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have justly alarmed the nation; so 1 hope that my weak endeavours may be in some measure serviceable for their further conviction," &c]
"A Defence of Plays; or, the Stage Vindicated from several Passages in Mr. Collier's 'Short View,'wherein is offered the most Probable Method of Reforming our Plays, with a Consideration how far vicious Characters may be allowed on the Stage. By Kdward Kilmer, Doctor of the Civil Laws." 8vo, London, Tonson, 1707, pp. 167.
[This is the work of which the imprint is sought.]
"The Works of Mr. Robert Gould," &c, 2 vols. 8vo, London. 1709.
[The second volume contains "The Play House, a Satyr." In three parts, some 1200 lines, very " free " and curious.]
"A Serious Remonstrance on Behalf of the Christian Religion, against the horrid Blasphemies and Impieties which are still used in the English Play Houses, to the great Dishonour of Almighty God, and in contempt of the Statutes of this Realm, shewing their plain Tendency to overthrow all Piety, and advance the Interest and Honour of the Devil in the World; from almost Seven thousand Instances taken out of the Plays of the present Century, and especially of the last four years, in defiance of all methods hitherto used for their Reformation. By Arthur Bedford, M.A., Chaplain to the Most Noble Wriotheslev, Duke of Bedford," &c. 8vo, London, 1719, pp. 383.
[In this very curious book, the reverend compiler has, with singular industry, and, as it would appear, out of consideration for the convenience of lovers of obscene and blasphemous reading, produced a manual which saves the necessity of reference to our more licentious writers for the drama. Thus we are reminded of those judicious editions of the Classics, in nsum scholarum, so neatly satirised by Byron in Don Juan, canto I. xliv. Very little is known of the Rev. Arthur Bedford; he was successively Vicar of Temple in the city of Bristol, and Rector of Newton St. Loe, in the county of Somerset. He afterwards resided in London as chaplain to the Haberdashers' Hospital at Hoxton, and died September 13,1745. His other works are enumerated in the Fly-Leaves, published by Mr. Miller late of Chandos Street, 12mo, 1854, p. 176, 1st Series."]
"The Conduct of the Stage considered; Being a Short Historical Account of its Original, Sec, humbly recommended to the consideration of those whofrequent the PlayHouses. 'One Play-House ruins more Souls than Fifty Churches are able to save,' Bulstrode's Charge to the Grand Jurv of Middlesex, April 21,1718." 8vo, London, 1721, pp. 43.
"The Absolute Unlawfulness of the Stage Entertainment fully demonstrated, by VV. Law, A.M." 2nd ed. 8vo, London, 1726, pp. 50.
"A Short View, &c, by Jeremy Collier." 8vo, London, 1728.
[" Containing several Defences of the same in answer to Mr. Congreve, Dr. Drake," &c. I cite this reprint of Collier's original work here, in chronological sequence, as being the best edition, and the one to be specially sought for by the collector, as he will here have, without further trouble, the " Defence," the "Second Defence," and the " Further Vindication" in reply to Dr. Filmer.]
"An Oration, in which an Enquiry is made whether the Stage is, or can be made, a School for forming the Mind to Virtue, and proving the Superiority of Theatric Instruction over those of History and Moral Philosophy. By Charles Poree of the Society of Jesus. Translated by Mr. Lockman." 8vo, London,"l731, pp. 111.
The citation of the last two pamphlets has taken me somewhat beyond the Collierian controversy proper; but they are not without value and importance as bearing on the general subject.
ROMAN GAMES. (3rd S. iii. 490; iv. 19.)
Allow me to assure Chessborough that, to the best of my belief -and information, I have not "misquoted the passage from Justinian," sent by me to your columns some months ago, in the hope of eliciting, if possible, an exact explanation of the games therein alluded to. I have since consulted several of the best editions of the Corpus Juris, and cannot find anything to justify the substitution of "cordacem" for "contacem;" and, besides, from an extract which I shall presently give, it will be seen that the " quintanum contacem" is quite another thing from the "cordax," with the aid of which Chessborough interprets the passage.
Among those which I have consulted I may mention the well-known editions of Dion. Gothofredus, cura Sim. van Leeuwen, Amst. 1663; the Corpus Juris Academicum, Friesleben, 1789; and a modern stereotyped edition (1858) of the Corpus Juris, originally prepared by the critical brothers, Kriegel.
The passage I before sent to you was (taking the Gotbofredan edition as our guide) from Code, 3, 43,3, in med. By way of further explanation I would take the liberty (assuming that the work is not in Chessboroegh's hands) of quoting a previous passage, c. 3, 43, 1, which has the advantage of a lew notes (cura van Leeuwen) in explanation of the text: —
"Duntaxat autem ludere liceat povofioKov,** liceat item ludere Kovrofiov6fioKov,*s Kovtov6v Kovtoko, et item liceat ludere s0 Xwp'$ ")* jnijnrni, id est, ludere vibrations Quintiana,*1 absque spicule, sive aculeo aut ferro, a quodam Quinto ita nominata hac lusus specie. Liceat item ludere «pix"TV, id est, exerceri lucta:5S liceat vero etiam exerceri hippice,55 id est, equorum cursu," &c.
Having before me the information contained in this passage, what I wanted was a reference to some work of authority containing a full and accurate description of the different games. If such a work does not exist, I reciprocate the wish expressed by Chessboroogh, that some modern
"*s Id est, singulari saltu.
49 Saltu conto sussulto.
50 Alii legunt Kcit &u(po, velCatanipo,velCatabo, quod genus est ludi F'esto.
51 Ab inventore sic dicta. 53 Sen colluctatione.
55 'IinriK^. Troia sive Pyrrhica, curriculum equorum," &c.
"Strutt" would give to the world the results of his researches in this neglected field.
A difficulty occurs in Chessbokotjgh's rendering of the "singulari saltu" a somersault; because, supposing it to be a somersault, how, in the "saltu conto sussulto" could it be thrown with a pole? May it not rather have been an ordinary flying jump? The note marked 50 may give Chessbokough a better clue if he will kindly continue his inquiry, and oblige one at a distance who has not his facility for reference and research.^
What was the " vibratio Quintiana?" for if it was "ab inventore sic dicta," as the note says it was (note 61), it is at variance with ChessBobough's reference to the "Quintanus or five deep rows of the circus." Would it not rather be an exercise in which a Kotnbs was hurled at some object, the Korrb* being "sine fibula," X«y>!j T7js irofjirrjs, i. e. without a hooked point or prong, to avoid danger. I admit this to be an explanation par hazard, and therefore will not stake my " etymological jagacity" on its accuracy. The vepixvriiv was evidently a wrestling match, "exerceri lucta," but of what precise nature still depends on some of your obliging correspondents.
I have no doubt that the " bippice" was some modification of the "ludus Trojae," for, judging from the account given by Virgil (Mn. v. 545) ot that very intricate movement, it would scarcely have been worth the performer's while to have played for the single "solidus," which Justinian fixed as the legal limit.
I find I omitted to add another game to those of which I before sought explanation, viz., what exactly were the " lignea equestria"? In the Code 3, 43, 3, ad fin., these words occur: "Prohibemus etiam ne sint equi (seu equestres) lignei," &c. And in the " argumentum" preceding the (Gothofredan) text, the following amusing passage is given : —
"Balsamon not at dc equi lignei significatione, incidisse apud Imperatorem gravem quondam disputationem, quibusdam asserentibua ilium ludum significari' quo pueri extra circum aurigando pro equis hominibns utuntur; aliia, vero, contro contendibus ligneam esse fabricam per scalas ligneas exaltatam, habentem in medio diversa foramina: nam qui hoc genere ludebant, quatuor globulos divtrsorum colorum superjiciebant ex superiore parte, et qui primus globulorum per foramina ex ultimo foramine egrctliebatur, hie victoriam dabat ei, qui projecerat."
This extract may assist in the solution of the difficulty, although, if there was " gravis disputatio apud Imperatorem," as to its exact meaning, we can hardly now look for a precise settlement. I have no access here to the works of Balsamon, who was a scholar and ecclesiastic of the Greek church in the twelfth century, and wrote Commentarius in Photii Nomocanonem, 4to, Paris, 1615. Photius wrote his Nomocanon about the year 858 A.d.; it was published at Paris, 4to, with a Latin version, by Justel, 1615. The latter es
pecially of these works might furnish us with an explanation. We know that in the Roman chariot races the charioteers were divided into different factions (greges v. factiones), according to the colours of their livery (v. Adams's Rom. Ant.); thus we have the white faction (/. alba), the red (russata), the sky or sea-coloured (venetn), the green (prasina); and afterwards the golden and the purple (aurea et purpurea); and Adams tells us, on the authority of Procopius (Bell. Pen. i.), "that in the time of Justinian no less than 30,000 men lost their lives at Constantinople in a tumult, raised by contention among the partisans of these several colours." The constitution prohibiting these " lignea equestria," Chessborocgh will remember, was Justinian's own: but can lie trace any connection between the two matters? In conclusion I may add, that in the hope of satisfying my curiosity, I have consulted different commentators on the Code, but find that, like those on the Digest, they deal with the general subject of the"alea" without specifying or inquiring into the character of the prohibited games.
Uuyte. Cape Town, S. A.
ST. PATRICK AND THE SHAMROCK.
I am certainly not a little surprised to find Canon Dalton taking up this subject in a serious manner, having always considered it as a weak invention of an enemy. Admitting, as we must do, that St. Patrick was a Christian, a man of common sense, and ordinary ability, the story falls to the ground at once. For, surely, it must be evident to the meanest capacity, that neither as a symbol, argument, nor illustration, can any material substance, natural or artificial, be compared to the Divine mystery of the Trinity in Unity.
It is pleasant to turn from this absurd, if not egregiously irreverent, story of St. Patrick and the Shamrock, to the charming und instructive legend of St. Augustine, on the same holy and incomprehensible subject. When this revered Father was writing his De Trinitate, he one day wandered on the seashore, absorbed in profound meditation. Suddenly, looking up, he observed a beautiful boy, who, having made a hole in the sand, appeared to be bringing water from the sea to fill it. "What are you doing, my pretty child?" inquired the holy man. "I am going to empty the ocean into that hole I have just made in the sand," replied the boy. "Impossible!" exclaimed the saint. "No more impossible," replied the child, "than for thee, O Augustine, to explain the mystery on which thou art now meditating." The boy "disappeared, and Augustine then understood that he had been vouchsafed a celestial vision.
The earliest notice that I know of the story of St. Patrick and the Shamrock, is found in The Koran, not that of Mahomet, by the way, but a work attributed to the indecent scoffer and disgrace to his cloth, Laurence Sterne, and runs as follows: —
"Explaining the mystery of the Redemption once to a yoong Templar, I happened to make an allusion, adapted to his own science, of the levying a jine, and suffering a recovery; this simile was repeated afterwards to my disadvantage; and I was deemed an infidel thenceforward. And why? merely because 1 am a merry parson, I suppose— for St. Patrick, the Irish patron, because he was a grave one, was canonized for illustrating the Trinity by the comparison of a Shamrock."'
The various differences of opinion, respecting what plant really is the shamrock, are most ludicrous. A Mr. Bicheno, a Welshman, I believe, discovered it in the wood-sorrel, Oxalis acetosella; and Mr. Redmond, who, at least, has an Irish name, follows the example of Moore, and calls it "a grass." But it must be recollected that Moore can claim poetical licence for his error, and does not fall into Mr. Redmond's curious confusion of ideas, by speaking of a "trefoil grass." ■)" That "all flesh is grass" we know, but Me. Redmond will find a difficulty in persuading us that all vegetable is. The plant known all over Ireland as the shamrock is, most undoubtedly, the white clover, trifolium repens: it is not "peculiarly indigenous to some parts of Ireland only," but to my certain knowledge is found in England, Scotland, and France. Curiously enough, in the last-mentioned country, it bears a a kind of implied sanctity, its common French same being Alleluia; while a kindred plant, the large clover, cultivated for fodder both in France and England, is termed Saintfoin—Famum sanctum.
Mb. F. R. Davies shrewdly hits the mark, when he notices the white clover as a sacred plant of ancient Pagan times. Almost all trifoliated plants have been so. Pliny, in his Natural History, tells us —
"Trifolium scio credi prajvalere contra serpentium ictus et scorpionum,—serpentesque nunquam in trifolia
* From The Posthumous Works of a late celebrated Genius, Deceased. This rather rare book is reviewed in the Gentleman's Magazine for 1770. My copy bears the imprint, Dublin, Mdcclxx. Some bibliographers have erroneously attributed this work to Swift. This error can only be accounted for by the well-known fact, that as travellers not unfrequently describe places they have not visited, so bibliographers very often take it upon them to describe books they have never seen. [ The Posthumous Works of a late Celebrated Genius Deceased, a kind o' Shandiana, including also The Koran, is by Mr. Richard Griffith, of Millecent, co. Kildare. Vide Gent. Mag. vol. Ixvii. pt. ii. p. 755, and "N. & Q." 1" S. i. 418.—Ed.")
f Grass produces blades, not leaves.
aspici. Praterca, celebratibus auctoribus, contra omnia venena pro antidoto sufficere." »
These are very remarkable passages, to the comparative mythologist; taking them in connection with the legends of St. Patrick, the snakes, and the shamrock.
About fifty years ago, Dr. Drummond, a distinguished Irish botanist, found in the western part of the county of Cork, a variety of clover with a brown spot in the centre of each leaf, which he poetically and fancifully named "the real Irish Shamrock;" this plant, however, is English, as well as Irish, and I have discovered it growing, plentifully, beside the towing path on the Surrey side of the Thames, between the Cross Deep at Twickenham and Teddington Lock.
As I have just observed, many tri-foliated plants have been held sacred from a remote antiquity. The trefoil was eaten by the horses of Jupiter *; and a golden, three-leaved, immortal, plant, af- / fording riches and protection, is noticed in Homer's Hymn, in Mercurium. In the palaces of Nineveh, and on the medals of Rome, representations of triple branches, triple leaves, and triple fruit, are to be found. On the temples and pyramids of Gibel-el-Birkel, considered to be much older than those of Egypt, there are representations of a tri-leaved plant, which in the illustrations of Hoskins's Travels in Ethiopia seems to be nothing else than a shamrock. The triad is still a favourite figure in national and heraldic emblems. Thus we have, besides the shamrock of Ireland, the three legs of Man, the broad arrow of England, the phaon of heraldry, the three feathers of the Prince of Wales, the tri-color, and the fleur-delis of France. Key, in his exceedingly interesting work, Histoire du Drapeau, des Couleurs, et des Insignes,de la Monarchic Frangaise (Paris, 1837), gives engravings of no less than 311 different forms of fleur-de-lis, found on ancient Greek, Roman, Egyptian, Persian, and Mexican vases, coins, inedais, and monuments. Including also forms of the fleur-de-lis used in media?val and modern Greece, England, Germany, Spain, Portugal, Georgia, Arabia, China, and Japan. It also appears on the mariners' compass, and the pack of playing-cards; two things which, however essentially different, are still the two things that civilisation has most widely extended over the habitable globe. William Pinkebton.
For a good summary of the evidence in favour of the Wood Sorrel, see an article by Mr. James Hardy in the Border Magazine, i. 148. (Edinburgh, Sept. 1863.) Jon. J. B. Woekarh.
* Callimachus, Hymn, in Dianam.
HARVEY OF WANGEY HOUSE. * (3rd S. iv. 529.) In answer to the appeal of your correspondent, C. P. L., I beg to inform him that Wangey House stands on the south side of Chadwell Heath, about two miles from the town of Romford, but in the parishes of Barking and Dagenham. The present house was erected in the second quarter of the last century; but I have a rudely drawn sketch of the old Harvey mansion, from the large map of Barking Manor, A.d. 1653. The Manor of Wangey has for some centuries been held distinct from the manor house and lands. The Harveys lived at Wangey House from early in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, — when Alderman, afterwards Sir James, Harvey, purchased the estate from Clement Sysley of Eastbury House—until far on in the reign of King Charles II. Of this there is good evidence. See Visitation of Essex, 1634, in the College of Arms; Funeral Certificates, College of Arms; Dagenham Parish Registers; Harvey Wills at Doctors' Commons; Barking Manor Court Rolls, &c. From these and other sources, I have collected much relating to the Harveys— as a considerable Essex family. Sir James Harvey, who died in 1583, was father of Sir Sebastian Harvey, who settled at Mardyke, an old house still standing near Dagenham — James, who succeeded his father at Wangey — and William, who died, *. p. in 1610. Sir Sebastian Harvey died intestate in 1620, leaving one daughter, Mary, afterwards the wife of John Popham. James Harvey had a very large family, and died in 1627. His stately monument, with its quaint inscription, still remains in the rector's chancel at Dagenham church. Samuel, his second son, who lived at Aldborough Hatch, in Barking parish, married Constance, daughter of Dr. Donne, and widow of the celebrated Edward Alleyn. At his house, of which I have also a tracing from the map of 1653, Donne was taken with his last illness. Samuel Harvey's children eventually inherited the property of the family.
Numerous entries of the Harvey family are scattered through the Registers of Dagenham, Barking, Romford, and Hornchurch. There must be many entries also in the Registers of St. Dionis' Backchurch, Fenchurch Street, as the town house of the Harveys stood in Lime Street; and the earlier generations were buried in St. Dionis' church. I found about forty entries at Dagenham. The last, January 21, 1677-8, records the burial of James Harvey, gent. He had, not many years before, sold the Wangey estate to Thomas Waldegrave.
These brief notes may be acceptable to C. P. L., as no account of the Harvey family is to be found in Morant's or any other History of Essex* They
* These Harveys must not be confounded with the Harveys of Chigwell, co. Essex; nor with \he Herveys of
are not, however, offered as a satisfactory account of the family, and I shall be happy to give him further information. Edward J. Sage.
Virgil's Testimony To ora Savtoub's Advent (3rd S. iv. 490.)—The exact words of the line quoted by your correspondent are not, I believe, to be found in Virgil. The line intended by the author of the Christian Mystery is doubtless the seventh in the well-known fourth eclogue, or Pollio, of Virgil.
"Jam nova progenies coclo demittitur alto."
In the " Argument" prefixed to this eclogue in Forbiger's Virgil, Lipsitc, 1852, vol. i. p. 62, the writer observes —
"Vaticinationem Sibylla; de Christi natalibus expressam esse, quam Virgilius ingeniose ad nntales nobilis pucri transtulerit jam Lactantius, Inst. vii. 24, statuit, et Constantinus M. in Orat. ad Sunctorum CSz/iim, EuMbii
librisdc demonstrate voluiL Cujus
auctoritatera quum olim plerumque Christiani homines (cf. Wcrnsdorf, Poet. LaL JUia. t. iv. p. 767, tq.~) turn recentioribus tcmporibus viri docti secuti sunt plerique." And again —
"Succurrobat jam vaticinium illud vulgatum de rege sive heriie venturo vel nascituro (cf. Suet. Aug. 94), quod sub Nerone iterum increbruit." (Suet Vttp. 4.)
With this of Virgil's, we may compare the first eclogue of Calpurnius.
W. Bowen Rowlands.
In the mediaeval dramatic colloquy concerning our Saviour's birth, contributed by Mk.wobkard, he says that Virgil gives his evidence thus : —
"Ecce polo demissa solo nova progenies est," but that he cannot anywhere find the words. The idea, if not the actual words, I thought, sounded familiar to my ears on reading it, and on referring to the fourth Eclogue, I found the sentiment thus expressed: —
"Jam nova progenies coelo demittitur alto." This is so very like what is put into Virgil's mouth, that we may surely conceive the other to be merely an error of copyists, or a line written down from memory. Might not the Mantuan possibly, when summoned after so long rest, have somewhat adapted his metre, to that of the rest of the dialogue, and spoken thus ? —
"See, sent down from highest heaven.
Jos. Hargrove. Clare College, Cambridge.
Richard Adams (2D« S. x. 70; 3rd S.'iv. 527.) Some light may be thrown upon his identity from the facts, that the one of this name, who was the second son of Sir Thomas Adams, Alderman of
Harks, an important manor house, which stood within a mile of Wangey. They were io no way connected with these families.
London, &c, was born on January 6, 1619-20; and died without issue on June 13, 1661. He was buried in Lancaster Churoh, where there is, or was, a monumental inscription. He would hare been only seventeen years of age in 1637; rather young to be the author of the verses in the Cambridge collection. If, also, he were admitted a Fellow Commoner of Catharine Hall in April, 1635, he would have but barely passed his fifteenth year. The Messrs. Cooper can judge of the probabilities better than I can. J. L. C. Thom*s Coo (2Dd S. vi. 344, 375, 376.) —This person, who represents himself as starving in Newgate in November, 1633 (Bruce's Calendar Dom. State Papers, Car. I. vi. 310), was of Peterhouse, BA.. 1586-7; M.A. 1590.
C. II. & Thompson Cooper. Cambridge.
George Bankes (2nd S. ix. 67.) — We make no doubt that the president of some college, whose Common-Place Book constitutes MS. Hail. 4050, was George Bankes, Fellow of Peterhouse, Cambridge, B.A. 1597-8; M.A. 1601; Taxor, 1615; Vicar of Cherryhinton, Cambridgeshire, 1629-38. We have transcripts of many college orders signed by him. In 1633 and 1635 he adds president to his name.
For the information of such of your readers as may not be conversant with the usages of this University, we may explain that in that College, President is synonymous with Vice-Master. The term certainly occasions confusion, as in one instance here, and in several at Oxford, it denotes the head of the college.
C. H. & Thompson Cooper. Cambridge.
Quotation (3rd S.'iv. 499.) —In reply to your correspondent M. S., the lines he alludes to must, I imagine, be these: —
"Tender-handed stroke a nettle, And it stings you for your pains; Grasp it like a man of mettle, And it soft as silk remains. "Thus it is with vulgar natures, Use them kindly they rebel; But be rough as nutmeg-graters, And the rogues obey you well." The author was Aaron Hill, and they will be found at p. 822 of the Elegant Extracts. W.
Sir Nicholas Tiirogmorton (3rd S. iv. 454.) I find in Nichols's Progresses of Queen Elizabeth, vol. i. p. 215, mention made of a Sir Nicholas Throcmorton, Knight, as having received the degree of Master of Arts at a convocation held at Oxford, Sept. 6, 1566. A note at the foot of the page referring to the convocation gives its place m the Calendar, viz., Fasti Oxon. vol. i. col. 100. Perhaps this may be of some assistance to the researches of Mr. Theobald Smid. Various other members, I should suppose of the same family,
with variously spelled names, may be found in the same book at the following pages: —vol. i. pp. 192, 197 note, 534; vol. ii. pp. 73, 86.
K. R. C.
Pen-tooth (3rd S. iv. 491.) — I am inclined to think that the Huntingdonshire labourer meant pin, though he said pen-tooth: for the e and i are very much confounded in the eastern counties, and very likely so in the bordering county of Huntingdon. In Norfolk, a person will speak of a pin when he means a pen for sheep, or cattle; and a pen-tooth was probably a pin-tooth (a canine tooth), which is more sharp-pointed than our other teeth. Thus the uvula, in Norfolk, is called the pin of the throat; and Shakspeare speaks of the pin, or point of the heart F. C. H.
Mabgabet Fox (3rd S. iv. 137.) —The following are the arms of her first husband, of the name of Fell, of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, Middlesex, granted Jan. 9, 1772: Ar. three lozenges in fesse vert, between as many damask roses ppr. seeded or barbed of the second. Crest, out of a mural coronet, gu. a dexter arm embowed in armour, ppr. garnished or, holding in the hand ppr. a tilting spear of the last. Durham.
Fbith (3rd S. iv. 478), in the Weald of Kent, where also it signifies a wood, is pronounced "fright." This is another of the singularities of pronunciation peculiar to that county, derived, probably, from their ancestors, the Jutes. Thus, a ditch, or dyke, is called a " dick." It seems not unlikely that such variations may throw light on the original languages, or dialects, of the Angles, Jutes, and Saxons. The word " burh," variously pronounced "borough," "burgh," and " bury," is an instance which has already been given. Can your readers furnish more. They might be of great service to the philologer. A. A.
Tedded Grass (3rd S. iv. 430, 524.)—Our best thanks are due to your correspondents; for, in all archaeological investigations the most valuable information we can have, next to the proof of what a thing really is, is the being assured of what it is not. It seems pretty clear that tedded grass is that first shaken out of the swath. Now what are tods of grass; surely the weight of less than half a truss of hay would have been in those times a very inconsiderable remuneration. Are the tods the hay-cocks? I should explain my reason for this query is, that an answer, may throw some light on that very important subject, the wages of workmen in the middle ages. A. A.
Pew Rents (3rd S. iv. 373, 443.) — Tour correspondents are really in error when they suppose that before the Reformation there were no pews nor pew rents. This is one of the very things objected against the Romanist party by Bishop Bale