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"I wore the blue-silk dress again and was as self-conscious as a school-girl when he came. He, too, was constrained at first, but father and mother relieved us of conversational responsibility for a time. When they finally left us to ourselves, Paul and I strolled away to the gorgeous autumn woods. At dusk we returned hand in hand. It seems that, in his mind-as in mine there had never been any doubt concerning the fact that we two, in all the world, were destined for each other.

“We told mother and father that we were to be married, and they blessed us tearfully. very young and happy.

“During those next months, mother often looked at me long and lovingly. I felt sure that a warning lay close to her lips, but she never uttered it. How well she knew that I realized the hardships a struggling young minister must face. Perhaps, in considering Paul's ability and ambition, she saw for me a different life than she had led. With the optimism of youth and love, I was confident that Paul and I could rise triumphant over every obstacle. The thought of working by his side thrilled me more than the anticipation of wealth could have done.

should they pay ours? We would have to look out for ourselves. I didn't blame them-much. But it wrung my heart to see Paul, so thin and worn, going uncomplainingly about his tasks, asking aid of no one and glad that he was back on his feet to shoulder the new load of debt. In addition to his regular duties, he began to do secretarial work for a college professor who was writing a book on his researches. As the only thing I could do to help, I moved our bed into the crowded trunk-closet and rented the bedroom. This was not only inconvenient and cramping, but we were in continued suspense lest the elders disapprove of such an act.

“I was so tired out and dispirited that I began to neglect first my house and then my children and husband. Horrible as I knew it to be, I found myself contrasting our comparative ease before the babies came, with this struggle. Sometimes Paul, returning home, would find me in tears while Junior stormed excitedly about and Marjorie wailed in her crib.

“But such a miserable state of affairs could not last forever. Gradually I began to regain strength and, with it, courage. Paul and I again took up life with zest. And one day he rushed into the house like a madman, uttering loud, unministerial yells, and threw a check for one hundred and fifty dollars into my lap. An article that he had writtén, in secret, had been accepted for publication by a magazine.

“Encouragement was all that Paul needed. He began to write in earnest during his spare hours, and I, by taking over as many of his duties as possible, helped him a little. When, at length, a prominent paper asked him for a series of articles, we felt that fortune was smiling on us.

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AUL and I were married in the spring and went

to live in tage adjoining his little country church. We called the two acres—where we raised vegetables and chickens with intense enthusiasm and indifferent success our farm. The cottage was our playhouse. I never wearied of dusting and polishing it, of rearranging the tiny parlor, of attempting new culinary feats on my old smoking stove.

“When Paul, Junior, arrived, life seemed even brighter. He was the gayest, healthiest baby that ever toddled about a parsonage, and didn't mind in the least having to wear cotton rompers instead of expensive frocks.

“When Junior was three we moved to M., much larger place, with a consequent increase in salary. But, to offset that, Marjorie arrived, and when she was barely two years old we all had scarlet fever. We were just struggling back to health when Paul had a relapse, and for weeks his life hung in the balance. The children were sent home to my mother during that dark time. At length, my husband began to convalesce, and far too soon he was out again and working harder than ever. “But we

were just about down and out. Paul's church, which had been hiring a 'supply pastor, did not feel that it could do much to help us. I suppose the people figured that no one paid their doctor's bills when they were sick—so why

a

COT many days after the last article had

gone on its way, Paul handed his resignation to the church board. We had determined after nights of discussion, to make a drastic move: Paul was to leave the ministry and begin a career as a writer. He was determined to succeed.

“Some unexpected fund of nerve stood us in good stead during the lean months that followed. For another year we remained in M., while Paul devoted his time to studying the subject in which he was most interested and writing potboilers. We lived in a little three-room flat which always had a scrambled look because it was so crowded with the children continually underfoot, and a typewriter clattering busily. We considered the arrival of our third baby, Roger, as proof positive of our complete optimism-or foolhardiness-to any one inclined to sympathize with us.

(Continued on page 109)

Indian to Sing Grand Opera

After Fifteen Years of Struggle, Son of Famous Araucanian Warriors of Chile, is Engaged for the Metropolitan

of New York

By A. F. HARLOW

E

mous

MILE BARRANGON, Chief Caupolican, Last winter the management of the Metro

the new baritone of America's great politan Opera House decided to stage, for a few

temple of music, the Metropolitan Opera performances, a new opera, “The Polish Jew,” House, is only half Indian, but he is proud of his by Karel Weis, a Czechoslovak composer. It aboriginal blood and always speaks of himself is a musical setting of the story of the same as “an Indian.” As a matter of fact, his father name by the Alsatian novelists, Erckmann and was a full-blooded Indian and a chief of the Chatrian. The late Sir Henry Irving presented Araucanians-a South American tribe—and his a stage version of it, “The Bells,” one of the mother was French.

plays by which he is best remembered. It is something of an achievement to scale the “The Polish Jew” is not by any means a heights and force one's way through the portals musical masterpiece; in fact, the critics on the of America's greatest and most exclusive musi- morning after its first production were unanical organization. Chief

in announcing Caupolican, as he is

that it was based on known, accomplished

very poor fabric; but, the feat after a struggle

in spite of their inof fifteen years; for it

grained conservatism, has been fully that long

they did give more or since he began training

less praise to the new his voice and did his

star who handled the first singing for little

leading part-that of pay, in San Francisco.

the wealthy and reIn those years were

spected old burgher packed ages of hard

who, with the shadow work, of bitter struggle,

of a long-past murder adversity, and dis

hanging over him, becouragement, of con

comes fairly crazed and tinual striving upward

broken, not from reafter each reverse.

morse but the fear of During the last few

being found out. The years, his financial re

management had wards were much more

trouble in securing, for gratifying, but artisti

the rôle, a grand opera cally he was unsatis

performer who can fied. Now, at thirty

both sing and act-a eight years of age, he is

rare combination. One just entering on his

of their baritones rekingdom, as unspoiled

fused it because he by his recognition by

believed it was too high the princes of the musi

for him. Another of cal world as he was un

the foreign stars did discouraged by the Chief Caupolican in the dress of his tribe- not care to attempt the frowns of fortune in the the Araucanians of Chile, South America struggle of learning anpast.

other English part

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I

on,

race.

for the opera, originally written in German, has It is a bit amazing to an average American been translated into English. Several others citizen who knows no language but his own, demurred. Perhaps some of them did not like and who doesn't know much about that, to hear the music which, though dramatic, lacks tune- smooth, graceful English from a man who was fulness.

born in a foreign land of French and Indian Finally, Mr. Gatti-Casazza, director of the parents, and to learn that he speaks at least Metropolitan, sent for Chief Caupolican. The four other languages as well; and the wonder at Chief had already had his “tryout” and had his intellectual attainments grows when you signed a contract which does not go into effect learn that he has never spent a day at school until this fall. The director, however, re- since he ran away from a Roman Catholic quested him to sing the new work and he un- institution in Valparaiso, Chile, at the tender hesitatingly accepted.

age of twelve.

One can spend a very delightful and instrucAM as independent as any man, I be- tive evening in conversation with this accom

lieve,” he said to me, in speaking of the plished gentleman. One of the first objects incident, “but it did not occur to me to refuse or that met my eye when I entered his room was quibble. I had a pretty thorough tutelage in a book, the old sprinkled calf-cover of which discipline during my seven years as a sailor, and proclaimed it to be at least a hundred years old. my natural tendency is to obey orders. I am It was Molina's “History of Chile,” an Engglad to have had an opportunity to introduce lish translation published in 1808. Caupolican myself to the Metropolitan audiences, even reads everything that he can lay hands about though the opera is not a masterpiece. I have South America and his own

He is no complaint to make. Everyone-Mr. Gatti- familiar with Araucanian history and legend, Casazza, Mr. Bodanzky, the conductor and the and is planning to write a history of the Araustage hands—has been very kind and con- canian people. siderate. You have heard much of the jeal- Apparently he has all the facts at his fingers' ousies and backbiting said to prevail among ends now, for he can reel off descriptions of opera singers. It may exist but I can truthfully battles, interspersed with dates, names of leaders, say that I have observed no feeling of the sort numbers engaged and lost on both sides, analytowards me. On the contrary, everyone, stars ses of all national movements and many other and all, claps me on the back and offers en- matters pertaining to his people, with a fluency couragement. Even the chorus, when I come that betrays the scholar. off at a rehearsal, call out, ‘Brava, Chief!' and the stage hands offer such bits as 'Fine, Chief. Y father's people,” said he, “were the You're all there, I'm telling you! With such

aboriginal inhabitants of the mounencouragement, how could a fellow fail?” tains of Southern Chile. Under the old tribal

With the first performance, the Indian star organization we had two hundred and four proved himself not only a singer but an actor rulers, distributed among three grades. Highas well. He displayed a full, clear, resonant est of all there were four Toqui, or princesbaritone voice and an accurate ear. But the tetrarchs, as it were. You will find the early highest praise of all was bestowed on his diction. Spanish writers referring to them as caciques. “For the first time in my life, I understood Each of these governed five smaller divisions every word a singer uttered,” exclaimed one over which were apo-ulmen, or super-chiefs; auditor, enthusiastically. The veteran critic of and each of these twenty apo-ulmen had under The Herald said, “The diction of Chief Caupoli- him nine ulmen, or chiefs. Thus there were one can, who sings the leading part in the work, is hundred and eighty ulmen. Succession to the a lesson no singer can afford not to learn. No chieftainship followed as in the English rule of singer in English, that is. For his, throughout primogeniture; save that if the eldest son were all the blithering book, are the words roundly, not intellectual or lacked courage the succession plainly, masculinely used. Against the foreign was apt to be passed on to the second son. accents which are put to teasing the king's However, there were occasionally new chiefs language, his native one is a treat. It is of no selected because of great prowess in battlemoment, perhaps,--for they say quite definitely “war chiefs," as they were designated among that the German operas will be sung in German some tribes of your North American Indianshenceforth—but just the same, it has taken an and his descendants thereupon became herediIndian to teach us how easily and pleasingly our tary chiefs. One such selection was my tongue could have taken its place in permanent ancestor, Caupolican, who was elevated to the repertory.”

chieftainship after his prodigious deeds of

" M

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Chief Caupolican in the rôle of the Inn Keeper, the leading character in the Wolf-Ferrari opera, “The Polish Jew," a musical version of Sir Henry

Irving's "The Bells” © Mishkin, New York

generalship and daring in the battle of Pilucayquen in 1550.

“Never in their history did our race bow their necks to the yoke of another. Our tribal name, translated, means “Free People.” When I write my Araucanian history, I shall maintain that our people did more to break the power of Spain in South America than any other element. Spain was never able to do anything with us. Pizarro's feat of wiping out the Incas with his little band of one hundred and eighty-three men could never have been accomplished in our country. Chile is known as the cockiest, most independent State in South America, and I think it is due in no small measure to the liberal infusion of Araucanian blood in the Chilean population.”

The singer's father, when a mere boy, was adopted into a well-to-do French family residing in Chile. On reaching manhood, he married the eldest daughter of the household. When little Emile, his son, had reached the age of four years, there came a call to the father from the tribe, in- where he remained for seven years. When he forming him that the chieftainship was vacant, was eleven, his father was injured while hunting, and demanding that he resume his hereditary It was predicted that he would never recover. place. His wife had not expected that he Believing that his time was short, he sent a would ever return to his tribal life, and when he messenger to his wife, asking that he might, if decided that he must go, she refused to ac- possible, see his son again before he died. The company him. By mutual consent, little Emile boy was sent for, and though it was a long, slow was sent to a school in the south of France, journey, he reached the bedside in time to be clasped in his father's arms. After remaining began taking vocal lessons, and sang in public with the tribe for a time, he was placed by his whenever he had an opportunity. By the time mother in the Seminary of San Rafael in Val- he was twenty, he had given up the sea and paraiso. Here a general education is given, bad adopted a musical career. including languages, and English among the He sang in music halls, in vaudeville, in rest; but, as Chief Caupolican recalls it, the church choirs, anywhere. It was while he was English taught by the good padres had some singing in New England that he met his future points in common with Dame Eglantine's wife, a Smith College girl. They were married French, spoken “after the school of Stratford- when he was twenty-three. It was agreed beat-Bowe.”

tween them that he must keep up his music, But the youngster was restless. Two cross- cost what it might, and strive onward towards ings of the ocean had put the fascination of the the heights. To help the cause as best she sea into his blood. He had been in school but could his wife secured a place on the faculty at a few months when he ran away and shipped as Smith, and stood bravely by him throughout a cabin boy on a sailing vessel laden with his struggles. He managed to get over to wheat which took him around Cape Horn and France for four years of instruction, working to Havre. A little later he was aboard a ship, whenever and wherever he could, and living in bound out of Hull, laden with machinery for typically frugal student style. When I asked Australia. In the next few years, he journeyed under whom he had studied over there, he to all the far.climes and quaint seaports of the replied with a smile, “Oh, all sorts of obscure world. Once he was overboard for four hours teachers !" -and, he says, the Metropolitan came near losing a good baritone.

E returned to this country and sang Always large for his age, he had shipped

wherever he could. He has been heard before the mast as an able seaman before he was in most of the standard light operas that have fifteen. Later he went to steam vessels; but, been revived from time to time in the last two as he says, “there was never the fascination for decades—"Chimes of Normandy," "La Masme in steam that there was in the old sailing cotte,” “The Beggar Student,” “Giroflevessels. One thing that I most enjoyed on the Girofla." He got rather low in spirits in 1912, steamships was the lead song,'—the chant when he found himself approaching thirty and which the sailors sing while taking soundings or realized that he had not “arrived," but, that ‘heaving the lead.' I did not know then that I year, in company with two other singers, he had a voice, though I lost no opportunity to secured a vaudeville contract which brought

him more money than he had ever earned

before. His voice and his forceful personality EANWHILE his mother had married made a decided hit. In less than three years,

again and was living in California, he had a vaudeville act of his own booked at a for several years he made his headquarters in good figure, and the satisfaction of seeing his San Francisco. At eighteen he was quarter- name in electric lights as a “headliner" over the master on a liner between that port and China. entrance of the biggest vaudeville house on With all his zest for adventure, he had been a Broadway. He appeared in his native cosstudent from his youth up. He had strength- tume, sang a few songs and told something of ened his acquaintance with the English tongue the life of his people. while on vessels of that nation, and while yet in “But I had a terrible time with the manahis teens was reading the classics. When, as a gers,” says he, “trying to keep from being an quartermaster, when off duty, he might have Apache or a Sioux or a member of some other been found reading such authors as Shake- tribe. They thought I'd make a bigger hit if speare, Pope, or Lamb.

I were billed as a tribesman that folks here He saw looming chances for promotion if knew something about-a native of some he had been old enough-so, at nineteen, he Western tribe that had massacred a lot of North represented himself as twenty-two and got his American citizens. But I didn't want to be papers as third mate on a steamship from anything but what I was and am! I'm too which he advanced rapidly to second mate and proud of it to be anything else.” then to first. Meanwhile he was becoming The Chief was in vaudeville for six years, and more and more interested in music. Between then went into Chautauqua work. He sang, trips he attended the operatic performances at and lectured both on the South and North the old Tivoli Theater, in San Francisco. He American Indians; for on the North American seldom lost a chance to hear good music. He tribes he is one of the best informed men before

use it.”

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