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and strength to the building of an organization every case that our customers be treated as we that in its scope has become nation-wide. ourselves would like to be treated. After many Further, we have just begun to scratch the sur- years of experience, we know absolutely that the face; it has taken all these years to lay a founda- loyalty of a store's customers is its greatest tion that will be enduring; with a corps of loyal, asset. Therefore, we guard it jealously for upon unselfish men, there can be no limit to the pos- it rests character and reputation. sibilities of The J. C. Penney Company.
"It is not large profits we are after, but the
establishment of a safe and sure foundation HE directors of our organization are just for a business that will be lasting. For that
loyal to the men in their employ as the reason we have a host of loyal customers in men are to them.
Unless this were true, po every town where we have a store. This makes coöperation would be possible. Loyalty is the name of The J. C. Penney Company sylargely a result of faith and confidence. A man nonymous with fair treatment to its patrons. coming into our employ is at once impressed This is naturally the result of years of hard with the great degree of loyalty that is manifest work. When we open a store in a new locality, among our store people. Few concerns that are we know it will not be long until that store is doing business enjoy the loyalty of their em- doing a large business. ployees as does The J. C. Penney Company. “The same fair treatment is given our cusThis spirit is in a large measure reflected by the tomers we accord to every man who joins our customers of our stores, for it is no common forces. That is why we allow him in time to thing to have them say:
become financially interested in the business. “ 'I have traded with your store in such and In this way his individuality is developed. such a place, or, I have traded with this store “The young man should learn that loyalty ever since it opened.' Now unless we follow a to his associates, his work, and his ambition, fixed policy this would not be so. We insist in unite to form a bond of well-being.”
Why They Do Not Get OnTHEY are not reliable.
They talk a great deal, but say very little, because Their minds are not on their work.
they do no thinking or studying. They are careless and make mistakes.
They look into everything but see nothing, because They think only of their salaries.
their brains are not developed. They touch their work only with the tips of their They have a hundred irons in the fire, but none of fingers.
them is hot enough to be welded. They are superficial and do nothing well or thor- They are always looking for "genteel" occupations oughly.
with little or nothing to do. They do not seize the opportunities for advance- When told to do anything, they stand around and ment that come to them.
ask questions instead of going to work and using their They squander their vital energy outside of business
If called upon in an emergency, they tell you that They are lazy and will not take pains or put them
this or that is the work of someone else that it is not selves out if they can possibly help it.
their work. They are not careful about their personal appear
They are half-hearted and lacking in energy, origiance, their dress or their manner.
nality, push, and perseverance.
They have no ambition fires to melt the obstacles in They are not honest or truthful and have lost the
their path and weld into one continuous chain the confidence of others.
links of their efforts. They are uncertain in their action because they are
They are always wishing their circumstances were always subject to outside influence.
different, bemoaning their "hard luck," or wailing beThey have no opinions of their own, but are the cause they have not been assigned to a more pleasant echo of the last man they talked with.
task. They have no enthusiasm and are powerless to They show such evidence of doubts and disbelief in generate it. If it is contagious in their neighborhood themselves that they frighten away success and invite they catch it; but it soon evaporates.
The Victor is he who can go it alone,
TRANSMUTE YOUR KNOWLEDGE
INTO POWER A Commencement Address to the Thousands of Young Men and Women Who Will
Be Graduated this Month
By ORISON SWETT MARDEN
which enables soldier to lift their classes, and enables them to get their enormous weights, with one hand, with the percentage for examinations. On the other utmost ease. A man need only be able hand, many who don't know a tenth as actually to lift eighty-two pounds in order, much, but who have digested what they with the aid of this chain, to lift a ton; 180 know by thinking, reflecting upon it, making pounds to lift twenty tons. A strong man it a part of themselves, while they inay fail can lift nearly fifty times as much with its in examination tests, are infinitely stronger, help as fifty men could without it. The more practical, more seli-reliant, better ponderous mass of tackle, blocks, skids, fitted for the great tests of life. crowbars, rollers, and human muscle for- The greatest satisfaction that ever comes merly employed in raising great weights are to a huinan being comes from the active done away with by this simple mechanism. exercise of his mental powers, the effort to
This is a good illustration of what an express the ability which he feels. education should do-double, treble, quadruple
one's power. The educated man who A STUFFED memory does not inake an has found himself, who is in a position to educated man. A really educated man use all of his power, should be able to do the has a peculiar faculty of transforming work of many men without education. He knowledge into power. Such ability is the has, as it were, the leverage of all previous secret of success. “Know thyself,” is the generations with which to work.
theoretical end of culture. “Use thyself,” It requires scores of unthinking men with is the practical end. picks and shovels to do the work of one “Soine minds are so congested with the machine, planned and made by an educated fuel of mere information that the fire of aim and skilled mind, which has applied itself to and practical purpose never becomes the problem of finding the best, wisest, and kindled within them,” says Lilian Whiting. quickest way of doing things.
There are thousands of young men and "Facts are stupid things,” said Agassiz, young women in America, to-day, stepping “unless brought into connection by some out of our colleges, who are little more than general law." Until intelligently applied to mere granaries of knowledge, walking enthe affairs of life, they are of little use to the cyclopedias of stored-up information. They student. Their value lies in digesting and have great absorptive powers but their assimilating them, and mental assimilation faculties are unable to give out what they is impossible without thinking, reflecting, absorb and to put it to practical use. and practically applying what we learn. This is the only way to make knowledge THE purpose of school and college should one's own, to make it a living part of one- be to aid youth in the voyage of selfself. Because they do not do this, many of discovery. True education is a system of our graduates from school and college are self-revelation, a plan whereby one is weak, and inefficient, practically failures assisted to take an inventory of one's self outside of the study hall. They go through and of one's resources. The athlete does college and stand well, without ever learning not carry the gymnasium away with him. The strength, the skill, the discipline he meet them everywhere; college graduates as displays, the gymnasium has helped him to conductors and motormen on street cars; acquire. That which the graduate should perpetual clerks, with meager chance of take from his Alma Mater is the mental promotion; writers of occasional squibs for strength, the stamina which will make him the newspapers; or hangers-on in society, an active force in the world, and not merely who have no strength to rise in the world, the great mass of facts by means of which, because they have not digested and assiiniand through the study of which, he was lated the knowledge they have gained. supposed to acquire strength and staminapractical power.
THE absorption of knowledge may be
come as much of a dissipation as any REAL education increases the grasp of the
other bad habit. “The end of education,” faculties, the grip of the mind, increases said Lord Kelvin, ''is to help a man to earn the powers for analyzing ideas, systematizes his living, and then to make life worth knowledge and teaches one how to apply it. living."
How few college graduates are really We should be educated for life. Book practical? Very often these young men and learning alone makes weaklings. What women think they are educated above their the student absorbs in books and lectures is job when they are not grounded in the nothing compared with what he gives out in fundamental principles of business. Is it thinking and self-expression. any wonder that so many of our business The weakness of scholarship is that it men are prejudiced against employing sometimes lessens the courage and selfthem? How many think it is undignified confidence as it broadens the outlook. It for a man with a college diploma to begin at pushes the horizon further away, but it often the bottom and work his way up! So they shows up more obstacles, more difficulties in spurn the smaller opportunity and await the the path. The further a scholar gets, the greater, for which they are unfitted, or vaster the great unfathomed sea of knowlwhich, perhaps, never comes.
edge looms, and this makes him feel small, “I believe that my college diploma has ignorant and comparatively helpless. The been a hindrance rather than a help, because more he learns, the more he finds he does I expected too much from it," a college not know. graduate said to me. “I have leaned upon it instead of upon myself . I have used it as WE
E see many examples of totally una crutch. When I tried to get a position educated men who jump into things and told my prospective employers that I which an educated man, with a broader had several university degrees, they simply horizon, with infinitely greater culture, said, 'Your college degrees are all right, but would hesitate to undertake. what we want is a man who can do things, In addition to timidity the regulation who can bring things to pass, who can education develops an overcaution, a fear of market goods or handle men."
undertaking things, and thus paralyzes
initiative. The graduate's initiative is often LEADING your class in knowledge will inuch weaker and less developed than when
mean little to your employer unless you he entered college, beeause he has been can lead your fellow employees with mas- withdrawn from the world of thought, from tership, in well-performed, efficient work. the world of realities to a world of theories. How you rank among the other employees — It is doing things, assuming responsibility that is what will interest your employer, not that develops initiative, self-reliance and what your record was in college.
power. Absorbing knowledge is more or The college graduate should give to the less of a passive mental operation. world an example of a highly trained man or Self-reliance, one of the principal strands woman, a man or woman fitted for effective- in the success cable, is developed but very ness in any line of endeavor in which he or little in an ordinary college education. she might engage. Instead of that, I have There is too much absorbing, taking in of talked with many college graduates who things froin the outside, too much dehave not betrayed any evidence of an pendence on the accumulation of facts and especially highly trained mentality. We theories in our educational system and too
“Here's the secret of my success as a playwright, but don't publish it,” says:
Author of Four Broadway
In an interview with
BOUT sitxeen years ago, a tall, blond,
young man, aged twenty-one, reporting
for a newspaper in Cleveland, Ohio, decided that he would be a playwright. So he wrote a play about society life which he called
AVERY HOPWOOD “Clothes," and journeyed to New York to find a producer. This young man was Avery Hop- like to count the chickens before they are wood. At that time, his stock in trade was a hatched. I am only certain of the four plays genial personality, a keen desire to study human now appearing on Broadway. I hope Father nature, and a large amount of natural deter- Time will prove your prediction to be true. mination. While he had made up his mind to At any rate, I shall keep on working. Failure chase that subtle will-o'-the-wisp, playwriting, only makes me work all the harder." he thought less about the possibility of earning big royalties and seeing his name printed large “But how do you manage to write so many on posters, than he did about writing something plays within so short a period?" worth while. “Clothes” had all the earmarks of the beginner; but it had a big idea, and young ’LL tell you the secret of successful play
collaborate with writing, but don't put it in your article; a more experienced craftsman, Mr. Channing I don't want the other playwrights to copy my Pollock. In such instances, the more experi- system; I fear competition too much. I keep enced playwright receives the larger end of the a sort of card catalogue in which I file all the royalties, but all that Hopwood cared for was ideas that come to me for plays, characters and to get a start.
Of course, it is not a real card-cata"Clothes” proved a success. Mr. Hopwood logue, but it resembles one. When I want to kept on studying and working. To-day he is write a new play, I look through it in search of the author or coauthor of four successful plays an idea. Sometimes, the idea is expressed now running in New York City.
briefly; sometimes, when it lends itself to easy This interview which he granted me for The outline, the whole thing is outlined. I generally New SUCCESS, is the first he has found time to keep a few ideas ahead. At present I have what give. He is a studious, painstaking, hard- I consider six or eight good ideas for plays and working young man, blessed with humor. about a hundred fairly good ones.
“In writing, I do not always confine myself to "Mr. Hopwood," I said, "I understand that one play, sometimes I work at two at a timefour of your plays are
writing one in the now being produced on
morning and one in Broadway with great C. J. Cottell, City Statistician of the afternoon. I don't success and that a fifth, Philadelphia, gives this rather
believe in waiting for novel definition of a pessimist: the proper mood to pleting, is about to be
write. “A pessimist is like a blind
I try to do accepted ?"
four to six hours' work man in a dark room looking for
every day, and keep Mr. Hopwood smil- a black hat that isn't there."
at it even if the things ingly said, "I don't
I write each day aren't