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Think"

Thoughts are the Masters and the Thinkers

are the Doers"-Confucius. One of the most successful of teachers is a Montreal Nun-successful because she insistently teaches undergraduates to THINK. Force of thought is better than force of will. A trip-hammer is all force, but unless guided by a THINKER strikes a pile or a cream-puff with equal power. Then there is the nagger with a tongue-will of poiseless, per

petual power but-thought-proof Do you fall in clearness of thought and expression to your children, your friends, your employes and -especially in conversation?

YOURSELF? Do you as host, hostess or guest want a spur to If an employer, commend KEYSTONES OF cleverness of thought, wit and repartee?

THOUGHT to your employes-surely to the stenDo you teach, preach or lecture?-want a text for

ographers. letters, talks-or Sermons?

If you have a delinquent debtor send him or her

a marked copy.--Page 132. Do you dictate at home (?)-at office-or both?

If easily discouraged, a victim of worry, fear, the Do you want to give straight-to-the-point advice blues, "Keystones" is your prescription.

"As long as the people of America are content to delegate their thinking to a select few, that select few will run matters to further persona! ends. The average American does not function above the shoulders. William Mathew Lewis, United States Director of Savings, in address to City Club of Chicago.

Do you want something to "crib" for public dinners and other occasions? The most delightful of all after-dinner speakers are a couple of New Yorkers, one English, the other Irish-a Fletcher--a Murphy. Never lengthy, always aphoristic, they say more in five minutes than all the war-works" on the dais drone, drawl or spout in hours.

THEN READ-MEMORIZE AND USE

KEYSTONES OF THOUGHT

By Austin O'Malley, M.D., Ph.D., LL.D.
The only book of original and genuine aphorisms in English. Written by “the World's

master of aphoristic thought and expression."
AN INSPIRING AND USEFUL GIFT FOR YOU AND YOURS

"The successful aphorist is about ten thousand times scarcer than the successful
essayist or story teller, or Assyriologist. Humor without effort, wit without bit-
terness, philosophy without pretension! Dr. O'Malley has printed a book that is
worth possessing." --From the page of notable books in the N. Ý. San, written by the Editor himself.

Every thinker, from Cicero and Bacon to the highest paid and ablest copy writer of the present day (he always has a copy of Keystonesand My Unknown Chum" nearby) has tried to be aphoristic--to say much in a few words-a short paragraph. Send for Keystones.Study it and be aphoristic yourself. Note:- Whether young or old, Sage or Seer, Poet, THE DEVIN-ADAIR COMPANY Philosopher, or whatnot, if you think YOU can match KEYSTONES OF THOUGHT in aphoristic

437 Fifth Avenue, New York City |

Send me copy of “Keystones of Thought," originality, in depth, deftness, wit, wisdom, humor, | on 5 days' approval-enclosed find $2.00. If -in tonic-cheer for all of life's worries, troubles

I decide not to keep the book, I will return and adversities, you are welcome to try. If suc

| same to you within 5 days and you are to

return the $2.00 without question. cessful, The Devin-Adair Company will send you a . check for an acceptable but well-earned sum-and

1

Name your work will be promptly published.

| Address THE DEVIN-ADAIR COMPANY, Publishers

| Note:- If you desire special Suede binding, enclose 437 FIFTH AVENUE

NEW YORK

$4.00.

N.S. 6-21.

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Consider the Mystery!
Electrons exist everywhere.
We gather them in a power house.
We apply certain mechanism and we get heat.
Another mechanism keeps our refrigerators at freezing point.
We apply a third mechanism and we get power.
Still another mechanism applied and we have light.
The same force carries our voice a thousand miles, or flashes a
message across the continent.
Always the same mysterious force. The only difference is in the
mechanism to which the force is attached.

Consider the Mystery!
Mind is omnipresent.
We gather this Mind into our power house.
In one brain this mind is transformed into a beautiful picture.
In another brain it is converted into some noble philanthropic act.
In another it is converted into a wonderful invention.
Still another uses the same Mind for financial gain, fame or power.
Other brains use the same Universal Power ignorantly or carelessly,
and thus cause their own self-destruction.
Always the same power, but producing different effects in accord-
ance with the different brains through which the power passes.

This Cosmic force, this Universal Mind, operates with scientific exactitude, otherwise the Universe would be a Chaos instead of a Cosmos. This stability is our opportunity. We can then regulate our thinking machine in such a manner as to bring about constructive instead of destructive conditions.

Law governs every form of light, heat, sound and energy. Law governs every material thing and every immaterial thought. Law covers the earth with beauty and fills it with bounty. Shall we then not be certain that it also governs the distribution of this bounty?

An understanding of this law will result in co-operation instead of competition and will remove every kind of discord, whether between individuals, classes or nations, because the unit of the Nation is the individual, and when the individual clearly understands that · he is the creative center of his own little world, all social relations will automatically adjust themselves.

Mr. Bernard Guilbert Guerney, the celebrated author and literary critic, has made a careful investigation of these laws, and made known the result in a wonderful book. This book, however, contains such remarkable and astounding revelations that we prefer not to let it get into the hands of the unintelligent or the unappreciative. It will, therefore, not be sold or given away, but we will be glad to lend you a copy if you send your name and address to The Master Key Institute, 202 Howard Bldg., St. Louis, Mo.

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MARDEN'S

MAGAZINE

ORISON SWETT MARDEN

EDITOR

ROBERT MACKAY
MANAGING EDITOR

VOLUME V.

NUMBER 6

NEW YORK, JUNE, 1921

“We Try to Make Men

Not Money”

Says J. C. Penney, Head of the Great Merchandising Firm, The J. C. Penney Company, Operating 312 Stores

In an Interview for THE NEW SUCCESS with

JOHN WEBSTER

O

NE day a man and his wife came to way of doing business. They felt that their inKemerer and set up a general dry-goods telligence was being insulted because the new

store in this shack. They possessed a merchant expected them to pay the first price stock of staple goods worth about $6,000. The asked, and their integrity was assailed when man was an ambitious young merchant named Penney refused to open books and advance J. C. Penney. The wife was his partner-in them credit. But Penney made his prices so every sense of the word. They slept in a room attractive that the people could not stay away. in the half-story section of the building. Their Whenever they had money to spend, they bed and the rest of their scant furniture was spent it at the new store. The first year of its made wholly from packing-boxes and crates. existence, the weatherbeaten shack did a busiThey were itinerents in property, but residents ness amounting to $29,000. in intention. They made one rigid rule in regard And the little weatherbeaten store, since to their stock. It must be fresh and new and then, has grown into a chain of 312 stores good; and the prices were to be sufficiently low that are guided exactly by the same principles to pay them a fair profit. In fact, they were far that made the shack a success. The little store below the prices of the big store. Mr. and Mrs. is, to-day, known as the “mother” store. Last Penney bought directly in the markets and for year the J. C. Penney Company did a business cash. Then they sold for one price and for of over $40,000,000. cash. They would not shade a price for any buyer no matter what quantity he wanted to

Y wife and I were the couple that buy. And they would not give a cent's worth

started that little store,” said J. C. of credit to the richest man in the community. Penney. “We honeymooned' cheerfully among The people did not, however, like the Penney the packing-cases. I was the general boss and

Mrs. Penney was the clerk. Out of that store grew other stores and out of that other and still other stores until we have the chain of stores of to-day--and others are to be added as fast as conditions will permit.

“But be certain to state one thing. I did not start all of the stores and do not own them. I did not start that first store on my own money. I had only a third interest at the beginningtwo other men held shares. My third interest had been gained by hard work and saving.

“Just as I was a partner in that store, so other men became partners with me in other stores and, later, they, too, took in partners. I soon discovered that instead of building up a business it would be necessary for me to build up men. In fact that has become a slogan of The J. C. Penney Company-making men, not money. Make the men for your business and the money part of it is assured.

“All the men who work for me have gained their interests by work and saving. No man ever came to me because he had money to invest. The only money that ever counted with The Penney Company was that which represented the margin of earning over spending by men who worked so hard that their time for earning was great and their time for spending small. Thus the chain made its own menbuilt up its own best asset-and it was the human, not the money links—that counted most.

“We have now a great organization. It is great, because the men in it are great. I mean by that, they are loyal fighters.

what I thought equal to the amount of work I put into my job, I would be a fool to let the task discourage me. Therefore, when my first employer promised me all of twenty-five dollars a month, I saw no chance ahead. Leaving home, I finally found a job with Johnson and Callahan, of Evansville, Wyoming. Their store was a popular one. The partners were what I called merchants, they sold for cash at a fixed price and kept their expenses down. What is more, they kept their goods up. Twice a year they went all the way to New York to buy directly from manufacturers. And they bought for cash. At that time, I could not comprehend all that such a trip meant. I imagined they went for the journey as well as for merchandise. But one thing that I did notice was this: the prices in the store were generally low, and the proprietors always had plenty of cash on hand.

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"THE

HE units that make up our business are

all small and we differ from the man having a small or moderate-sized business only in having a large number of these businesses. There is nothing in any of our business methods that calls for unusual human or financial resources. Simply this: to-day we are a bundle of tightly bound fagots; yesterday we were a single fagot. The cords that bind the bundle are work and the best traditions of work.

“So far as I am personally concerned, work has always been a tradition in my family. My grandfather used to keep his youthful mind from going to fallow and his muscles in good trim by exercising with a stone pile in his idle hours. So, I was brought up in an atmosphere of work and got to like it-and it has not worn off even to this day. I am happiest when I am busiest.

“But when I began to work for my own living, I realized that work could not be measured by dollars. I mean by that, if my wage were not

HERE was a chief clerk in this store. He

was my superior. One day I went out to luncheon with him. We had an hour for lunch, but finished in half an hour. I returned immediately to the store, but he sat on the hotel veranda to smoke a cigar. The second day we went to luncheon together. When the meal was finished, he suggested that if I returned to the store too quickly, it would reflect on him. It' did. He was fired and I was promoted to his' place.

“Then I began to comprehend why Johnson and Callahan went to New York. I learned for the first time that buying was different from sitting in a store and letting a salesman ‘selli you. My bosses had cash in their pockets and bought for the lowest price. The prices at which they bought goods astonished me. The prices they paid did not average one half of what we paid in the old store. These men taught me one valuable lesson: Borrowing goods is far more expensive than borrowing moneythat the way to buy is to pay cash. That to me is the first principle of merchandising.

“After three years, the partners decided to open a store in Kemerer. I had saved five hundred dollars. It was planned to start the store with a capital of six thousand dollars. They offered me a third interest if I could raise the money. I took them up, and managed to borrow fifteen hundred dollars. I wanted a chance to work on my own account. We agreed that I was to have a salary of seventy-five dollars a month and Mrs. Penney twenty-five dollars a month. They thought it was a good thing to have husband and wife work together. I bave always agreed with them. It teaches values and curbs extravagance. To-day we like to have

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the wives of our men work with them whenever

comes to us can have is loyalty. It is the great. the care of their families does not prevent. est asset of the business man-of any man in

“Well, within five years, I had paid off my any walk of life for that matter-for it com. loan and bought out my partners. I felt that I prises every other asset. had really earned the money with which I made What is my idea of loyalty in business? that purchase—and when a man really earns something, he really

O man can by appreciates it.

loyal who has

pot a sense of appreHE most per

ciation; no man can be fect merchan

loyal who is not able to dising will not flourish

project himself into the without men of the

position of his fellow right kind.

man. He must believe think that goods are the

in the Golden Rule: foundation of a busi

'Whatsoever ye would ness, but they are not

that Men should do men are the foundation.

to you, do ye even Possibly the right kind

so unto them.' of men may be hired,

“In my business exbut a hired man is

perience I have the never so useful as

opportunity of minman who has a sense

gling much with men; of property. A sub

and of our own organistantial money interest

zation I feel I can in the result of his own

honestly and trutheffort brings out his

fully say, real value. That man

loyal men ever lived. might, for various

The devotion these causes be a failure in

men have for those at his business

the head of our organilargely because he

zation is marvelous. could not avail him

In fact, it is so marked self of the economics

that outsiders fail to of massed capital. Our

understand it. To this scheme is to give to

is due, to a large exthe man who proves

tent, the success we that he has the ability,

have achieved. But the tools of proprietor

to us there is nothing ship and to admit him

strange about it, for as an individual unit

we are careful in seto the advantages of

lecting men. large organization.

find after a thorough We have no berths Photograph by Pirie MacDonald, N. Y.

trial that a man lacks or soft snaps or easy

J. C. PENNEY

the partnership qualijobs. And easy money Founder and head of The J. C. Penney Company

ties that we demand, is something we are

we do not allow him to always out of. Every "We do not want the whole trade any

remain longer in our where; we want only that trade to which man who comes to us we can promise to give the largest value

employ. Loyalty is must work for to-mor

for the dollar."

one of the indispenrow and not for to-day.

sable qualities we look All we give is the op

for. If a man is not portunity to prove worthy. We do not offer loyal to the institution of which he is a part, money—as a matter of fact, we try to make he fails to be loyal to his fellow man; hence we the starting salary so far below the market rate consider him undesirable. that the actual salary itself can be no induce- “Can you, then, not see why The J. C. Penney ment whatever.

Company is composed of an unusual force of “Now, the greatest asset that any man who men? They are unselfishly giving their minds

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own

If we

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