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science literature; but do not know that any writer has entered upon a scientific demonstration of the postulate, that early marriages tend to purity of morals. The statement has often been made in fugitive essays, associated with a condemnation of the advice given, and so often reiterated by a certain class of economists, against early marriages. There have been as yet no data on which to establish it positively. The statistics recently published in relation to Scotland, showing the great number of illegitimate births in excess over the standard of Ireland, and even England—when taken in connection with other established facts—will go far to prove that " foresight and restraint" in entering upon marriage may be a great evil. It does not follow that early marriages are always imprudent ones; but that doctrine has been taught to a most injurious extent. When this complex question is entered upon fairly, and the condition of Ireland contrasted with that of Scotland, it will be found that great mistakes have been made in our investigations, and that hasty conclusions have been arrived at.

The whole question is a most important one, but to pursue it would not be consistent with the objects of " N. & Q." I am now manipulating the Statistical Returns of the Three Kingdoms, with the view of elucidating this subject. Vectis will do well to consult Quetelet. In his Treatise on Man (see Chambers's People's Edition) will be found some valuable tables, accompanied by his own remarks. Although he does not enter upon this inquiry specially, his chapters, where he examines into the causes which influence the fecundity of marriages, may be read with much advantage by those who are interested in the subject immediately before us. It may be well also, to consult Sadler's work, The Law of Population. Both these works were published before our statistical knowledge had assumed a definite form, but they are valuable in every research of | this kind. T. B.

Revalenta (3rd S. iv. 496.) — I remember the first introduction of the article now called "Revalenta." I knew the man who first prepared it, and advertised it under the name of " Ervalenta." It was then merely the meal of ground lentils; j not of the Egyptian sort, but the common lentil, of a lighter colour. The botanical name of the lentil is Ervnm lens; and probably the name Ervalenta \ was found rather too transparent: and so, by transposing the first two letters, the article was better concealed, and some mystification gained— and the preparation is now named "Revalenta."

F.C. H. |

Paper-makers' Trade Marks (3rd S. iv. ■515.)—I doubt if any classification of the trade marks of the old paper-makers, and the water

marks in their papers, has ever been published; but the late Mr. Dawson Turner had collected a large quantity of specimens of old paper, which he showed me with great self-gratulation on his success in what he believed to be a hitherto unpursued inquiry. He entered into the subject with lively interest; had all his samples of paper arranged in chronological order, and initiated me readily in the mysteries of "Pot," "Crown," "Feather," and "i oolscap." I quite understood from him that he could determine the age of the paper by its texture and water-mark. Whether he contemplated the publication of the results of his researches in this line, I do not know; nor have I any idea what became of his large collection of old papers, which I suppose were sold, together with his extensive library, and very curious and valuable collections in various other departments. F. C. H.

Christian Names (3rd S. iv. 369, 416, 525.)

j A correspondent asks, how we are to account for the great prevalence of Pagan names in a Catholic I country like France, if, as I had asserted, the I Catholic Church so much disapproves of Christians bearing baptismal names which are not | Christian, and admonishes her clergy not to tolerate them? I answer that the first Revolution, when Christianity was openly disowned, and classical models were affected in everything, will account in great measure for the introduction of Pagan names; but it must also be remembered that many such names are also the names of Christian saints, and as such allowable. The following occur to me at this moment: Achilles, Alexander, Apollo, Bacchus, Horace, Justin, Leander, Lucian, Marcian, Martial, Marios, Nestor, Plato, Pollio, Socrates, Valerian. F. C. H.

As Mad As A Hatter (2Dd S. iv. 462.) — Although an inquiry respecting this simile appeared in "N. & Q." as far back as June 1860, it has not hitherto elicited a reply. The phrase, however, has now again come up in that very amusing volume, Capt. Gronow's Recollections and Anecdotes, 2nd series [may it be followed by a third !] 1863, pp. 151, 152 :—" on the subject of politics, my dear Alvanley, he is as mad as a hatter."

One is at a loss to understand why a hatter should be made the type of insanity rather than a tailor or a shoemaker; but may not the phrase in question be thus explained? The French compare an incapable or weak-minded person to an oyster : —" He reasons like an oyster" (huitre). I would suggest, therefore, that, through similarity of sound, the French huitre may, in the case before us, have given occasion to the English "hatter." From "II raisonne cornme une huitre " may have come out " as mad as a hatter." There are other similar instances, where sound is followed rather than signification. So in our vernacular pbrase, "That's the cheese;" i. e. "That's the thing" (chose). Sen In.

John Habhison (3rd S. iv. 526.) — " Johan Horrins" is of course an anagram of John Harrison. What was the relation of this person to his hero, "Longitude" Harrison, and what led him to adopt so transparent a device for concealing his identity? Job J. B. Workard.

Stepmothers' Blessings (3rd S. iv. 492.)—The troublesome splinters of skin, which are often formed near the roots of the nails, are probably called "stepmother's blessings," upon the same principle that they are called "back-friends;" both expressions designating something odious, and bringing no good. F. C. H.

"Jolly Nose" (3rd S. iv. 488.) — An edition of Olivier Basselin's Vaux de Vire was published by M. Louis du Bois in 1821, together with some Norman songs of the fifteenth century from a MS. till then unedited. Job J. B. Workard.

Jane Thb Fool (3rd S. iv. 453, 523.) —Some of the entries relating to this person in Sir F. Madden's edition of the Privy Purse Expenses of the Princess Mary would seem to suggest that she was the victim of mental disease. The first entry in which she is mentioned bears date 1537. In 1543, in four successive months, March, April, May, and June, there is a charge of Ad. per month for shaving her head. In July there is a charge for 22«. 6rf. paid to her during sickness. In August, her head is again shaved. In the succeeding January, the charge for shaving her head is 8rf., and a like entry appears in July, August, and September, 1544. All the other entries referring to her are for clothing. In 1556, she had some disorder of the eye. Is there anything to show that she acted as a jester P

Job J. B. Workard.

.earthenware Vessels Found In Churches (1" and 2nd S. passim.)—Numerous communications have appeared in the 1"' and 2nd Series of "N. & Q." on the subject of the earthen jars, or pots, which have been found in several churches imbedded in the masonry, and generally underneath the stalls of the choir. In one of these (1" S. x. 434), I described a jar of this kind in my possession; which was found, in 1851, beneath the choir of St. Peter's Mancroft, Norwich. I saw several of the jars as they lay in the masonry horizontally, with their mouths outward, though it could not be ascertained whether they ever protruded or appeared in the wall. I gave an opinion that they might have been intended for sepulchral vases, to receive the ashes of the heart, or some other part of the body of the canons; but that opinion I have for some time exchanged for the far more probable one, that

they were intended to increase the sound of the singing.

Indeed, I consider the question quite set at rest by a recent paper in the Gentleman's Magazine for November last, where the following is quoted from the Chronicle of the Order of the Celestines at Metz, for the year 1432 :—

"It was ordered that pots should be made for the choir of the church of Ceans, he (Br. Oilo) stating that he bad seen such in another church, and thinking that they made the chanting resound more strongly."

It is added, tbat such jars have been found in several churches in France, inserted horizontally in the wall, with their mouths emerging. F. C. 11.

iHtsftellitnenuS. NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC.

St. Patrick, Apostle of Ireland; a Memoir of his Life and
Mission; with an Introductory Dissertation on some
early Usages of the Church in Ireland, and its historical
Position from the Establishment of the English Colony to
the present Day. By J as. Henthorn Todd, D.D., &c.
Dublin. (Hodges, Smith, & Co.)
Any of our readers who hare ever toiled (as was
lately our own fortune) through the previous biographies
of St. Patrick, and tried to sift truth from fable in the
writings of Ussher, Ware, Bethaui, Lanigan, and Cotton,
will appreciate the welcome with which we opened this
scholarly memoir of Dr. Todd. The accomplished author
has studied to produce a complete monograph upon the
early history of Christianity in Ireland, subjoining be-
sides some supplementary remarks on the present posi-
tion of the Established Church. He thinks it necessary
to argue for the historical existence of the Saint, in oppo-
sition to the ultra-Protestant extravagance, which would
resolve the Apostle of Ireland into a mythical personage;
he denies Patrick's asserted commission from Pope Celcs-
tine, as wanting authority to establish it, and scouts the
later fables by which the Saint's real history has been
obscured. He discusses the wholesale conversion of the
Irish clans under tho influence of their chiefs, and their
relapse into Druidism after Patrick had been removed—
a useful lesson to our missionaries in the present day.
He examines minutely into the singular episcopate which
obtained so long among the Irish, and the multiplication
of bishops without a see, whose wandering ministrations
were as unwelcome to the English prelates of the day as
Irish preaching has since been among ourselves. He
describes at length the ancient monastic institutions of
the country, which Patrick was so instrumental in in-
augurating, and in connection with some of the monks,
tells a curious story of primitive copy-right law, which
will amuse some of our literary readers. St. Finnian
possessed a beautiful copy of the Gospels; St. Columba
borrowed it, and made a transcript of it by stealth. Fin-
nian heard of the fraud, and claimed the copy as his
own; and King Diarmait, before whom tho holy monks
carried their cause, decided in Finnian's favour, with the
remark, "that as the cow is the owner of her calf, so the
Book is the owner of any transcript made from it." But
for more of this sort, and for a great deal more valuable
learning, we must send our readers to Dr. Todd's in-
teresting and scholarly volume.

The Seven Ages of Man, Described by William Shahspearc,
Depicted by Robert Smirke. (L. Booth.)
The late Robert Smirke's Illustrations of Shakspeare's

Seven Ages are almost as well known as the matchless bit of description which called them into existence. They are here reproduced in miniature by Photography, together with the Drocshout Portrait and the Monument, and Form a quaint and interesting little volume. tetters of Qtteen Margaret of Anjou and Bishop Beckington and others. Written in the Reign* of Henry V. and Henry VI. From a MS. found at Emral in Flintshire. Edited by Cecil Monro, Esq. (Camden Society.) When we say that this volume contains a series of early letters comprising, first, Forty-two Letters written during the reign of Henry V. and Henry VI. before his Marriage; secondly, seventeen Letters of Bishop Beckington, written for the most part in the year 1442, when, being then King's Secretary, lie was on the point of* embarking as Ambassador to the Count of Armagnac; and thirdly, Letters of Queen Margaret of Anjou after her Marriage in 1445; and that the whole space of time covered by these Letters may be slated roughly at about forty years, namely, from the Battle of Agincourt to the Commencement of the Wars of the Roses, we have said enough to prove the obligations which historical students are under to the Kev. Theophilus Pulstou for permitting their publication, to Mr. Cecil Monro for the care and learning with which he has edited them, and to the Camden Society for its judicious application of its funds in giving so curious a series of documents to the press.

A Dictionary of the Bible, comprising Antiquities, Bhqraphy. Geography, and Natural History. By various 'Writers. Edited by William Smith, LL.D. Part XI. (Murray.)

This eleventh Part of Dr. Smith's valuable Dictionary of the Bible will be welcome to many of our clerical friends, more especially those who took in the first volume in Monthly Parts—partly because it contains the valuable Appendices to that volume, and more particularly as an evidence of the intention of the Publisher to afford them the same facilities for procuring the completion of the work.

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1791. 7V" Littcs on a Blind /Joy," by Robert T. Conrad,are prinsml

among his jioems in Ay I mere, or the Bondman of Kent, 8vd, 1852, p. 195, The poem x* too longjor quotation.

Oj.ti Mortality. Only one. t-ohtme was ptMishedot'Qewrichnmtm Iuscriptioncs, by James Jones, 8vo, 1727, pp. Ml, with an Index c/23 pp.

W. P. P. A Concordance to Shakspearc, Land. T787. »i-o, t> by Andrew litctM. The authorship of The Turkish Spy still remains a

vcxata qutesUo.

"notes And Qubrixs" is published at noon on Friday, and is also issued in Monthly Parts. The Subscription for Stampbd Copibs Aw Six Months forwarded direct from the Publisher {inrlutsing tin Halfyearly Irdxx) is Its. id., which may be pai-i by Post Office Order, payatile at the Strand J'ost Office, in favour of William G. Smith, it, Wblli-gtun Strbbt, Stmami, W.C., to whom all Communications For mi Editor should be adhesstd.

"notes & Queries " is registered for transmission abroad.

fforniman's Tea in choice and strung, moderate, in price, and wholesome to use. These advantage* have secured for this Tea a i preference. It is sold in packets by 2,260 Agents.

HEALTH AND EASE In the Duty or Pastime of Study are eflectuslly promoted hv Letts'* Reading Easels. They are Adapted to any Chair, Couch, or Bed, at 20*., 30s., ibs.; and with Writing IVsk. at 70s. Spring Candlesticks, with shade, 6*. id. extra. I<etts's Pocket Book Companions, adapted to all sizes, with Knife, Peis-ors, Arc. Catalogues Gratia, at all Booksellers', and LET 1'S, 8, Royal Exchange.

Now ready, ueatlv printed, in Foolscap 8vo, price 5*.

CHOICE NOTES

FKOM

NOTES AND QUERIES.

FOLK LORE.

On the completion of the First Series of NOTES AND QUERIES, it was suggested from many quarters, that a selection of the more curious articles scattered through the twelve volume* would be welcome to a numerous body of reader*. It was said that such a selection, Judiciously made, would not only add to a class of books of which we lave too few in English literature,— we mean books of the pleasant gossiping character of the French Ana for the amusement of the general reader, — but would serve in some measure to supply the place of the entire series to those who rmght not possess it.

It has been determined to carry out this idea by the publication of a few small volumes, each devoted to a particular subject. The first, which was published some time since, is devoted to History : and wc trust that whether the reader looks at the value of the original documents there reprinted, or the historical truths therein established, he will be disponed to address the book in Hie word* of I'owper. so happily sui;(tested by Mr. Peter Cunningham aa the appropriate motto of NOTES ANDO.UERIES itself,

"By thee I miirht correct, erroneous oft. The clock of History — facts and events Timinit more punctual, unrecorded facts Recovering, and mis-stated setting right." While on the other hand the volume, from its miscellaneous character, has, we hope, been found an acceptable addition to that pleasant class of books which Horace Walpole felicitously descritws as "lounging books, books which one takes up in the gout, low spirits, ennuf, or when one Is waiting for company.1'

Now ready, neatly printed, in Foolscap 8vo, price 5s.

CHOICE NOTES

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In consequence of the length to which some of the. Papers in Ute present Nutuhtr have, extended, although We have enlarged it to S3 pouts. We have be.cn compelled to postpone many articles of great interest until next. week.

Tub Ikdkx To ihe Volumi just completed, toill be issued with "N. & Ct." of Saturday the 16th.

R. I. The Amateur's Magazine, commenced in October, 1RA8, was discontinued m June. 1859. It was first published by M. Fryer. 6, liouverie Street, Fleet Street, and afterwards by tiper and Co., Paternoster Row.

The editor is unknown There is no clue to the authorship of the MS.

tragedy of *' The Hermit of Warkworth " in the European Magazine of

BOOKBINDING —in the Monastic, Gbolier, MAIOLI and ILLUMINATED rtylea-in the inmt lupcrior manner, by Englieb and Foreign Workmen.

JOSEPH ZAF.HNSDORF,

BOOKBINDER TO THE KINO OF HAKOVER,

English and Foreign Bookbinder,

30, BRYDOE8 STREET, COVENT OARDEN, W.C.

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flattS.

WALTER TRAVERS, B.D.,

SOMETIME LECTDBER AT THE TEMPLE, AND PROVOST OF TRINITY COLLEGE, DUBLIN.

Born circa 1548; died in London, Jan. 1634.

In no published memoir of the life of this celebrated divine, have I ever met with an account of his parentage, or the place of his birth; the following notes, may, therefore, be of use to some future biographer, and save him the trouble of a protracted search.

The will of "Walter Travers, Clerk," was proved in London, at the Prerogative Court, on Jan. 24, 1634, and in a clause of it is contained this brief reference to his family: —

"My father dying seized of three tenements in Nottingham, left the one to his daughter Anne, and the other two to his three sonnes then liveing, that is, to me the said Walter, the Eldest, John the next, and Humphry, the youngest," &c

Following up this clue, I recently found that, among the inhabitants of Nottingham chargeable to the subsidies of the 35th and 37th Hen. VIII., and the 13th Eliz., there lived, at "Brydelsmyth Gate, wttin y« towne of Notyngham," a certain "Walterus Travers," by occupation a "Goldsmyth." I was afterwards lucky enough, at York, to meet with his will; and as it, at once,

?roves that the goldsmith was father to the divine, think I need not apologise to the readers of "N. & Q." for giving it in full: —

"In the Name of God, Amen: the fiftenth daie of September, in the yeare of oure Lorde God a thousande, five |hundrith, seaventie and five, I Walter Travers, of the Towne of Nottinghm, Gold Smythe, beinge weeke and feeble in bodie, but of good, sownde, and perfect remembrance, thanks be to God thearfore, do ordaine and make this my laste Will and Testamente, in mannr and forme followeinge: First, and before all tbinges, I comende me into the handes of oure Lorde, who haste created and redemed me, beschinge the most humblye, for Jesus Christe sake, pardon and forgiveness of all my synes; asseuringe myself also undoubtedlie, as trustinge to thy promeys, O lorde, which cannot deceave, that, altho' I be in my selffe most umvorthie of thy Grace, yet, for that Jesus Christe, thoue wilte receive me to the. Not accomptinge to me my synnes for whiche he hathe suffered, and fully satisfied thie Justice allredie; but imputing to me, of thie fre grace and mercie, that holynes and obedience whiche he hathe performed, to thie moste perfecte lawe, for all those that shoulde beleve in hime, and come unto the, in his name. Withe faithe, 0 lorde, seinge that of thy goodnes thoue haste wroughte and planted in me, by the preachinge of the hollie gospell, I stedfastelie hope for the performance of thy promyse, and everlastinge liffe in Jesus Christe. This blessed hope shall reste with me to the laste daie, that thoue rayse me upp agane, to enjoye that liffe and glorie that now I hope for. Thearfore, I commende my sowle into the handes of God, my bodie I Will that yt be honestlie bnried, and lade upp in pease to the comynge of the Lorde Jesus, when he shall come to be glorified in his Sayntes, and to be marvolons in theme that beleve; in that daie when this corruptible shall put on incorruptible, and this mortall imortalitie, accordinge to the Scriptures. And as for tho3e goods and landes that God hath given me, I declare this my Will, and full mynde and intente thearof, in forme followinge: that is to saie, I give and bequethe all and singular that my messuage, house, stable, and gardens thearto belonginge, whiche I latelie purchased of Thomas Cowghem, late of the saide towne of Nottingham, alderman, deceased, wherein I nowe dwell, to Anne Travers my Wiffe, for and duringe her naturall liffe, and after her decease, to Anne Travers my daughter, and to theires of her bodie lawefullie begotten and to be begotten: And, for defalte of such issue, to Walter Traverse, John Traverse, and to Humfrey Travers, my Sones, equallie amongste theme, and to theires of theire bodies lawefullie begotten and to be begotten: And, for defalte of such Issue, to the righte heires of me the saide Walter Travers, the Testator, for ever. Farther, I will that the saide Anne, my wiffe, duringe her liffe, and allso the saide Anne, my daughter, duringe her lyffe, after the decease of my said Wiffe, havinge the saide messuage and premyses, shall give and paieyearlie ten shiliinges at two usuall daies in the yeare, by even pofions, to my Overseers; to be by theme distributed to suche poore people, within the towne of Nottingham, as they shall thinke moste mete and conveniente. Allso, I give and bequethe all my other lands, tenements, and hereditaments, not before by me given in this my Testomente and presente laste Will, to my said Wiffe Anne Traverse during her natural! liffe; and after her decease, to my saide three Sones, Walter, John, and Humfrey, equallie amongeste theme, or so many of theme as shal be then livinge, and to thcires of thcire bodies lawefullie begotten and to be begotten: and, for defaltc of such Issue, to Anne Travers my daughter, and to theires off her bodie lawefullie begotten and to be begotten; and for defalte of snche Issue, to the righte heirs of me the saide Walter Travers for ever. And I will that my saide daughter Anne peaccablie permytt'and suffer my saide thre sones to have and enjoye the saide landes to them bequithed, which I boughte of Robert Wynsell; notwithstanding anie bondes, or assurance thearof, heartofore by me to the saide Anne, or to her use, made. And for the disposinge of my goods and chattells that God hathe given me, I will that my debts be paide and my funeralls discharged, of the whole: and the resedewe of all my goods and chattells, gold, silver, plate, and howeshoulde stuff, moveable' and uninovcable (my debts paide and fuiiralls discharged), I give to Anne my Wiffe, and to Anne Travers my daughter, equallie betwixte theme. And I do make and ordeine the saide Anne my Wiffe, and my saide daughter my full Executrices of this my Testament and laste Will; and I make my wellbeloved Sones, Walter and John Travers, Supvisors of the same, to se the same justlie and trewlie executed, done, and performed: theis beinge Witnesses— Lawrence Brodbent, Esquire; the Queenes Highnes Receivor within the Counties of Nottinghm and Derbie — Thomas Atkinson — Syuion Willson — Richard Ogle — Arthure Francis — John Warde, and others."

"This will was proved in the Exchequer Court of York, 18th January, 1575, by the Oaths of Ann Travers (Widow, the Relict), and Anne Travers (the daughter), the Co-Executrixes therein named j to whom probate was granted, they having been first sworn duly to administer."

Two of the three sons herein named, Walter and Humphry, entered at Cambridge, where Humphry became Fellow of C.C. Coll., and afterwards married, but left no issue male. Of Walter, the future Lecturer at the Temple, and opponent of Hooker, I leave the Messrs. Coopeb to give an account, in their valuable Athena Cuniabridgienses.

John Travers, second son, took his degree at Oxford in 1570, and was afterwards presented to the Rectory of Faringdon, Devon, which he held until his death in 1620. He married, on July 25, 1580, Alice, daughter of John Hooker of Exeter, and sister to Richard Hooker, Master of the Temple. This fact explains a sentence in Walter Travers's Supplication to the Lords of the Council (Hooker's Works, iii. 557), where, speaking of Hooker, he says: —

"Hoping to live in all godly peace and comfort with him, both for the acquaintance and good will which hath been between us, and for some bond of affinity in the marriage of his nearest kindred and mine."

The issue of this marriage was four sons — Elias, Samuel, John, and Walter—who all were educated at Cambridge, and entered the church. Elias Travers died rector of Thurcaston, Leicestershire, in 1641; Samuel was ejected from his vicarage of Thorverton, Devon, in 1646, and died soon after; John was presented to the vicarage of Brixhom, Devon, in Dec. 1617; was ejected therefrom in 1646, and died curate of St. Helen's, Isle of Wight, in 1659; and Walter became Chaplain to King Charles I., was presented in succession to the Rectory of Steeple Ashton, Wilts; the Vicarage of Wellington, Somerset; and dying, Rector of Pitminster, April 7th, 1646, was buried in Exeter Cathedral. Of these four brothers, John and Walter only married; one of the sons of Walter being Thomas Travers of Magdalen Coll. Camb., M.A. in 1644, who became Lecturer at St. Andrew's, Plymouth, and Rector of St. Columb Major, from which living he was ejected by the Bartholomew Act, in 1662.

Perhaps some Nottinghamshire antiquary can assist me in hunting up the origin of the old goldsmyth of " Brydelsmyth Gate," from whom descended so many distinguished men? or can, at least, point to some class of records likely to bear fruit? If so, he would confer a great favour on me, by adopting a like method of imparting his information. II. J. S.

Oxford.

JUSTICE ALLAN PARK.

Some thirty or forty years ago, this learned judge was travelling the Northern Circuit with one of his brother Judges of Assize, and it happened that the business at an assize town was not got through till late on a Saturday. It was absolutely necessary to open the Commission on the following Monday at the next assize town, which was at a great distance in those days of travelling, and either for that reason, or because of the heavy business to be disposed of there, Justice Park proposed to his brother judge to set off late on the Saturday, and to get as far as they could that night, so that they might avoid the necessity of journeying any part of the way on the Sabbath. His brother judge, who was not so scrupulous on that point, protested against the proposal, and the result was a compromise, the terms of which were, that they should start at a very early hour on the Sunday morning, and attend divine service at whatever church they might reach in time for the morning service. It thus happened that between ten and eleven o'clock the steeple of a small parish church within a short distance from the high road was sighted, and the postboys were ordered to make for it. Thus the inhabitants of a quiet country village in the Wolds were thrown into a

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