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The first meaning is that given by Kimclii, in his Commentary on Psalm in. These are his words:— ~~

"This word, n?D, has not any meaning corresponding with that of the context. It is, indeed, a note in music, so that the musicians might be reminded when they came to certain parts of the tune. It seems this word is not found in Scripture, except in the poetical part": and of those, only in the Psalms and the prayer of Habbakuk.*

In my opinion the root of the word is ??D, and n is paragogic; for the accent is always on the penultimate. Its meaning is, a lifting up, or devotion, as applied to the roice i i. e. it denotes a elevation of the voice." (See The Psalms in Hebrew; with a Critical, Exegetical, and Philological Commentary, by the Rev. G. Phillips, B.D, vol. i. Introduction, lx. London, 1846.)

The second meaning is that given by Mendelssohn, who maintains —

"that as a chorus is often met with in the Psalms, n?D was written by the chief musician as a sign by which the congregation might know when they were to join in the music of this term."

_ It is also probable that the word, in process of time, obtained a more extensive use than is implied in its strict and literal meaning. It appears, therefore, from some of the places where it is found, that it serves to mark a change in the subject of the Psalm; and we may infer as a consequence, that it serves also to mark a change in the singing or music. (See the Work of Rev. G. Phillips, ut supra.)

These meanings appear to include all that is necessary, to complete the sense of the Psalms where the word occurs. Professor Lee says it means praise, and is derived from an Arabic root signifying " he blessed," and corresponds with the word amen, or the Doxology. (See his Hebrew Grammar, p. 383 (note). But his opinion is not generally followed.

The LXX. translate the word by AiityaAjia; while Aquila renders it by &tt; Symmachus by tUrhp aiuva; and Theodotion by us ri\os. But it would be endless to enter into all the details connected with this hopeless subject. The two principal meanings which I have given, will, perhaps, be satisfactory to those who take an interest in such matters. Further particulars will be found in Noldius {Concord. Part. Annotations et Vindicia, Num. 1877). J. Dalton.


Funeral And Tomb Of Queen Elizabeth. — The following items, from certain original Exchequer documents which I have lately examined, give the names of the artists employed on the tomb of Queen Elizabeth; probably not other

* It occurs seventy-one times in the Psalms, and three tunes in Habbakuk.

wise preserved, and which may, therefore, be interesting to some readers of " N. & Q."

"28 Aug., 1607.

Dets due at her late Ma'" death,
and payed sinse.
"To Sr John fortescue for the funerall
charges of the late Queen,

xvijm cccili v* vid
(17,30U 5s. Gd.)

Charges of the tomb for the late Queene:
Maximilian Powtran . . Ql xxu )
Patrick the blacksmith iiij" xv" >■ vli« lxvu
John de Crites y» painter . . cuJ besides
stone, w'h amounted to 200 lb.

(in) all 965 0 0."

E. P. Sublet.

118, Eaton Square.

The Isle or Axholme.—My attention has recently been drawn through objects not of an antiquarian nature, to the singular river island called Axholme, in the county of Lincoln. The fertility of its soil, subdivision of land among small proprietors, cultivation of potatoes and flax, and the poverty of its inhabitants, cause it to resemble in some respects a province of Ireland. At the time of Mr. Stonehoase, its historian, 1839, from among its twelve thousand population, no fewer than one thousand were freeholders, a proportion probably unique in the kingdom. Three eminent antiquaries—Sir John Feme, author of the Blazon of Gentry; James Torre, who died 1619, a laborious collector of Yorkshire antiquities; and George Stovin, who died in the last century, were natives of the district; nor can we forget Wesley was born at Epworth, the principal town of the island. A colony of French and Dutch refugee emigrants once flourished in the neighbourhood, and slight traces, I believe, exist of them to the present day. Drainage has changed the course of the Don and Idle rivers, and altered the ancient character of the country; but churches of considerable architectural pretension, relics of crosses, a hermitage at Lindholme, &c, give much antiquarian interest to this peculiar district.

Thomas E. Wiwnington.

Recusants, temp. James I. — During the reign of James I. the bishops received orders, at the suggestion of the chancellor, to issue a sentence of formal excommunication against recusants. One of the results of this excommunication would be, I presume, denial of burial in consecrated ground. At Allenmoor, near Hereford, this seems to have led to a riot, which, but for the Earl of Worcester, might have proved a formidable insurrection. In other places probably the same prohibition would be carried into effect. Meanwhile, by another law, any person burying in other than consecrated ground, was liable to a fine of 100/. What were the Nonconformists to do, and what did they doP May this law, at a later period, have led to the 'formation of "Quakers' Yards " referred to by your correspondent Llwtd (3'4 S. v. 194)? A. E. L.

Guadalquivir.—The critic in The Timet newspaper of March 26, derives the name of this river from the Arabic Wady—that is, the valley of so-and-so. But surely this is both incorrect and unmeaning; as the word river, or water, as he himself abundantly shows, enters almost always into the actual name of a river. Qua is evidently agua, for the Latin aqua, as in the word used for brandy—guardiente, or agua ardiente. Guadalquivir most probably means "the river of the green meadow."

The same critic finds the word bod, a house, to be the first element of Boscombe; whereas, to us, it is evidently box or bush. "The bushy dell," being the translation of Boscombe.

To talk of something else: Is not the proper pronunciation of tea—te-d f The Chinese call it Uhah; and those who adopted our way of spelling it, probably intended the word to be pronounced as I have suggested, with the diaeresis. How much wanted in our printing are a few diacritical signs, especially in all those words in which c and a do not coalesce in sound! What a pity our printers do not adopt, in nil these cases, the diuresis! Suppose idea, Crimea, and preamble, sounded like sea, pea, and dream (as we have heard them), how can one blame the person who follows the obvious analogy of spelling? For the same reason, North Americans call New Orleans, New Orltens.

For our three different sounds of th, we also want distinct characters: that (soft), thick (hard), and Atit-hony (divisive), like the German t-hun, should surely be distinguished to the eye as well as the ear. The Phonographic News was built upon a real want. Who will invent a simple type (will the Saxon do?) for these different sounds, and secure their general adoption? O. T. D.

Earlt Invention Op Rifling. — In Sir Hugh Plat's Jewel-House of Art and Nature, 1653 (1st edition 1594), the 17th article runs thus: — "How to make a Pistol, whose Barrel is 2 Foot in Length, to deliver a Bullet point blank at Eightscore.

"A pistol of the aforesaid length, and being of the petronel bore, or a bore higher, having eight gutters somewhat deep in the inside of the barrel, and the bullet a thought bigger than the bore, and so rammed in at the first three or four inches at the least, and after driven down with the scouring stick, will deliver his bullet at such distance. This I had of an English gentleman of good note for an approved experiment."

John Addis.

Whittled Down.—This expression is generally considered to be purely an Americanism, but it is to be found in Horace Walpole's letter to Mann of Oct. 14, 1746. He is speaking of our losses in the battle of Rocoux, and says —

"We make light of it; do not allow it to be a battle, but call it' the action near Liege.' Then we have whittled down our loss extremely, and will not allow a man more than three hundred and fifty English slain out of four thousand."

A. A.

Poets' Corner.


J. P. Abdbsoif, a lieutenant in the Royal Navy, published An Introduction to Marine Fortification and Gunnery, in two parts. Gosport, 8vo. 1772. More about him will be acceptable. S. Y. R.

Rabbi Abraham Abbn Hhaum, a Spanish Jew in the twelfth century, left two works; one on the preparation of colours and gilding for the illumination of MSS.; and the other on the initial ornamental letters of MSS. of the law. Where are these MSS. now? Sigma-thbta.

Besson The Bookseller. — In the Cottonian MS. Titus I!., vii. fol. 96, there is a letter from Thomas Besson to the Earl of Leicester for license to print certain books (1587). He was an English bookseller at Leyden. Can any of your readers give me any further information relating to him?


Calcebos.—The ancient charters of the Abbey of Mont St. Michel are now preserved among the archives of the Departement de la Manche at St. Lo. Among the names of the numerous witnesses subscribed to them, 1 have observed Guillelmus Calcebues, Rualenth Calcebos, Rivallo Calcebos. The last two I suppose to have been one and the same person, and this supposition is confirmed by finding subscribed to another charter Ruellen Canonicus. Besides which, in a memorandum of the year 1155, mention is made of Rualendus, Propositus de Gener. (Guernsey), where the abbey bad possessions.

There can, I think, be little doubt that Rualenth, Rivulh, Ruellen, Rualendus, are only different forms of the same name. And if so, Calcebos is probably the name of some office held in the abbey.

Can you give me any information on this point?

P. S. C.

T. P. Christian.—This gentleman wrote a play called The Revolution, and one or two other works. Mr. Christian was a lieutenant in the navy. Was he a native of the Isle of Man P Iota.

Three Charles—Watt ascribes to Charles Clarke, F.S.A. of Balliol College, Oxford, the works of three persons of the same name, viz.: —

1. Charles Clarke, F.SA. sometime of Balliol College, Oxford, whose only published work with which I am acquainted appeared in 1751, As to him, see Nichols's Lit. Anecdotes, !ii. 530, v. 447454, 701, 702; ix. 615; Monthly Review, vi. 69; Bibl. Cantiana, 194.

2. Charles Clarke, Capt. R.N., the circumnavigator, who died at sen, 22 Aug;. 1779, set. 38. As to him, see Philos. Trans. Ivii. 75 ; Annual Register, xi. 68, xiv. 159], xxii. 203],xxiii. 194], 218] xxvii. 149; Biog. Brit. ed. Kippis, iv. 193236; Kippis's Life of Cook, 480. He is often erroneously called Clerke.

3. Charles Clarke, F.S.A. sometime of the Ordnance Office, whose works appear to range from 1787 to 1820, and who died in or about 1841 at Camden or Kentish Town. As to him,' see Nichols's IUuslr. Lit. vi. 610-757; Biog. Diet. Living Authors; Bibl. Cantiana, 153, 210, 211; Cruden's Gravesend, 459; Gent. Mag. N. S. xvii. 342.

I am desirous of ascertaining —

(i.) When the first-mentioned Charles Clarke died?

(ii.) Whether Nichols is correct in calling him the Rev. Charles Clarke?

(iii.) The exact date of the death of the third mentioned Charles Clarke?

(iv.) Whether the first and third Charles Clarke (each of whom seems to have been connected with Kent) were father and son, or how otherwise related?

The compilers of the Bodleian Catalogue, and the Catalogue of the Society of Antiquaries (misled no doubt by Watt) have also confounded the first and third of these persons. S. Y. R.

Cuhioos Sign Manual.—At the time Iconium was the capital of the Turkish world, and a Sultan or Khan unable to write had to put his sign manual to a document, he was wont to dip his hand in ink, and leave the print of it upon the paper. Have any of your readers ever seen such signatures, or is any antiquary able to state whether such a custom obtained in Christendom in remote times? H. C.

Denmark And Holstein Treaty Of 1666.— In the Catalogue of the Collection of MSN. in the Library of All Souls College, Oxford, printed in 1842, under the care of the Rev. H. O. Coxe, now principal librarian of the Bodleian, in the notice of vol. cexviii. fol. 54 b, is an entry of " Letters and Papers having reference to the Treaty of the King of Denmark with the Duke of Holstein, 1666." Where can I find any further notice of the Treaty so alluded to, and what were its particulars? K.

Games Op Swans, Etc., What ?—In the survey of the temporalities of the Abbot of Glastonbury (Monast., vol. i. p. 11), there are enumerated "Games of Swannes," of " Heronsewes," and of "Fesauntes." It may be surmised this means preserves for the purpose of sport. Is the word

used any where else in this sense, or in any author on Venerie? Dame Juliana Berners (Boke of St. Albans), tells us we should say " an herde of swannys," " a nye of fesauntys," and " a sege of herons." A. A.

Po«ts' Corner.

Gloves Claimed For A Kiss.—Perhaps some of your readers could inform me how the custom arose of claiming a pair of gloves by a kiss when asleep? Wm. F. H.

Goldsmith's Work. — Is there any small work in existence which treats of the manipulatory processes of the goldsmith's art? Sigma-th Eta.

Hum And Buz.—Heraclitus Ridens, concerning whom I sometime Bince made inquiry, says,—

"Preserved or reserved, 'tis all one to us,
Sing you Te Deum, we'll Slug Hum and Buz."

Vol. ii. p. 56.

These lines are put into the mouth of an opponent. "Hum and Buz," look like "Humbug'' writ large. Was such a phrase in ordinary use?

B. H. C.

Justice. — When was the designation Justice first applied to county and town magistrates? and when did it fall into general disuse? When did it cease to be usually given to police magistrates? I believe it is now confined to the judges of her Majesty's courts of law, or of assize, as "Mr. Justice Talfourd," &c. Magistrates are called, as a body, "the justices of the peace," but the title is no longer colloquially applied to individuals, unless it is retained in any part of the country, of which I am not aware. The initials J. P. are still frequently attached to a magistrate's name in printing or writing. In the reign of Queen Mary we read of a Middlesex magistrate "called justice Tawe, a popish justice, dwelling in the town of Stretford on the Bowe," whom the editor of Narratives of the Reformation (Camden Society, 1859), p. 160, has identified with John Tawe, a bencher of the Inner Temple, and treasurer of that house 6 Edw. VI. and 1 Mnry. In the plays and novels of the last century the designation appears in common use; and Fielding himself was best known as Justice Fielding. J. G. N.

Lines On Madrid. — Mr. Ford, in his HandBooh for Spain (Part n. p. 662, ed. 1855), quotes the following lines in Spanish, as applicable to the capital of Spain : —

"Quien te quiere—no te sabe;
Quien te sabe—no te quiere."

These may be translated thus: —

"He who likes tliee—does not know thee;
He who knows thee—does not like thee."

I should like to know who is the writer of the lines in Spanish. J. Dalton.


Mount Athos. — Where can I find an account of the mission of Minoides Mynas, who was sent by the French government to Mount Athos? As I wish to be "posted up" in accounts of the monastic libraries there, I shall be obliged by reference to works on the subject since Mr. Curron's. I have seen Bowen and Tozer's in the Vacation Tourists. What is the present state of the holy mountain P Sigma-theta.

Petrarch. — What is the date of publication and value of a copy of Petrarch which I can only describe as dedicated to Marco Antonio da Bologna by Giovanni Lanzo Gabbiano? In the preface, which remains, although the title-page is gone, an allusion to Pope Leo (qy. X.?), coupled with the year 1523 in pencil on the cover, seems to fix the date about 1520-3. As this and the above may be sufficient data, I will extract it. Gabbiano says to M. A. da Bologna —

"Xo voi nc persona alcana si ammiri che io di etu cosi tenern, Unto anlentemente ami e diligentemente desideri di servire colui, il quale da gentilhuomini ceneralmente e da signori ed al fine da Papa Leone e stato sotnmamente venerato ed amato."

Geo. Mitchell.

Walbrook House, 37, Walbrook.

"essat On Politeness."—Who was the author of An Essay on Politeness, Dublin, 1776?


Quotations.—About the years 1836 or 1837, a

ririodical was published for a short time, of which forget the name. I am anxious to discover it, and also for special reasons desire to ascertain the name of the author of a poem which appeared in it, beginning —

"I had no friend to care for me,

No father and no mother;
And early death had snatched away

My sister and my brother,
And flowers had covered all their graves

Ere I could lisp their names," &c.

I have no clue but my recollection of some fragments of the poem, of which I have given the commencement; but I think it was somewhere about the size of Chambers' Journal, First Series. T. B.

Richmond Court Rolls.—Mr. Knapp will be much obliged for any information as to the Court Rolls of the Manor of Richmond, Surrey, and in particular where they can be inspected.

Llanfoist House, Clifton.

"TnE Rueful Quakes." — The late Maurice O'Connell, M.P., wrote something with the above title. Where can I get a copy? S. Redmond.

Savot Bent.—Several pieces of freehold land in the parish of Shabbington, Bucks, pay what is called a Savoy rent. Can any of your readers inform me the origin of this? No work is done or protection given in return for this rent. The

land is liable to be flooded: is it possible that originally it was a payment for the clearing out of the river? John Sheldon.

Talbot Papers. — In an article printed in the Records of Buckinghamshire, vol. i., on Sir John Fortescue, of Salden, mention is made of " the unedited Talbot Papers." Can any of your readers say where these papers are deposited? or where they are likely to be heard of? They are not in the British Museum. Kappa.

William Thomson. — Can any Scottish correspondent give me any information regarding this author, who was a blind man, and published at Perth, in 1818, Caledonia; or, the Clans of Yore, a Tragedy in five acts, dedicated to Sir Murray McGregor of Lanrick, Bart.? In a MS. list of Perthshire dramatists, it is stated that the tragedy was acted at Perth. In Watt's Bihliolh. Britan. the authorship of Caledonia is erroneously attributed to W. Thomson, LL.D. (a native of Perthshire), who died in 1817. Iota.

Sir Thomas Walsingham. — Can any of your readers give me any information as to the descendants (if any) of Sir Thomas Walsingham, of Scadbury in Kent, who married Lady Anne Howard, daughter of Theophilus, Earl of Suffolk? If they had no descendants, did the property go to the Honourables Henry and Robert Boyle, second and third sons of Henry, first Earl of Shannon? Their great grandmother was a sister of Lady Anne Walsingham's,- and they successively took the name of VValsinghara. E. M. B.

John Wood, sometime Fellow of Sidney College, Cambridge (B.A. 1737-8; M.A.1742; B.D. 1749), was Rector of Cadleigh, Devonshire; and published Institutes of Ecclesiastical and Civi I Polity, London, 8vo, 1773, and An Essay on the Fundamental or most Important Doctrines of Natural and Revealed Religion, London, 8vo, 1775. The date of his death will oblige

C. H. & Thompson Cooper.


vattmrB" totth ans'tocrs".

Brandt's "ship or Fooles."—Would you inform me whether a copy of A. Barclay's "Ship of Fooles," date 1509, was printed by W. de Worde; and, if so, what is now the value of that edition? I have n copy, destitute of the titlepage, and one or two leaves of dedicatory verses, &c, and one or two other faults; but not wanting altogether more than six verses (stanzas). The fragment also contains "The Mirror of good Manners" of the same date, and has once contained Barclay's Eclogues, but these are nearly gone. The " Ship" contains Loches's Latin version from Seb. Brandt, and the old wood-block engravings, one of which bears the date, 1494. Could you give me the contents of the title-page, or inform me where I could see a copy, from which I could repair my own. Thuemond.

[Richard Pynson was tho printer of this rare book, as will appear from the following copy of the title-page: "This present Boke named the Shyp of folya of the worlde was translated in the College of saynt mary Otery in the counte of Denonshyre: out of Laten, Frenche, and Doche into Englyssbe tonge by Alexander Barclayo Preste, and at that tyme chaplen in the sayde College: translated the yere of our Lorde god Mcccccviii. Imprentyd in the Cyte of London in Fletestre at the signe of Saynt George. By Eycharde Pynson to hys Coste and charge: ended the yere of our Sauionr M. d ix. The imL day of December." Folio, pp. 556. For a collation of this scarce work see Bohn's edition of Lowndes, p. 255 ;< and for a copious description of it, with specimens of the curious engravings on wood, Dibdin'a edition of Ames, ii. 431. A beantiful copy in morocco in Bibl. AngloPoetica, 1051; Inglis's sale (two leaves MS.), 6/. 16*. 6d.; Sir Peter Thompson's 16/.; Sotheby's in 1821, 28/. A copy is in the Grenville Library, British Museum.]

Pakliamentaky Sittings. — I observe from Earl Stanhope's (Lord Mahon) History that, in the reign of George LT., the ordinary hour of meeting of the Houses of Parliament was twelve o'clock, noon. At what time subsequently did the present practice begin of their assembling, generally,in the evening? J. R. B.

[" The Lords usually meet, for despatch of legislative business" (says Mr. May, in his Parliamentary Practice, p. 212, fifth edit.), at five o'clock in the afternoon, and the Commons at a quarter before four, except on Wednesday, and on other days specially appointed for morning sittings. The sittings were formerly held at an early hour in the morning, generally at eight o'clock, but often even at six or seven o'clock, and continued till eleven, the committees being appointed to sit in the afternoon. In the time of Charles II. nine o'clock was the usual hour for commencing public business, and four o'clock for disposing of it. At a later period, ten o'clock was the ordinary time of meeting; and the practice of nominally adjourning the house until that honr continued until 1806, though so early a meeting had long been discontinued. According to the present practice, no hour is named by the House for its next meeting, but it is announced in the Vote* at what hour Mr. Speaker will take the chair. Occasionally the House has adjourned to a later hour than four, as on the opening of the Great Exhibition, 1st May, 1851, to six o'clock, and on the Naval Review at SpUhead, 11th Aug. 1853, to ten o'clock at night."]

Sir Thomas Lynch.—Can you tell me in what year Sir Thomas Lynch was Governor of Jamaica, and whether he had any sons or daughters, and who they married? A. R. F.

[Sir Thomas Lynch, knt. of Esher in Surrey, was president and thrice governor of Jamaica. In 1664, Sir

Charles Lyttleton left the government of that colony under the care and direction of the Council, who chon Col. Thomas Lynch as president. He was appointed Governor in 1670; again in 1681; and placed forth* third time at the head of the government in 1683. Sir Thomas's first wife was Vere, daughter of Sir George Herbert, by whom he had Philadelphia, who married Sir Thomas Cotton, Bart., of Cumbermere, and had issue nine sons and six daughters.

Sir Thomas Lynch married, secondly, Mary, daughter of Thomas Temple, of Frankton, co. Warwick," Esq. This lady subsequently married Sir Hender Molesworth, governor of Jamaica. Vide Collins's English Baronetage, vol. iii. pt.ii. 613; iv. 29.]

Esquires' Basts. — I have never yet met with an explanation of the above in the coat armour of Mortimer, Earl of March. Could you or any of your contributors give me the derivation of the word, or tell me where one is to be found?

B. H. Ruegg.

[Robson (British Herald, Appendix) gives the following explanation of this term: "Base, or Baste Esquire, also termed squire, esquire, and equire, resembles the gyros; but contrary to that bearing, which cannot extend further than the middle fesse point, runs tapering to the furthest extremity, from which it issues, formed like the gyron, by a straight line on one side, and a Deviled one on the other."]

Mhs. Ann Moreia.—Wanted the parentage of Mrs. Ann Mnrell, wife of Dr. Thomas Morell, who, in the year 1780, held the vicarage of Chiswick, co. Middlesex. Also if the said Ann had a brother William? M. M. M.

[Dr. Thomas Morell married in 1738, Anne, daughter of Henry Barker, of Grove House, near Sutton Court, Chiswick.]

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(3rt S. v. 376.)

One of the queries of your correspondent H.C. is answered by the following extract from Hugh Usher Tighe's Historical Account of Cumnor, 2nd edit. Oxford, 1821: —

"In allusion to one circumstance, which makes a prominent figure in Kenilworth. there is no reason to suppose that au inn, designated 'the Black Bear,' flourished in Cumnor in the reign of Queen Elizabeth; but the spirit of romance has penetrated that retired spot; the pride of reputed ancestral renown, and the solicitations of soma romantic Members of this University have triumphed, and the sign of' the Black Bear' has been recently affixed to tho public-house in the village, with the name of 'Giles Gosling' inscribed beneath it"

Sir Walter Scott's romance of Kenilworth, charming as it is, has no pretence to historical

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