development of the symptoms, the rule is that advise him to study carefully the writings of the they are thus forgotten; being, in technical great masters on the subject, particularly Janet, language, “dissociated from the upper consciousRibot Babinski, Freud, Prince, and Sidis. It is ness. But such dissociation does not imply that also important for the layman to acquaint him- they have been completely blotted out of reself with at least its fundamental facts, for hys- membrance. So far is this from being the case teria is to a large extent a preventable disease that it is now known that they persist as subEspecially, as we shall find, is knowledge of conscious memories; and persist, moreover, with hysteria important to parents, to the fathers all the vividness and intensity of their original and mothers who would see their children emotional coloring. It is to this subconscious grow up to healthy, robust manhood and persistence that the continued manifestation of womanhood.
the symptoms is due. As one distinguished And, tò summarize the fundamental facts very authority, Dr. Sigmund Freud, has well said, briefly, it is known to-day, as a result of scientific “Hysterical symptoms are so many monuments investigation conducted along novel lines, that to forgotten emotional experiences. hysteria, no matter what physical symptoms it may display, is first, last, and all the time a YSTERIA, in a word, is primarily a mental disease; that it has its immediate cause in
disease of lost memories, and the effectivefrights, griefs, worries, and other experiences ness of its treatment by mental means—the only occasioning profound emotional disturbance; means that ever are effective in handling itthat these act, either directly or indirectly, as usually depends on the skill with which these "suggestions" giving rise to the particular memories are recovered by the physician, symptoms later developing; and that, being so that he may know exactly what it is that caused by suggestion, hysteria is likewise curable he has to suggest away. Since they are preby suggestion without the use of medicine of any served only in the subconscious, it becomes kind.
necessary for him to burrow into the subcon
scious; and this he can do, if he has had the *NVARIABLY, when one hears of disease proper training.
But the narration of a few concrete cases will as happened to the girl with the “tubercular” make clearer than columns of disquisition would hip; disappearing as a
the methods employed result of shock, to recall
in, and the marvelous the amazing experience
E do not demand the abun- results obtained by, the of the paralyzed Mrs.
dance which belongs to us, psychological treatment Sandford; or, finally, hence the leanness, the lack of of hysteria, the genesis disappearing in conse- fulness, the incompleteness of and development of this quence of “faith," as in our lives. We do not demand roy- strange disease, and its many of the cures un- ally enough. We are content with truly many-sided nature. questionably effected by too little of the things worth For it can simulate not exponents of Christian while. It was intended that we only almost every known Science, New Thought, should live the abundant life. bodily disorder but also and other systems of
I of ,
Thus, in one most striking instance, the victim, ence had qualified him to cope with any ordinary a young villager known in Dr. Pierre Janet's devil. He determined, in fact, to make the medical report only by the name of Achille, malignant intruder himself hypnotize Achille. presented all the symptoms of what 'in olden “I will not believe in your power over this times would have been regarded by supersti- man,” said he, "unless you give me proof of it." tious persons. He is said to have been of a "What proof?" rather timid and morbid disposition as a youth, “Raise his left arm, without his knowing it.” but had married happily, and had had no special Up went Achille's left arm, to his vast surprise. ailment until he was thirty-three years old. Then followed a series of suggestions, all of which Then, following his return from a business the devil exultantly and unsuspectingly executed journey, he became unexpectedly somber and as proofs of his power. Finally came the supreme taciturn, and soon lost all power of speech. One suggestion to which Dr. Janet had been cunningly local physician declared that he was suffering leading: from heart disease, another pronounced him dia- “But can you put Achille soundly to sleep in betic. Both agreed that his condition was that armchair?" serious, and the outlook most unfavorable; a Presto! Achille was in the chair, sound asleep. prognosis that found ample confirmation when he And in that moment he was freed forever from the took to his bed, said farewell to his friends, and tormenting devil. For, while he sat in th: stretched himself out motionless.
hypnotic sleep, Dr. Janet by patient questioning For two days he lay seemingly dead, while his was able to draw from him precisely the informawife mourned at his side. Shortly before noon of tion indispensable to a cure. the third day he suddenly regained consciousness, sat bolt upright, with bis eyes wide open and E had been living, it appeared, in a kind of staring, and burst into a terrible laugh—“a convulsive laugh which shook all his limbs; an exag- hideous nightmare, the product of his own regerated laugh, which twisted his mouth, a morseful brooding over an act of infidelity to his lugubrious, satanic laugh which went on for more wife committed during the business trip taken than two hours.” Leaping out of bed he refused just before his illness. A gloomy anxiety to all attentions and to every question answered: conceal this led to his increasing taciturnity, and
“There's nothing to be done! Let's drink morbid fancies as to his health, intensified by the some champagne! It's the end of the world!" unwise suggestions of the village doctors grew on
At last, exhausted, he fell asleep, but when he him until in his day-dream he believed himself awoke affairs were far worse. He writhed in ter- actually dead and given over to the devil for rible convulsions, uttered fearful imprecations, punishment. As Dr. Janet, in reporting the and repeatedly tried to commit suicide. All the
case, observed: time he kept saying that he was not responsible "When one dreams that one is dead, what is for the blasphemies he uttered; that he was there left to dream? What will be the end of the compelled to utter them by the devil that had dream in which Achille has been living for six entered into him. This sort of thing went on for months? The end will be simple enough-it will months, and it was ultimately decided that in- be hell. During the two days that Achille restead of being diabetic or having heart-disease, he mained immovable and like one dead, he was was quite insane. Accordingly he was taken to dreaming harder than ever. He dreamed that Paris and committed to the great asylum of the now that he was dead indeed, the devil rose from Salpétrière.
the abyss and came to take him. The poor man,
as in the hypnotic state he retraced the series of ERE for the first time he came under the his dreams, remembered the precise moment
observation of a physician competent to when this lamentable event took place. It was treat him. Dr. Janet's practiced eye at once about eleven in the morning; a dog barked outrecognized the case as one of hysteria; and he doors, incommoded, no doubt, by the smell of knew that some great emotional shock must be brimstone; flames filled the room; numbers of responsible for his patient's ravings. In order to little fiends scourged the unhappy man, or drove learn what this was he sought to hypnotize poor nails into his eyes; and through the wounds in Achille, but failed dismally, being met with his body the devil entered to take possession of mocking laughter from the demon that was head and heart.” tormenting him and that professed to speak The demon that tortured Achille was, quite through him. However, Dr. Janet did not manifestly, his remorseful self; the symptoms he despair. He had often been confronted before displayed were nothing more than symbolical by conditions fully as difficult, and long experi- indications of the torments which his morbid
imagination pictured him as deserving, and acters. That night she had her first attack of which, through the power of self-suggestion, he the symptoms just described. was actually forced to endure. The method of Theoretically it could be assumed that the emohis cure was quickly worked out by Dr. Janet. tions aroused within her by the reading of the As is well known, all manner of hallucinatory passage in the novel had acquired hysteria proimages can be imposed on hypnotized subjects; ducing force; and the soundness of this view was and, availing himself of this fact, Dr. Janet, after demonstrated when, following the application in giving Achille verbal suggestions to modify and hypnosis of suggestions aimed at eradicating from explain away the miserable memory of the offense her subconsciousness all recollection of the novel, he had committed, caused him to see a hallucina- the symptoms in question promptly disappeared. tory image of his wronged wife, gazing at him affectionately and with pardon in her eyes. By ORE often hysterical affections have their such means-means infinitely more effective than
rise in frights and shocks of a manifestly the old theological method of bell, book, and severe character. Railway accidents constitute a candle—was the demon in him exorcised. When frequent cause. In one case, reported by Dr. he awoke from the hypnotic sleep he was per- Janet, a traveler in a European railway carriage, fectly tranquil, and, after a few days of ordinary while the train was in full motion, imprudently medical treatment to restore his shattered got down on the step in order to pass from one strength, was able to return to his native village door to another. Just as he put his foot on the and take up anew the life of a normal man. step he saw that the train was about to enter a
tunnel, and it occurred to him that his left side, VORTUNATELY, it is comparatively sel- which projected, might be crushed against the
dom that when hysteria simulates an wall. The idea so terrified him that he fainted, insanity it develops such a painful derangement but luckily fell inside the carriage and was as this. The form it ordinarily takes is that of a dragged to safety by the other occupants, his left simple obsession or fixed idea; a form, however, side not even being grazed. Notwithstanding terrible enough for the patient and his friends. which, on his return to consciousness it was found A typical instance is afforded by a case once that his entire left side was paralyzed. treated by Dr. Isador H. Coriat, a Boston neu- In another case, which I cite on the authority rologist who, under the leadership of Drs. Prince of Dr. T. A. Williams of Washington, D. C., a and Sidis, have done much in the way of in- brakeman on a freight train, owing to the giving vestigating and successfully applying the prin- way of a stirrup, was thrown from his train while ciples of psychopathology, or medical psychology. it was going at the rate of only ten miles an hour.
Exceedingly trivial, to all outward seeming, He tumbled against an earth embankment, rolled was the incident responsible for the hysteria over a couple of times, and lost consciousness for that afflicted one of Dr. Coriat's patients. This half an hour. When be came to, he felt weak and patient, until she came under his care, had long faint, but managed to get to his home. The next been vainly seeking relief for a curious combina- day he complained of severe pains in his back, and tion of disease symptoms. These had first set in a little later lost all use of his legs. He remained one night when, just as she was falling to sleep, crippled for more than three months, and in the she was aroused with a sensation as if she was meantime brought suit against the railroad comgoing insane. Her thoughts seemed confused pany for heavy damages. and jumbled, her head whirled, her heart The company, naturally, sent a physician to palpitated, and she felt panic-stricken. The examine him, and fortunately for itself and the attack was of about ten minutes' duration, and brakeman, chose one who knew a great deal about was repeated nearly every night thereafter, with nervous disorders. His report was brief and to a marked tendency to last longer and longer. the point. In effect, he said:
The patient, in her normal state, could give no “The tests I applied to your employee prove explanation for the strange attacks but, when conclusively that he has received no organic questioned in a state of “experimental dissocia- injury. It is a case of hysteria, and I believe that tion,” she was able to throw much light on them. by appropriate treatment he could be restored to It turned out that, following a period of fatigue, a certain extent within one month, and that due to her efforts to entertain some friends, she within three months he could be made fully had undertaken a long journey before she was capable of pursuing any laborious vocation he fully rested. While on the train she became desired. I believe it would aid materially in his greatly interested in a novel in which there was recovery if he were assured of a reasonable given a long and vivid description of the ab- compensation for the shock sustained.” normal fears felt by one of the principal char- Acting on this recommendation the company
sent the injured man a check for $600, and effect than they are on the normal man. More notified him that it had a place for him as specifically, it is not the inherited tendencies that soon as he could return to work. Within three count, but the environment that gives them months, exactly as the physician had predicted, opportunity to develop. To the truth of this, he was back on his freight train, and working the psychopathologists whose special business away as though nothing had ever been the has been the investigation of hysteria, bear matter with him.
Always, in tracing back the origin of their UT, it will be objected, railway accidents patients' symptoms, they find, when they carry
occur every day; there are collisions, their psychoanalysis far enough, an emotional burnings, disasters of many kinds. Why is it substratum composed of the subconscious memthat, of any given ten men in a railway wreck or ories of childhood experiences of a distressing, other accident, none of whom has received bodily terrifying sort. It is becoming grafted on these injury but all of whom have been greatly shocked, earlier memories that the hysteria-causing emonine will show no ill effects while the tenth will tion acquires its stupendous suggestive force. develop a hysterical obsession or a hysterical Hence parents should ever be on the alert to paralysis? Why should the mere reading of a guard their children against distressing sights, lurid passage in a sensational novel have the effect and should refrain from discussing in their it did on Dr. Coriat's patient, when it had no presence topics that may terrify them. Tales of similar effect on the hundreds of other young the supernatural-stories of ghosts and devils women who must have read the same passage, and and bogies-should never be told to the child. in many cases must have been fully as emotional For thereby abnormal fear—the most potent of and impressionable?
all influences on making ready the ground for a Such questions bring us directly to the heart of later harvest if hysteria-may be engendered. the hysteria problem-to the central fact which Let the parent bear in mind the words of the makes kaowledge of the nature of this singular great Italian physiologist, Angelo Mosso: "Every disease so important to the layman, and par- ugly thing told to the child, every shock, every ticularly to parents. This is the fact that hys- fright given him, may remain like minute teria can develop only in persons predisposed to splinters in the flesh, to torture him all his life it by conditions of early environment acting on long.” Let the parent bear these words in inherited neurotic tendencies. It is, in truth, in mind; let him, so far as is humanly possible, keep the childhood of the hysteric that the seeds of his the terror-inspiring out of his child's life, and he disease are sown, and were the soil not thus pre- need have little fear that this child of his, this pared the frights and griefs and worries that so beloved son or daughter, will suffer in later years tremendously afflict him would be of no more from the tortures and pangs of hysteria.
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The New Wonder Science
By PAUL von BOECKMANN
NERVE SPECIALIST AND PSYCHO-ANALYST
Man has at last found the way of look- medium of fantastic dreams. Freud ing into the deep recesses of the Human specializes in analyzing such dreams, deMind. This new and wonderful science termining by this method the nature of is termed "Psycho-Analysis." We owe the Un-conscious fears and disturbances its birth and development to the efforts that harass the minds of his patients. of the celebrated Viennese Psychologist, Great and learned as Freud undoubtDr. Sigmund Freud. Psycho-Analysis edly is, he is not without his opponents has enthused the thinkers of every nation, and critics. In England especially, his especially those in England, France and basic principles have been attacked by Germany, and is fast gaining headway physicians and psychologists. His theory, among the thinkers of America.
that the sex instinct is the basis of nearly Psycho-Analysis permits us to analyze all nerve unrest, has been challenged by the mysteries of the Human Mind, which them. Personally, I hold that the instinct have perplexed scientists for many cen- of self-preservation, and not race-preservaturies. Scientists agree that where for- tion, is the most powerful human instinct, merly we had an insight of less than one per and that it is therefore most likely to be cent into the active channels of the mind, the origin of nerve unrest and nerve to-day its doors are thrown wide open to
strain. The instinct of race-preservation us. Psycho-Analysis enables us to under- (Sex) I consider only a powerful substand human character, and human instinct, which together with the greater motive, in a manner we have hitherto instinct (Self-preservation) I term "Basic never done-scientifically.
instincts.” It must be admitted that all What is Psycho-Analysis? This ques- our thoughts and motives are centered tion cannot be answered in a few para- upon our fight to live, more so than on our graphs. Briefly, it deals with the Un- desire to reproduce. Hence Self-preservaconscious Mind, or, as it is sometimes tion is termed “the first law of nature. called, the Sub-conscious Mind. What is Psycho-Analysis has opened up new and the Un-conscious Mind? Again I must be wonderful channels for Mind Training. It brief; it represents the mental impressions has furthermore opened up entirely new of every thought, act and experience that paths toward the development of our moral has taken place in our lives and in the life. However, its greatest scope lies in the lives of our forefathers for generations vast opportunities it offers as a means of back. For instance, if one of your fore- restoring SHATTERED NERVES. fathers in ages past had had a narrow Without a knowledge of Psycho-Analescape from drowning, you may per- ysis, it is almost impossible to deterhaps inherit an Un-conscious fear of the mine the original cause of Nerve Exhauswater because of this occurrence. If tion. It has been vaguely understood by to-day you should barely escape being run us that worry, fear, anxiety, grief and down by an automobile, perhaps some of kindred mental strains and shocks have a your descendants several generations disastrous effect upon the Nerves, but hence may have an undue fear of being why and how this is so, has remained a struck by a moving vehicle, or perhaps a complete mystery to us. It is only by the flying machine. Our Un-conscious Mind, aid of Psycho-Analysis that we have thus, keeps an accurate record of every
finally discovered that the injury inflicted past event, whether experienced by us or on the body and mind by mental strains, by our forefathers. Sometimes these is caused by way of the Un-conscious events find expression through the Mind. I will cite an example: let us sup