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Form - Cont'd.

1894.1, 1903.1; Lydekker, R., Johnston, Embryological development of the external H. & others 1910.1; Pycraft, W. 1910.1; form or symmetry, causes, mechanical con. Shaw, G. 1800.1; Shaw, G. & Nodder, F. siderations, etc. His, W. 1894.3; Kopsch,

P. 1790.1; Swainson, W. 1820.1, 1838.1; F. 1898.1, 1898.3; Leuckart, C. G. 1850.1;

Turton, W. 1802.1; Fleming, J. Add. Masterman, A. T. 1899.1; Rauber, A.

1822.1. 1879.1; Ryder, J. A. 1879.1; *Keibel, Text in French. Beaurieu, G. G. F. Add. 1902.1.

1770.1; Beudant, F. S., Edwards, H. M. For the development of the asymmetry of & Jussieu, A. L. 1867.1; Bomare, J. C. flat-fishes, see under Pleuronectidæ.

1764.1; Bory de Saint-Vincent, J. B. Miscellaneous papers on the form or shape 1822.1; Buc'Hoz, P. J. 1771.2; Buffon, of fishes. Dean, B. 1895.4; Houssay, F. G. L. 1798.1-1834.1; Chenu, J. C. 1874.1; 1905.1-19122, Add. 1911.1, 1914.1; Chevrolat, L. A. 1839.1; Cuvier, G. F. Knauer, F. K. 1880.1; Mazza, F. 1893.1; 1804.1; Cuvier, G. L. 1817.1, 1829.1, Nikolskii, A. M. 1891.1; Osburn, R. C. 1836.1, 1844.1; Knorr, G. W. 1766.1; 1913.3; Tenney, S. 1877.2; Walter, E. Lacépède, B. G. 1844.1; La Chenaye1911.1; Thilo, 1. Add. 1898.1.

Desbois. F. A. 1759.1: Lamarck. J. B.

1809.1; Orbigny, A. C. 1839.1; *Perrier, GASTROLITHS (STOMACH STONES) J. 0. E. 1903.1; Sonnini de Manoncourt,

C. N. 1799.1; Valmont de Bomare, J. C. For chemical concretions in the alimentary tract, see Calculi under Pathology.

1765.1; Virey, J. J. 1835.1; Anon. 662. Stones or pebbles (enteroliths) found in

Text in German. Borowski, G. H. the stomachs of cod, pike, turbot, etc., pre

1784.1; Brehm, A. E. 1863.1, 1876.1, sumably aiding in the trituration of food.

1892.1, 1914.1; Bronn, H. G. 1859.1, Baird, S. F. 1872.24; Bree, W. T. 1830.1;

1874.1; Cuvier, G. L. 1831.1, 1846.1; Decker, W. 1896.1; Hoernes, R. 1904.1;

Kaup, J. J. 1835.1; Lenz, H. 0. 1838.1Moodie, R. L. 1912.1; Wickes, W. H.

1878.1; Leunis, J. 1844.1-1883.1; Mar1908.1.

tin, P. L. 1876.1; Martini, F. H. 1774.1; Possibility that pebbles in certain geologi

Oken, L. 1816.1, 1833.1; Suckow, G. A. cal formations have been transported by

1797.1; Voigt, F. S. Add. 1831.1. fishes. Vaillant, L. L. 1892.4.

Text in Spanish. Brehm, A. E. 1882.1;

Chao, E. 1852.1. GENERAL WORKS ON NATURAL

Lesser Works on Natural History HISTORY

Text in English. Baird, S. F. 1852.1; Comprising Compendia, Dictionaries, Brown. T. 1832.1: Cuvier. G. E. 1840.1: Encyclopedias, Manuals, Text-books, etc.,

Donovan, E. 1823.1; Duncan, F. M. with especial reference to the natural history

1913.1; Edwards, G. 1758.1; Goldsmith, of fishes. For works of a general or comprehensive

0.1774.1-1858.1; Holloway, W. & Branch, nature relating specifically to definite organs, J. 1804.1; Jenyns, L. 1846.1; Jordan, D. systems, genera or higher groups, see under the S. 1876.2-1899.2; Jordan, D. S. & Van specific headings, such as Anatomy, Angling, Vleck, B. H. 1874.1; *Lydekker, R. Embryology, Fisheries, Physiology, and other 1912.1; Lydekker, R. & others 1897.1; such major groupings.

Mayo, B. 1818.1; Pluche, N. A. 1785.1; For a list of catalogues of works on natural history, sce Part IV of this work on "General

Shufeldt, R. W. 1897.3; Smith, T. 1806.1; Bibliographies."

Stark, John 1828.1; Wood, J. G. 1861.1; For the history and development of the Wood, William 1807.1; Anon. 187, 345, natural sciences, see Historical matter.

374; Forbes, E. Add. 1859.1; RuschenFor general works of a precise nature relating berger, W. S. Add. 1856.1: Strong. A. B. to the science of ichthyology, see Ichthyology.

Add. 1851.1. DICTIONARIES AND LEXICONS

Text in French. Alléon, D. 1765.1; Chiefly "Handwörterbücher der Zoologie."

Bertrand, J. E. 1779.1; Boitard, M. P. Brüning, C. 1911.4; *Frenzel, J. 1897.1;

1827.1; Cuvier, G. L. 1798.1; Pluche, Jourdan, A. J. 1834.1; Knauer, F. K.

· N. A. 1763.1; Rafinesque-Schmaltz, C.

• 1815.1; Raymond, G. M. 1828.1; Virey, 1887.1; Nemnich, P. A. 1793.1; *Ziegler, H. E. 1909.1; Baikie, E.'S. Add.

J. J. 1822.1. 1878.1.

Text in German. Bertuch, F. J.

1806.1; Hesse, R. & Doflein, F. 1910.1; GENERAL NATURAL HISTORIES

Müller, J. T. 1780.1; Ramisch, F. H. Important Treatises

1835.1; Strack, -, 1819.1; Vogt, C. C. Text in Dutch. Burgersdijk, L. A.

1851.1; Wiedemann, C. R. 1800.1, Wil1862.1; Houttuyn, M. 1761.1; Vrolik,

helm, G. T. 1817.1; Wilmsem, F. P. W. 1854.1.

1831.1; Anon. 390. Text in English. Brookes, R. 1763.1,

Pre-Linnæan Works 1773.1, 1790.1; Buffon, G. L. 1831.1, Including natural histories, encyclope1860.1; Cuvier, G. L. 1834.1,.2, 1840.1; dias and early general works containing Goode, G. B. & others 1887.1; +Harmer, references to fishes. S. F. 1904.1; Hill, J. 1771.1; Kingsley, Most of these works appeared in screral J. S. 1885.1; Lamarck, J. B. 1914.1; editions and in various languages. Ad*Lankester, E. R. 1900.1; Lydekker, R. Damiri, I. K. 1372.1; Andrew, L. 1510.1;

*Aristotle, 1476.1; Bartholomæus An- Text in French. Blocquel, S. 1826.1; glicus. 1470.1; Birckerodius, T. B. Buc'Hoz, P. J. 1769.1; Chailland, 1694.1; Brisson, M. J. 1754.1; Burton, 1769.1; Dralet, - 1821.1; Figuier, G. R. 1678.1; Candidus, D. P. 1460.1; L. 1868.1, 1876.1; Haüy, R. J. 1787.1; Cerutus, B. 1622.1; Coetlegon, D. 1745.1, Jannettaz, P. M. 1869.1; Moquin-Tan1746.1; Cube, J. 1485.1; Cupani, F. don, C. H. 1865.1, 1866.1; Oudart, P. L. 1713.1; Edwards, G. 1743.1; Franciscus. 1825.1; Pérez, C. C. 1901.1; Ray, P. A. E. 1668.1; Gesner, C. 1558.1, 1575.1, 1788.1, 1804.1. 1619.1: Gilles, P. 1535.1; Hill, J. 1748.1; Text in German. Buhle, C. A. 1812.1; Hildegarde de Pinguia 1533.1; Hövel, H. 1601.1;

vel,

H

Hartwig, G. L. 1857.1;
Johnson, T. 1595.1;

+Hentschel, E.

*Jon- 1909.1; Krüger, J. G. 1759.1; ston, J. 1632.1; Konrad of Megen

Leon

hardt, E. E. 1913.1; Leuckart, F. S. burg, 1475.1; Knorr, G. W. 1754.1;

1832.1; Marshall, W. A. 1898.1; Plehn, Kräutermann, V. 1730.1; Lonicer, A.

M. 1906.2; Rauther, M. 1907.2,.3; 1551.1; Marsigli, L. F. 1725.1; Martyn,

Schreiber, - 1913.1; Anon. 633; Giebel, B. 1735.1; Münster, S. 1543.1; Muralt, J. 1709.1,.2; Neckham, A. 1180.1; Nie

C. G. Add. 1860.1. remberg, J. E. 1635.1; Nylant, P. &

Text in Italian. Bianconi, C. G. Hextor, J. 1678.1; Petiver, J. 1702.1;

1848.1; Giglioli, E. H. & Issel, R. 1884.1; *Pliny, C. 1469.1; Pluche, N. 1732.1;

Doni di Nettuno. *Cavanno, G. Add. Raimondi, E. 1610.1; Reisch, G. 1496.1;

1914.1. Schnurr, B. 1654.1; Szent-Iványi, M. Text in various languages. — Swed1689.1; Vincent, L. 1715.1; Vincentius ish. Aulin, H. 1760.1. - Danish. FleiBellovacensis 1473.1; Watson, F. 1754.1; scher, E. 1795.1. - Russian. Nikolskis, *Worm, O. 1655.1; Zanardus, M. 1619.1; A. M. 1902.1. - Spanish. Philippi, R. A. Anon. 731, 732, 733, 754, 755, 774.

1864.1. Latin. Scopoli, G. A. 1787.1.

- Japanese. Anon. 529. POPULAR WORKS Including anecdotes, marvels of fish life,

ZOOLOGIES narratives, tales of the sea, etc.

Comprising Handbooks, Manuals, TextFor legends and fables of fish life, see Myth- books, etc. ology and symbolism.

Text in Danish. Boas, J. E. 1888.1. Text in Dutch. Brussel, T. 1798.1;

Text in Dutch. Harting, P. 1862.3; Hauwaert, P. 1901.1, 1901.2; Redeke, H. C. 1911.2; Richter, J. G. 1768.1, 1780.1;

Hoeven, J. 1849.1. Anon. 319.

Text in English. Baird, S. F. 1851.1; Text in English. Abbott, C. C. 1888.1;

Boas, J. E. 1896.1; Hertwig, C. W. 1913.1; Adams, A., Baikie, W. B. & Barron, C.

Hoeven, J. 1856.1; *Kingsley, J. S. 1854.1; Adams, W. H. 1870.1; Agassiz,

1900.1; Lankester, E. R. 1889.2,.3,

1911.2; Marshall, A. M. & Hurst, C. H. J. L. 1847.1; Arnold, A. & Samuel, E. A. 1868.1; Beavan, A. H. 1905.1, 1908.1;

1887.1; Morgan, C. L. 1887.1; NicholBigland, J. 1828.1-1865.1; Boyd, J. P.

son, H. A. 1870.1, 1871.1; Packard, A. S. 1888.1; Brown, T. 1835.1; Buckland, F.

Jr. 1880.1; Parker, T. J. & Haswell, W. T. 1857.1. 1875.1, 1876.1, 1882.1; Bullen,

A. 1897.1; *Sedgwick, A. 1885.1, 1898.1; F. T. 1899.1-1904.2; Bushnan, J. S.

Shipley, A. E. & Macbride, E. W. 1901.1; 1840.1; Clarke, S. C. 1892.1; Damon,

Thomson, J. A. 1892.1, 1910.1; Wells, W. E. 1877.1, 1888.1; Duncan, F. M.

H. 1894.1; Wells, H. G. & Davies, A. M. 1913.2,.3; Duncan, F. M. & Duncan, L.

Parker,

1913.1; Weyser, A. W. 1904.1; T. 1913.1; Elmhirst, R. 1913.2; Emer

T. J. & Parker, W. N. Add. 1900.1. ton, J. H. 1880.1; Esdaile, D. 1865.1; Text in French. Delage, M. Y. & Furneaux, W, 1896.1; Gosse, P. H. Hérouard, E. 1898.1; Edwards, H. M. 1849.1-1854.1; Hamilton, E. 1890.1; 1835.1; Pouchet, F. A. 1832.1, 1841.1. Harper, J. 1858.1; +Holder, C.F. 1903.1, Text in German. Boas, J. E. 1894.1; 1906.1, 1908.1, 1910.1,.3, 1913.1, Add. Brandt. A. T. 1911.1; Brühl, C. B. 1877.1: 1885.1–1912.1; +Holder, C. F. & Jordan, Carus, J. V. & Gerstaecker, C. E. 1863.1; D. S. 1909.1; Jesse, E. 1832.1; Mc

Goette, A. 1902.1; Goldfuss, G. A. 1820.1; Carthy, E. 1900.1; Morris, F. 0. 1860.1;

*Hertwig, C. W. 1891.1, 1910.1; HertNorthrop, H. D. 1901.1; . Ogilvie, G.

wig, W. A. 1906.1; Hilzheimer, M. & 1858.1; Petersen, C. G. 1900.1; Prouty,

Haempel, 0. 1913.1; Hufeland, -. 1798.1; L. 1883.1; *Pycraft, W. 1901.1; Rey Kner, R. 1849.1; Kuhl, H. 1820.1; Nusnolds. S. 1911.1; Simeon, C. 1860.1, baum. J., Karsten, G. & Weber, M. 1911.1; 1863.1; Thompson, J. A. 1914.1; Trim- Pagenstecher, H. A. 1875.1; Thienemann, mer, M. 1830.1; Walcott, J. 1788.1; F A 1999.1: Treviranus. G. R. 1802. 1: Walcott, S. 1795.1; Wood, J. G. 1857.1;

Voigt, F. S. 1835.1. Wraxall, F. C. 1860.1; Baskett, J. N.

Text in Italian. Bassani, F. 1885.1; Add. 1899.1: Boulenger, G. A. & Boulenger, C. L. Add. 1914.1; Cowan, F.

Doria, G., Ferrari, s. M. & Lessona, M. Add. 1894.1; Davies, E. W. Add. 1887.1;

1861.1-1869.1; Ranzani, C. 1819.1. Figuier, L. Add. 1869.1; Giberne, A.

Medical Zoölogies. Brandt, J. F. & Add. 1902.1; Perry, W. A., Mosher, A. A.

Ratzeburg, J. T. 1829.1; Czenpinski, P. & others. Add. 1892.1.

1778.1; Szirmay, A. I. Add. 1840.1.

storah

GROWTH, AGE, AND SIZE

References to the development and growth of individual forms will be found under the various families and genera, under the heading Natural History.

Papers relating to metamorphosis and growth will be found under such families as Anguillidæ, Pleuronectida, and Salmonidæ.

For related subjects, see under such topics as Embryology, Form, etc.

For the relations between age and reproduction, see Sexual maturity under Reproduction.

Mode of growth. Henneguy, L. F. 1887.1; Packard, A. S. Jr., 1875.1. -- Distribution of form-building capacities in animal bodies. Przibram, H. 1910.1. Lengthening process. His, W. Add. 1891.1.

Relation of weight to length in Mustelus. Hecht, S. 1913.1.

Relative growth of organs and parts, Mustelus. Kearney, H. L. Add. 1914.1.

Relative dimensions of adults and young of Alopias vulpes. Vaillant, L. L. 1886.2.

Correlations of weight and length in the weakfish, Cynoscion regalis. Crozier, W. J. & Hecht, S. Add. 1914.1.

Miscellaneous and unimportant papers, notices, popular accounts, etc., on age and growth in fishes, age-determination from the point of view of the fish-culturist, etc.

Text in - English. Aflalo, F. G. 1902.4; Baird, S. F. 1876.21; Meek, S. E. 1900.3. --- Norwegian. Dahl, K. 1911.2, 1912.1; Dahl, K., Damas, D. & Sund, O. 1909.1; Grieg, J. A. 1908.1; Nordgaard, 0. 1901.1. - Russian. Emeljanenko, P. E. 1909.1; Grimm, 0. 1901.2,.3, 1904.2; Heide, E. J. 1912.1; Ostroumov, A. A. 1910.1-1913.1. Finnish. Ericcson, B. 1905.1. - Swedish. Hederström, H. 1759.1; Mäklin, F. W. 1864.1, 1865.1; Nordqvist, 0. F.1907.2, 1909.2; Petersen, C. G. 1892.1. - Dutch. Hoek, P. P. 1912.3; Tesch, J. J. 1910.1, 1913.1. Italian. Mazzarelli, G. F. 1904.1; Supino, F. 1910.1. - Danish. Otterstrøm, A. N. 1906.1. Japanese. Watanabe, M. 1913.1.

Text in German. Apstein, C. 1900.1, 1909.1; Bartels, F. 1910.2; Braun, M. G. 1893.1; Cronheim, W. 1908.1; Lücke, Fr. 1911.1; Milewski, A. 1912.4; Popta, C. M. 1907.2; Reeker, H. 1909.1; Reuss, H. 1908.1,.2; Stieda, L. 1871.2.' METHODS IN DETERMINATION

of age and growth For a short historical résumé in English of the development in Europe of all the methods in the determination of growth and age, with the chief literature, see *Dahl, K. 1909.1.

RATE OF GROWTH A great stimulus to studies on age and growth was given by the work of Petersen. His method consisted chiefly in the mensuration of large numbers of immature fishes of all sizes to determine the limits of the various series or generations the median point (or average) between the extreme limits of the series being taken as the mean of a “group-series" or annual “size-unit " or "year-class." By a study of these group-series, it was expected to determine the full growthrate of a given species. Experience, however, has shown that, as a rule, only the first 2-3 year classes are recognizable.

Original statement of this method. Petersen, C. G. 1891.2, 1895.2.

Following this method, with slight modifications, observations chiefly on the rate of growth have been made as follows. Flounder, plaice, dab, sole, turbot, whiting, poor cod, and pilchard. Cunningham, J. T. 1891.9,.11, 1892.2,.3. - Plaice. Dannevig H. C. 1899.1; Johnstone, J. 1908.2, 1910.4, 1912.4, Add: 1912.1, 1914.2; Kyle, H. M. 1905.2, 1907.1. -Gurnard. Fulton T. W. 1899.1. — Cod, haddock, whiting and Norway pout. Fulton, T. W. 1901.3. - Plaice, dab, whiting and haddock. *Fulton, T. W. 1902.3, 1904.5. - Herring. Masterman, A. T. 1895.3. – Cyclopterus, Cottus, Agonus and Liparis. Tosh, J. R. 1894.1.

Unclassified. Fulton, T. W. 1893.2; Williamson, H. C. 1893.1. - Description of a fish-measuring board. Riddell, W. 1914.1, 1915.1.

Recent methods in age determination

In 1899 Reibisch showed that the otoliths of plaice exhibit a periodic growth cortesponding to summer and winter and are thus available for age determination. Reibisch, J. 1899.1.

About the same time, Hoffbauer demonstrated that the annual rings in the scales of the carp provided an indication of the age. Hoffbauer, C. 1898.1 et seq.

Since then numerous parts have proven available. “The choice of the organ for age determination may now be considered as being a question of an entirely practical kind, a question to be answered for each species. We employ the organ which most easily and cheaply can be procured. Some investigators have used the otoliths. Others have employed certain bones, as gill-covers, scapulæ, vertebræ, or neural processes. Others again have preferred to use the scales." Dahl.

A comprehensive dissertation in German on otolith structure with regard to age determination is Fryd, C. 1901.1.

For a comprehensive treatise in English on age determination as based on scale studies, see Taylor, H. F. 1916.1.

For an excellent popular paper on the relation of scale structure to growth in the Atlantic salmon, the meaning of the " spuriing mark" on the scales, etc., see *Hutton, J. A. Add. 1909.1.

Older methods Professor Sars attempted to begin with the newly hatched fry of the cod, measuring their grouth and obserring it year after year. Sars, G. 0. 1865.1 et seq.

Similar observations on herring were made by Meyer, H. A. 1878.1,.2.

ANGUILLA (Common eel) As early as 1873, Baudelot suggested that the concentric zones in the scales of the common eel corresponded to periods of growth. Baudelot, E. 1873.4.

Other pa pers relating to the structure of the scales in regard to the determination of age in the eel. Ehrenbaum, E. & Marukawa, H. 1913.1; Gemzõe, K. J. 1907.1; Schneider, G. 1909.8; Haempel, O. Add. 1914.2.

CLUPEIDA Vertebrä as well as otoliths, also opercula and other flat bones are good, but none of these give so sure results as the scales." Dahl.

Otoliths used in analysis of age of herring. *Jenkins, J. T. 1902.1. - Both scales and otoliths used com paratively. Broch, H. 1907.1-1908.2.

Various pa pers on the determination of age and growth, chiefly by the study of the scales in the herrina (Clupea harengus) with a few on the sprat (C. sprattus). Bounhiol, J. P. 1912.1; +Dahl, K. 1907.2, 1909.3; Fulton, T. W. 1906.1; Schneider, G. 1908.2, 1909.9; Storrow, B. 1914.1, 1915.1; Sund, (. 1909.1; Thompson, D. W. 1911.2, 1914.3; Delsman, H. C. Add. 1914.1,2; Hensen, V. Add. 1914.1. -- Caspian herring (Clupeonella). Nedozbivin, A. & Tichij, M. 1913.1.

The Norwegian investigators have greatly developed the application of scale readings" based chiefly on the herring. They beliere the scale studies indicate not only the age but the size at different years and the conditions of eristence during those years. For the methods employed, see Lea, E. 1911.1, 1913.1. For a discussion of these methods, noting the phenomenon of apparent change in growth rate," see Lee, R. M. 1912.2, Add. 1913.1.

For an elaborate monograph summarizing all the data on scale reading in the herring, see Molander, - in Ur. Svenska Hydrographisk-Biologiska Kommissions Skrifter for 1917.

GADIDE The scales as a rule are far superior to any other organ taken from the osseous system.'

The following papers on growth and age determination relate chiefly to the cod (Gadus morrhua) and the pollack (G. pollachius). Carr, A. M. 1909.1; Cunningham, J. T. 1905.1; Dahl, K. 1906.4; *Damas, D. 1909.1; Hjort, J. 1908.2; Lee, R. M. (Haddock) 1912.2; Maier, H. N. 1906.1; Redeke, H. C. 1909.1; *Thomson, J. S. 1902.1, 1904.1, 1904.2; Winge, 0. 1915.1.

Contrary to the almost universal opinion that the scales of fishes increase in size by annual growth rings, Brown (Alfred W. 1903.1) believes that in the cod, haddock, and whiting, the scales are annually shed after spawning until the age-limit of spawning is reached when no further shedding takes place.

PLECRONECTIDÆ. Among flatfishes, the plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) has been the chief subject of study. The structure of the otoliths, at least in younger fishes, provides a reliable index of age.

“ As regards older fish the otoliths become too little transparent and the annual rings too close for an absolutely safe reading. In these cases the broad flat bones of the head and shoulder girdle are good subjects and give safer results." Dahl.

Otoliths first studied as indicators of age and growth. Reibisch, J. 1899.1.

Other papers on age and growth in plaice based on study of otoliths, bones, etc. Atkinson, G. T. 1908.1; Carr, A. M. (Dab) 1909.1; Cunningham, J. T. 1905.1; *Heincke, F. 1906.1; Heincke, F. & Henking, H. 1908.1; *Immermann, F. 1908.1; Johansen, A. C. 1905.1 (i), 1909.1, 1910.1, 1912.1; McMurrich, J. P. 1914.1; Maier, H. N. 1906.1: Meek, A. 1903.1, 1905.1; Petersen, C. G. 1903.1; *Wallace, W. 1905.1-1911.1.

VARIOUS FISHES Papers on the determination of age and grouth by recent methods have appeared as follows. Salmo hucho. Haempel, 0. 1910.1; Salomon, K. 1908.1. - Smelt (Osmerus). Masterman, A. T. 1913.2. - Mackerel (Scomber). Nilsson, D. 1914.1. - Anchovy (Engraulis). Redeke, H. C. 1914.1. - Coregonus albula. Seligo, A. 1908.2. - C'ynoscion regalis and Orthopristis chrysopterus. Taylor, H. F. 1916.1. Carp. Walter, E. 1901.1.

For additional references to scale studies on salmon, see below "Growthunder both Atlantic and Pacific salmons under Salmonidæ.

LONGEVITY

Age attained by fishes Records of ages attained by fishes. In some cases, the records are of fishes kept in aquaria; in others known individuals have been under observation in the ponds of European monasteries or marked specimens are alleged to have been taken from the moats of feudal castles.

Such records are as follows. - Carp (375 yrs.). Baird, S. F. 1872.9; Mehwald, - 1873.1. Carp (38 yrs.). Noll, F. C. 1879.2, 1882.1. -- Carp (300 yrs.). Suffield, R. R. 1874.1.

Pike (267 yrs.). Baldinger, E. G. 1802.1. Loach (260 yrs.). Bötticher, W. 1902.1. -- Goldfish (30 yrs.). Essing, L. 1898.1. - Trout (19 yrs.). HarvieBrown, J. 1898.1. - Sea bass (21 yrs.). Townsend, C. H. Add. 1913.5.

Miscellaneous items on longevity in - Carp. Falke, W. 1874.1. - Pop. art. in French. Oustalet, E. 1900.1. - Trout. Stone, L. 1872.5. - Goldfish. Riepe, E. Add. 1906.1.

SIZE ATTAINED Popular article, Some giant fishes of the sea.Smith, H. M. 1909.4.

Growth - Cont'd.

of seventy-two lbs. for the giant pike of Loch Largest and smallest of known fishes. Ken of Scotland. Regan, C. T. 1911.9. Lönnberg, A. J. 1902.10; Henn, A. W.

Large specimens recorded as follows: Add. 1912.1.

- Epinephelus. Alcock. A. W. 1905.1. A minute goby (Mistichthys luzonensis) - Stereolepis. Boulenger, G. A. 1897.9. from the Philippines, of which egg-bearing,

-- Eel. Cornish, T. 1872.4; Anon. 363 mature females only twelve mm. long have

(36 lbs.). Halibut (Hippoglossus). G., been taken, is the smallest known verte

N. 1877.1. Thymallus. Hintze, A. brate. Smith, H. M. 1902.5,.8,.11,.13,

1893.2. Gasterosteus (82 mm.). Le1903.3. Figured in 1902.8.

vander, K. M. 1900.2. Lota. NordThe whale shark (Rhineodon typus), of

qvist, O. F. 1904:4. — Trout. Pellegrin, which specimens forty-five feet in length

J. 1900.9. - Bluefish (Pomatomus). have been captured, is the largest recent fish.

Smith, H. M. 1903.1. -- Brook trout. Gudger, E. W. 1915.1; Regan, C. T.

Sterling, E. 1875.1. -Conger (53 lbs.). Add. 1913.1.

Sweetapple, E. 1869.1. -- Bream (AbraLargest deep sea fish, Macrias amissus, mis) (15 lbs.). Zur Mühlen, M. 1911.2. is five feet in length. Gill, T. N. & Town Large specimens of the Mahaseer" send, C. H. 1901.1.

(Barbus mosal), of mountain streams of Miscellanea. - Environmental condi India and Ceylon. Kinnear, N. B. 1910.1; tions determining size. Chudeau, R. 1898.1. Murray-Aynsley, C. E. 1910.1; WalDwarf races of Coregonus. Klunzinger, C. lenger, W. A. 1908.1; Willey, A. 1903.1; B. 1900.1. Dwarfed forms among Swedish Skene Dhu Add. 1906.1. fishes. Lönnberg, A. J. 1902.8. - Records of large specimens of the ocean Dwarfed muskalonge. Sterling, E. 1877.1. sunfish, Orthagoriscus mola. Mikhailovskii, - Relation of size to saline content of sea.

M. M. 1903.1; Nardo, G. D. 1841.1; Anon. 497. -- Absolute and relative weights Stearns, R. E. 1867.1; Dean, B. Add. of viscera. Bellingeri, C. F. Add. 1849.1.

1913.2. - The maximum size of fishes and its causes.

A table comprising the "World's Prince, E. E. Add. 1904.2.

record catches with rod and reel and otherRECORDS OF SIZE

wise of 50 North American popular fresh

and salt water fishes" has been compiled Unquestionably numerous additional records

recently by J. T. Nichols and Van Campen of large size of fishes will be disclosed by search

Heilner, and published in Field and through the literature. The following references are for the most part those which indicate by

Stream, July, 1920, pp. 268-269. their titles that they refer to large specimens.

Smallost specimens on record Large specimens recorded as follows

Of various fishes, whose developmental ELASMOBRANCHII

history is not known, the smallest known Carcharias. Bennett, G. 1859.1.

specimens have been recorded as follows: Sphyrna (12.5 ft.). Gudger, E. W. 1907.1; ī

- Polyodon. Barbour, T. 1911.1; DanWelsh, W. W. 1916.1. - Pristis (16 st.).

forth, C. H. 1911.1. - Remora. Daldorf, Shields, S. A. 1879.1.

D. C. Add. 1793.1. A weight of 4000 pounds for a specimen of Carcharodon carcharodon, taken in the GUN

GUSTATORY ORGANS Mediterranean, is given by Bonaparte, C. For the functions of these organs, see Taste. L. 1839.1.

Anatomy in - Cyprinus. Beneden, P. Speculations on the probable length of J. 1835.1: Fohmann, V. 1835.2: Weber, the largest of all fishes, the shark Car E. H. 1827.7. - Teleostei. Jourdan, E. charodon megalodon, known only from 1881.1. Elasmobranchii. Nardo, G. D. fossil teeth. Bowerbank, J. S. 1852.1; 1846.2. 1851.1; Todaro, F. 1872.1, 1873.1, Dean, B. 1909.1; Hussakof, L. 1912.2. Add. 1873.1. GANOIDEI

Miscellaneous and general. Duméril, A. Polyodon. Hussakof. L. 1911.3.

M. 1858.1; Herrick, Č.J. 1904.1; Schulze, Lepidosteus tristachus. Shufeldt, R.

F. E. 1868.1. W. 1903.9.

Taste buds. Structure, origin, nette See also C. H. Townsend,“ Giant Gars terminations in, etc. Dogiel, A. Š. (Gafrom Louisianain Bull. N. Y. Zool. Soc. noidei) 1897.1; Johnston, J. B. 1909.2; 1920, vol. 23, pp. 119-120.

Lenhossék, M. 1892.2.

Structure and distribution of taste buds TELEOSTEI

in Cottus. Maehrenthal, F. C. 1892.1. Large specimens of the carp. Chion, - - Petromyzon. Retzius, M. G. 1893.4. 1838.1; Garman, S. 1889.2; Grube, A. - In mouth, Lophius. Guitel, F. 1891.2.5. E. 1866.1; Häfeli, - 1802.1; Lavenier, - -- In skin of head and barbels of Ameirrus 1895.1; Mackrill, A. 1884.1.

and hake. Herrick, C. J. 1903.2; LandLarge specimens of the cod. Baird, S. F.

acre, F. L. 1907.1.
1872.18; Lönnberg, A. J. 1907.4; Smith,
Everett, 1883.1.

HABITS OF FISHES
Large specimens of the pike (Esox).
Baird, S. F. 1872.1, 1875.21; Gurney, J.

For the breeding habits of fishes comprising

courtship, spawning behavior, parental care, H. (46 in. long) 1875.1; Hintze, A. 1897.1; nest-building, oral gestation, viviparity, etc., Jardine, A. Add. 1898.1. -- Probable weight see under Reproduction.

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