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"Too my ho. pood brother, syr Walter Raylvgh, Knyght, Lo. Warden oft' the Stanerys, and captayne of her majesty's garde.

"My ho. good brother. Heare are arryvyd 3 fly bottes from Saynt Lucar, which came from thense the 26 of febrnary laste, who reporte that theare are theare 20 saylles of men of war amakinge reddy, butt nott with haste; wheareoff 5 of theame are of the greteste shypps off Spayne. Theare came owte of Saynt Lucar, >• n theare company, sertyne shyppes which weant for Lusborne, loden with 1400 tones off corn too he bakyd ynto bysky for the kynges provysion; and theare came at thatt tyme too other greatte shyppes too Saynt Lucar, off 600 tones apesse, too lode come and too retorne too Lusborne.

"They further reporte that the Kynge bofte 6 hulkes off 200 tones apesse, which are gone to the dell awrado, full of men, womene, and chyldernc, and vyttells; wheare off theare weante 1400 soldyers.

"Theare are arryvyd att Saynt Lnkar, abowte 5 wekes paste, 3 of the Kynges frygottes, which brafte from Saynte John de Porteryka 2 myllions and a halfe of s.vlver, as the reporte was amongeste merchantes; and that syr francys Drake rechyd tlieare owtewarde: at that tyme they were alodynge off the tresure. He enteryd the harbors with hys pynasses, and fyryd one of the frygottes. Syr francys cowlde nolt enter the harboor with his shyppes, for they had sunke a frygotte yn the harboro, and by that meanes lost both the towne, treasure, and frygottes. Thys ys all that I can at thys presaunte advertys yow off; and soo levynge to troble vow, I commyt yow to the protectyon off the Allmyghty. From Greanewage this 16 off marche, 1595.

"Youres for ever to be commandyd,

"JOnN GlLBERTE."

The following paper seems to have reference to the Expedition to Cadiz, under the Earl of Essex; it is without date or indorsement: —

"And because it may happen by fight, or otherwise, that you, our Admirall of these forces committed to your charge, may miscarrye in this action (which God, we hope, will prevent), we have thought good (providinge for all events) to appoynt and authorize in such extremitye our Servant Sr Walter Raleigh, Captayne of our Guard, and Lieutenant of our County of Cornewalle, to take the charge of oar said fleet and forces, beinge now our Vice-admyrall of the same. And in the meane while that he be assistant unto you in all your enterprises and attemptes, and all other resolutions and determinations for these our services, as well for the annoyance of the Enemye as for the safegarde of our fleet, and forces aforesayd. In wytnes whereof we have caused these our Letters to be made Patentes, to contynue duringe our pleasure.—Witnes our self," &c.

J. Payne Collier.

P.S. From a MS. volume of miscellaneous poetry and prose, in the library at Bridgewater House, I extracted the following; but it strikes me that I have seen it in print, and if any of the correspondents of "N. & Q." can tell me where the lines are to be found, I shall be obliged to them.

"Here lyes the noble Warryor that never blunted sword: Here lyes the noble Courtier that never kept his word j Here lyes his Excellency that govern'd all the State; Here lyes the L. of Leicester that all the world did hate. Wa. Ra."

TWELFTH-DAY.

It is still the custom in parts of Pembrokeshire, on Twelfth-night, to carry about a wren.

The wren is secured in a small house made of wood, with door and windows—the latter glazed. Pieces of ribbon of various colours are fixed to the ridge of the r^of outside. Sometimes, several wrens are brought in the same cage; and oftentimes a stable-lantern, decorated as above-mentioned, serves for the wren's house. The proprietors of this establishment go round to the principal houses in their neighbourhood: where, accompanying themselves with some musical instrument, they announce their arrival by sinking the " Song of the Wren." The wren's visit is a source of much amusement to children and servants; and the wren's men, or lads, are usually invited to have a draught from the cellar, and receive a present in money. The "Song of the Wren" is generally encored; and the proprietors very commonly commence high life below stairs, dancing with the maid-servants, and saluting them under the kissing-bush—where there is one. I have lately procured a copy of the song sung on this occasion. I am not aware that it is in print. I am told that there is a version of this song in the Welsh language, which is in substance very near to that given below : —

"THE SONO OF THE WREN.

"Joy, health, love, and peace,
Be to you in this place.
By your leave we will sing,
Concerning our king:
Our king is well drest,
In silks of the best;
With his ribbons so rare,
No king can compare.
In his coach he does ride.
With a great deal of pride;
And with four footmen
To wait upon him.
We were four at watch,
And all nigh of a match;
And with powder and ball,
We fired at his hall.
We have travell'd many miles,
Over hedges and stiles,
To find you this king,
Which we now to you bring.
Now Christmas is past,
Twelfth-day is the last.
Th' Old Year bids adieu-
Great joy to the New."

It would appear, from the ninth line of the song, that the wren at one time used to occupy a coach, or that her house was placed upon wheels.

The word "hall" is fitly used for the wren's nest: it is really a "hall," or covered place. And it is from the shape of his nest, that the wren gets his name, meaning covered.

The reference to " powder and ball" is curious; and there is another song about the wren, still surviving in this district, which contains a reference to guns and cannons. I regret that I can only remember two verses; and as far as I know, they are not printed : —

*'' Where are you going ?' says the millder to the malder. 'Where are you going?' says the younger to the elder. 'I cannot tell,' says Fizzledyfose: 'To catch cutty wron,' says John tdic-red-nose.

"' How will yon get him?' eaya the millder to the malder. 'How will you get him ?' says the younger to the elder. 'I cannot tell,' says Fizzledyfose; 'With guns and great cannons,' sa\» John the-rednose."

Perhaps I ought not to call this a song, as I never heard it sung, and it is very little known here; but I suspect it used to be sung when the party of seekers were setting out in search of the wren, which they wanted for the Twelfthnight.

The wren here is generally called, by the common people, " cutty wron," or " cutty wran."

Query. What are the meanings of the words "millder" and "malder"? J. Tombs.

FLY-LEAF 8CRIBBUNGS, ETC.
In a MS. circa 1450: —

"Quas librum scripsit ipsum
Videat in patria Jeaum Christum. ,

Amen."
In a Salisbury book, 1527 : —

"Mi bewte ys fayr ye may well see
Wherfor I y«nke mi mast'Dygbe
Whersomever ye me see or riappyn to mette
I dwel w' mi master Dygbe in Lym Strette
Wheresomever I am in vilage towne or cite
Mi dwellyng is in Lyme Stretwith mi master digbe
Pore pepull for mi master digbe doth pV (pray)
For he refreshyt them both night and day
Many a poore body ye may here see

Pray for that ma mi master digbe

Mi master digbe is of London noble cite
Wherein I was made & had mi fayre bewte
Poor men & rich men of evry degree
Is bound to pray for mi master Digbe
Whosoever in me doth look & rede
Pray for mi master Digbe—God be hvs specie
Mi master digbe dwellethe in Lyme Strett
Wher mony a noble marchand there doth mette."

Time of Elizabeth —

"Omnipotens Cbriste
Mihi Salter cui constat liber iste

Dignare
Dogmata plura dare."

"Si tibi copia — si sapientia formaque detnr, Sola superbia destruit omnia si dominetur."

The following, from a book formerly belonging to the celebrated John Dey, the astrologer: —

"In Dei Nomine Amen. The thirde day of December a" Dfii 1570. I. Thomas Watson of Walton in the county of ."

Then follows, in the same hand —
"When ye hande shaketh memento
When ye lippes blackcth confeasio
When ye harte paineth contrissio [«'<:.]
When ye winde wanteth aatisfactio
When ye voise roleth mei miserere
When ye limmes fayletb libera nosdomine
When ye eyes holloweth nosce telpsum
For ther doth forbere( ?) vade ad judicium."

I will conclude this with an acrostic hymn;
where I copied it I quite torget: —
"I llustrator mentium
E rector lapsorum
S anctificator cordium
V itajustorum
S alus peccatorum

"M ater orphanorum
A lijutrix lapsorum
K el'ugium miserorum
I lluminatrix caecorum
A dvocata peccatorum."

J. C J.

THE NEWTOX STONE. In reading Dr. D. Wilson's interesting work on the Pre-historic Annals of Scotland, I was struck with the resemblance of the inscription on the Newton stone (vol. ii. p. 214,) to those of certain rocks in North-west India. It appears that Col. Sykes also detected the similarity. In short, the letters—the powers of which are well known, and with the appearance of which I am familiar—are almost precisely those of the Arian variety engraved on the sepulchral stones of the topes, and in other Buddhistic inscriptions found in Affghanistan, the ancient Ariana. The characters are known as the Arian or Boctrian, and are closely related to the Phoenician. The letter like O is, however, not in the Arian; but in the Phoenician it has the power of the Hebrew ayin, V. There is one wore!, at the end of the fourth line, which is in the Lit character — the oldest form of Sanscrit: this word is Nesher.

Having so clear a clue, I readily wrote the whole inscription in equivalent Hebrew letter*, thus: —

3333 T133 WOT

yiy -ey -3« nit

-ieo »b j»o

1KD "3 «n

nin 'Dir yse>

In English letters, thus: —

Bejzababa
domiti babeth
znth Ab-ham-howba
uiin phi Nesher
chii caman
sh'p'ha. joati hodhi.

It will be observed that the lines are arranged in menaure: three lines of four syllables, and three of five.

The words are unmistakably Hebrew, with Chaldaic admixture, as in the word man (l^D); and the literal rendering is as follows : —

"Silently I rest in the tomb ;* Ab-ham-howha^ is in the home of splendour. From the mouth (or doctrine) of Ntsher,\ my life was as an overflowing vessel; ray wisdom was my glory."

The word Nether being inscribed in the ancient Sanscrit character, employed by the early Buddhists, indicates that the person so named was an ancient teacher of the doctrines of Buddha, from the first seat of Buddhism; and that the person eommemorated on this sepulchral stone, as one instructed by this teacher, was himself a Buddhist missionary.

The fact that we find an inscription in the Arian and Lat character of India, known to be Buddhistic, on a tombstone of very early date in such a place, is sufficient proof that a Buddhist colony was established there at the time of its erection. The form of the letters in the word Nesher, is certainly that of the Sanscrit of the fifth century B.C.

From Buddhistic history we know that, soon after the death of Godaraa Buddha, or Sakya, missionaries went out in all directions to promulgate his doctrines. This occurred about five hundred years B.c. Northern mythology plainly indicates its connection with India and Buddhism.

But the most interesting circumstance is the Hebrew character of the inscription on the Newton stone, though the letters themselves resemble those in use in North-western India at the period of Buddhist ascendency, and both the ancient Sanscrit form of letter and that of the Arian are found together in several instances on the same rock, as transcripts of the same inscription and in the same language.

How can an inscription, presenting examples of both those forms of letters, and expressing Hebrew words, and found in Scotland, be accounted for? There are numerous evidences that many of the Israelites, especially those of the Ten_ Tribes, wandered from the place of their captivity into Bactria and North-western India, and there became Buddhists. Traces of such persons are found in several parts of Europe, but especially in Great Britain; where an extensive Hebrew influence, and yet not Jewish, was certainly established at a very early period. Among the several facts connecting this Hebrew influence in Britain with Buddhism, is a singular pas

* 23], mound, tumulus or vault, t I take this to be adopted as a proper name, signifying father of a wrong-doing or perverse people. X y—her, in Hebrew, means an eagle.

sage quoted by the Rev. E. Davies, in his work on the Mythology of the British Druids (Appendix, No. 12). The passage consists of four short lines, which Mr. Davies suspected might be Hebrew; in consequence of Taliessin, the Welsh bard, having stated that the bardic lore was derived from a Hebrew or Hebraic source. The lines referred to are in an ancient Druidical hymn in praise of Lludd the Great ( Welsh Archeeology, p. 74). These lines are described as the prayer of five hundred men, who came in five ships. Mr. Davies transcribed the passage in Hebrew characters, but did not attempt to translate it. When literally rendered, however, even from Mr. Davies's transliteration, it makes very good Buddhistic sense. The Hebrew source of this passage is further indicated by the fact, that those who used it are represented as saying: "We all attend upon Adonai,"—the Hebrew name of the Almighty.

The Dannaan of Irish tradition are not unlikely to have been Israelites of the sailor-tribe Dan, who very early mingled with the maritime population of Zidonia (see Deborah's Song, &c). Dr. Latham thinks it probable that the Danai of Homer, &c, were Danites. (Jithu. of Europe, p. 137.)

If the Dannaan of the Irish were Danites, we can account for the presence of Hebrews in Scotland during the pre-historic period: for, as we are informed, the Tuatha de Dannaan introduced their monuments into Scotland, Ireland, and Wales, long before the Christian era.

Then, as Great Britain was known to India before the death of Godama, we can understand how Israelitish converts to Buddhism there might also know that Hebrew colonists dwelt in Britain, and desire to join them; and, according to the zeal of the time, introduce Buddhism.

From the direct reading of the Newton stone, as well as from collateral evidence, there is then reason to conclude that it was erected to the memory of a Hebrew Buddhist missionary of some influence in pre-historic Scotland. The inscription in the Ogham character, on the same stone, is possibly a transcript in the same or another language, and may serve to test the correctness of the reading thus confidently offered.

Can you favour me with information concerning any other northern inscription in the same character? And also inform me, where I may find a copy of the Ogham inscription on the Newton stone? Is there any published explanation of the Ogham alphabet?

Geo. Moore, M.D.

Hastings.

Cardinal Beton Add Archbishop Gawin Dunbar.—In the book of protocols or notarial instruments before the Reformation kept by notaries public, occasionally valuable facts are recorded. Very many of these books have perished, but still there are several yet preserved. In looking over certain extracts from the Protocols of Cuthbert Simon, the'following entries occur:

"Jacobus secundus Archiepiscopus Glasguensis Ordinatus et consecratus fuit apud Striviling dominion in albis, viz. xv Aprilis, anno M, quinquagesimo nono et duravit usque ad quintum junii anno xxiij° et sedes turn vacavit per translationem ejus ad Archiepiscopatum Sancti Andree.

"Jacobus quartns Scotorum rex coronatus fuit apud Sconam in die Sanctte Maria; Magdalene videlicet xxij Julii.

"Jacobus quintus coronatus fuit in castro de Striviling per Jacobum Glassuensem Archiepiscopum xxij Septembris, Anno Domini M, quinquagesimo xiij.

"Gawinus Archiepiscopus Glasguensis consecratus fuit, Edinburgi quinta Februarii, Anno Domini M, quinquagesimo xxxiiij."

The first prelate here mentioned was the celebrated Cardinal Beaton, whose hostility to the English interest was the foundation of all the misfortunes of the unhappy Mary. Had she been affianced to the youthful Edward, and received a virtuous education in England, instead of having her youth corrupted by the vicious, wicked, and immoral practices of the French Court, her fate would have been otherwise than it was; but under the training of Catherine de Medici — a worse woman than even her namesake of Russia— and with the example of Diana of Poictiers, the king's mistress, before her, whose pet she was — how was it possible that the best disposition in the world could escape contamination?

Beton was the second James; the first was James Bruce, a son of Bruce of Clackmanan, Archbishop of Glasgow. Keith was not aware when or where he was consecrated. See Scotish Bishops, Edin. 1824, 8vo, p. 255.

Gawinus was Gavin Dunbar, a nephew of Gavin Dunbar, Bishop of Aberdeen. He was an accomplished man, and the education of James V. was entrusted to him. He was Prior of Whitehaven in Galloway. J. M.

Mendelssohn's Oratorio, "St. Paul." — It is always desirable that any erroneous statement of fact, particularly when contained in a work carrying on its face an appearance of authority, should be pointed out as soon as possible. In the recently published volume of Letters of Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, there is appended to a letter written by Mendelssohn to his mother on October 4, 1837, in which he refers to the Musical Festival held at Birmingham in that year (at which he had conducted his oratorio, St. Paul), a note by the editors, Mendelssohn's brother and cousin, stating that St. Paul was performed for

the first time in England at that festival. This note has been retained, without comment, in the Knglish translation (by Lady Wallace) of the Letters. But the statement is incorrect, as there had been three performances of the oratorio in England prior to that at the Birmingham Festival on September 20, 1837. The first of these performances was at the Liverpool Musical Festival, under the direction of Sir George Smart, on Friday morning, October 7, 1836; the second was in London, by the Sacred Harmonic Society, on March 7, 1837, and the third by the same body on September 12, in that year. The composer was present, as an auditor, at the latter performance, which he would have conducted, but for the interference of the Birmingham Festival Committee, who considered that his doing so would have been a virtual breach of his engagement with them. He had, however, superintended three of the rehearsals, and it was in remembrance of his association with the Society on this occasion that the silver snufF-box mentioned by him in the letter of October 4, 1837, was presented to him. W. H. Husk.

Easter. — In The Chronology of History, by Sir Harris Nicolas (at pp. 88—91), a rule is j:iven for finding Easter, independently of all tables. The rule as printed is incorrect, and gives an erroneous result when G is the Sunday letter, and the epact is either 6, 13, 20. or 29. The error occurs in subdivision (g) of the rule, p. 89. It should provide that, when subdivision (/) gives no remainder, G is the Sunday letter; and the number under G should be, not 7, but 0. For instance, in the year 1849, the epact was 6; and G was Sunday letter, and Easter fell on April 8. Applying the rule as printed, it should have fallen on April 15. Thus, under subdivision (n), 45-6=39. Under subdivision (o), 27 — 6=21; which, divided by 7, gives no remainder. Then by subdivision (/)), to 39 must be added 7, and no remainder is given by subdivision (o) to be deducted. 46—31 = 15, the day of April on which Easter did not fall in that year. T.

Dialects Of The Suburbs. — My engagements in London, and my residence in the direction of Highgate, necessitate a diurnal transition from end to end, between Kentish Town and the Oxford Street extremity of Tottenham Court Road. These daily journeys by omnibus, up and down, have brought me into acquaintance with some extraordinary specimens of suburban dialect. Allow me to place on record in "N. & Q." a few examples, not only for the amusement of your readers, but as evidences of that modification and disguisement, whereof our pliable vernacular has always shown itself so susceptible.

Three Busses. Cads vociferate—"Addle-head tnv'rn!" "Break-neck awms!" "Iguytill!" "Hekkap!" "Geddish Down!" Whereby please to understand — Adelaide Tavern; Brecknock Arms; Highgate Hill; Red Cup; Kentish Town.

Here the news-boys interpose, with a phraseology of their own —" Heaving Staw!" Dillitilligrawph!" "Heaving Stann'rd!" "Imbortintfrummimerrikey!" "Litterfr'm Man Hadd'n!" —Evening Star; Daily Telegraph; Evening Standard; Important from America; Letter from Manhattan.

Here a cad shouts—"Full inside!" "I vish / vos !" responds a hungry loafer from the footway. "I owney vish / vos!"

In the morning this is altered—" Full inside!" cries the cad. To whom sarcastically replies the driver of a rival bus — "Hope ycr injoyed yer brekfast!" Schin.

Sword-blade Tnscriptions.—The columns of your interesting and valuable journal have, from time to time recorded, for the amusement of its readers, quaint inscriptions on sundials and on bells. Permit me to send you two curious mottoes, which were found on sword blades, and communicated to me by Mr. Latham, of the firm of Wilkinson & Co., the eminent sword-makers in Pall Mall. The first is from an old Spanish blade, and runs thus: — "Non ti fidar di me se il Cor te manca." "Trust not to me if thy heart fail thee " —

and the second is from a Gascon sword : —

"Si mon bras redoutable estoit arme" de ce Fer. J'attaquerois le Diable au milieu de l'Enfer."

W. F. H.

Source Of The Nile.—The following note may be interesting at the present time: —

"November, 1668. "At a Meeting of the Council of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge: "Ordered, that these documents be printed.

"brounker, Pres."

The discourses were printed accordingly, with the following title : —

"A Short Relation of the River Nile, of its Source and Current, &c, &c. London: printed for John Martyn, printer to the Roval Society; and are to be sold at the sign of The Bell, without Temple Bar, 1669."

In this little book, which I have recently been reading, there is a wonderful resemblance in the description of the source of the Nile, and that which has been lately read before the Royal Society. Septimus Piesse, F.C.S.

The Princess De Lamballe.— It will be remembered by the readers of French History, that one of the most horrible atrocities of the Reign of Terror was the murder of this unforprincess in 1793. After death, the remains were subject to the greatest indignities, and the head carried upon a pike through the streets of Paris.

A question has been raised since as to what became of the head after the mob had satiated their fury by its public exhibition. A late number of Galignani sets the question at rest by the publication of a document which has been lately disposed of at a sale of autographs in the Rue Drouet The document is as follows : —

"Section of the 15.20. Permanent Committee. September 3rd. Year IV. of Liberty, and I. of Equality. Citizen Jacques Pointal of the Corn Market, 69 line des Petits Champs, applied to the Committee for permission to inter the head of the ci-devant Princess de Lamballe, which he had succeeded in obtaining possession of. As the patriotism and humanity of the said citizen could not but be commended, we immediately proceeded to the cemetery of Enfants-Trouves, near the place where our Committee met, and within our section, where we had the said head buried, and we have given the present act to serve the said citizen as a discharge and authorization. Done by the Committee, in the above-mentioned day and year.—Desequelle, Commissioner of the 15.20."

T. B.

©uertcit. ANCIENT SEALS.

I have a cast of the fine old seal of the borough of Stamford, the matrix of which, I believe, is preserved in the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries, London. Its relief is very high, and its workmanship singularly beautiful. The device is the Virgin and Child, seated under a rich canopy, with a praying figure beneath, the legend apparently being, "Stavnford . Bvrgenses . Virgo . Fvndvnt . Tibi . Preces." From its having four projecting hinges, similar to those on King Edward's double staple seals, I feel almost satisfied that this is only one side of the ancient double seal of Stamford. If I am correct as to this, is the other side of the matrix still in existence, or are impressions from it still extant?

I have also copies from the seals now used by the Boroughs of Glastonbury, and Bury-St.Edmund's, but both are very small and modern, the former having for device a mitre in front of two crossed croziers on a shield, with the legend, "Floreat Ecclesia Anglie;" and the latter, a crest merely of the wolf with its paw resting on the crowned head of the martyred king, with motto of "Bvry. Sci. Edi." As both of these towns once possessed ancient and striking seals, I would like greatly to ascertain where casts from them are to be procured.

Seal-engraving appears to be almost a lost art for the last 300 years, as the high relief, beauty of design, and richness of execution of even the smallest seals up to that period contrasts forcibly with such as have been executed since then, especially with the more recent examples. There are some exceptions, I must acknowledge, to this

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