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Blood -- Cont'd.

Leucocytes

or white corpuscles Histogenesis of leucocytes. Beard, J. 1900.1. — in Lepidosiren. Bryce, T. H. 1904.1, 1905.1.

Morphology of white corpuscles. General researches. Drzewina, A. 1911.1; Lanine, P. 1912.1; Meinertz, J. Add. 1902.1.

Special forms of leucocytes. - Nephrophagocytes in heart and kidney of Teleosts. Cuenot, L. 1907.1, 1912.1. - Eosinophiles. Drzewina, A. 1910.1; Loewenthal, N. 1909.1; Stephan, P. 1906.1.

Eosinophiles are lacking in teleosts according to Sabrazès, J. & Muratet, E. 1900.4.

Physiology and functions of leucocytes. Phagocytosis. (The ingestion and digestion of micro-organisms by white corpuscles.) Mesnil. F. 1895.1: Ruediger. G. F. & Davis, D. J. 1907.1. - In lymphorenal tissue, Polyodon. Downey, H. 1910.1.

Phagocytosis in Hippocampus. Sabrazès, J. & Colombot, - 1894.1: Sabrazès, J. & Muratet, E. 1900.4.

Experimental physiological researches. - Modification to variations in salinity of medium. Drzewina, A. 1906.1, 1908.1. - Behaviour in external media. Quinton, R. 1898.1.

Platelets

or thrombocytes Morphology and function. Eberth. C. J. 1887.1; Giglio-Tos, E. 1898.1; Sabrazès, J. & Muratet, E. 1908.1; Schwalbe, E. 1901.1. - Phagocytic powers. Ramon y Cajal, S. 1896.1.

eel serum; toxicity, hemolytic or globulicidal" action, acquisition of immunity against these effects, etc. *Camus, L. & Gley, E. 1898.1-1905.1, Add. 1898.1; Doerr, R. & Raubitschek, H. 1908.1; Magliere, C. 1898.1; Springfield, A. 1889.1; Bellecci, A. & Polara, G. Add. 1907.1; Blanchard, R. Add. 1903.1; Čistovič, F. J. Add. 1899.1; Gley, E. Add. 1907.1; Héricourt, J. & Richet, C. Add. 1897.1,.2; Wehrmann, C. Add. 1897.1.

Immunization against toric action, by injection of peptones. Clerc, A. & Læper, M. 1902.1,.2. - Filtration of hemolysin. Frouin, A. 1908.1. -- Prevention of hemo

is by action of sodium citrate. Gengou, O. 1907.1,.2, Add. 1908.1.

Eel serum possesses property of immunizing venom of viper. Phisalix, C. 1896.1.

The injection of a dose of eel serum eufficient to kill a dog of 10 kgm. in a fer minutes is without effect on a goldfish of 50 gm.; likewise serum of dog and ass hare no effect when injected in goldfish. Scofone, L. & Buffa, E. 1900.1.

Effects of injection upon cardiac actirities. Bardier, E. 1898.1. - Effects of remote injections. Héricourt, J. & Richet, C. 1898.1. - Effect upon kidney cells. Pettit, A. 1898.1, 1901. - Antiproteolytic action. Sellier, J. 1905.1, 1906.1. Effects upon mammalian eye. Sterndorff, K. 1914.1. — As a blood anti-coagulant. Delezenne, C. Add. 1897.1.

Serum of eel is without effect when introduced into stomach of dog by way of mouth. Mosso, U. 1889.1; Mosso, A. Add. 1888.1.

- After similar feeding of rabbits for several months, post-mortem examinations show lesions similar to those produced by injections. Jousset, P. & Lefas, - Add. 1904.1.

Toxic effects of sera of other fishes. In general these are not so pronouncedly toxic as in the eel.

Hemolytic and toxic effects of the blood serum of -- Petromyzon. Buffa, E. 1900.1; Cavazzani, E. 1892.1, Add. 1892.1. Tinca. Cignetti, F. 1900.1; Scofone, L. Add. 1904.1. -- Torpedo. Gley, E. 1904.1. -- Thunnus. Marcacci, A. Add. 1891.1, 1893.1. -- Various fishes. Bellecci, A. & Polara, G. Add. 1907.1.

Effects of injection of mammalian blood serum in fishes. Scofone, L. & Buffa, E. 1900.1.

BLOOD SERUM Chemical com position. - In Torpedo. Baglioni. S. 1906.4. - Nitrogen content. Bottazzi, F. 1908.1,.2. - Changes after bleeding in sharks. Buijtendijk, F. J. 1909.2. - Chemical composition, Salmonidæ. Neresheimer, E. 1909.1. – Ancestral features in blood plasma. Macallum, A. B. Add. 1909.1.

Hemolytic and toxic effects of eel serum. This has a remarkably strong hemolytic action upon the erythrocytes of most animals (except the hedgehog) and a minute quantity (0.04 c. c.) when in jected into the veins of a rabbit will cause hemolysis and death. The latter is caused apparently by the action of cytotoxins on the vasomotor and respiratory centers in the medulla.

For a recent valuable work in French, with an extensive bibliography, treating the entire subject of the toric effects of the bloodserum of fishes, see Marie Phisalix. Animaux venimeux et venins.” Paris. 1922, vol. II, pp. 537-580....

Effects u pon "ichthyotorin" of cel serum of alkalis, acids, dialysis, artificial digestion, heat, etc.; toxin considered a seralbumin. *Mosso, A. 1888.2,.6, Add. 1888.1; Mosso. U. 1889.1..2.

Various researches on the properties of

BRAIN

For the literature in which the brain and spinal cord are not clearly separable, see Central nervous system under Nervous system.

For the other component of the central nervous system, see Spinal cord.

Anatomy and morphology General treatises on the comparative anatomy of the brain of vertebrates. Bellonci, G. 1880.1; +Edinger, L. 1893.1, 1904.1, 1908.3; Haller, A. 1768.1, Add.

1768.1; His, W. 1892.2; Johnston, J. odon. Garman, H. 1896.1; Wilder, B. G. B. 1902.4; Serres, A. E. 1824.1; Guillot, 1876.2, 1877.4. - Acipenser. GoronoN. Add. 1844.1.

witsch, N. 1888.1; Herrick, C. J. 1902.3; Miscellaneous and general papers on the *Johnston, J. B. 1902.2; Stannius, F. anatomy of the brain of fishes. Agassiz, J. H. 1843.1; Wilder, B. G. 1876.2, 1877.4. L. 1844.7, 1845.4; Barbieri, C. 1905.1; --- Amia and Lepidostcus. Kappers, C. U. Barteniew, L. 1867.1; Bonsdorff, E. J. 1907.1; Wilder, B. G. 1876.2, 1877.4, 1855.1; Burckhardt, C. R. 1894.1,.3, 1912.1, Add. 1893.1. 1897.2, 1906.2, Add. 1895.1; Duvernoy, Teleostei. Gottsche, C. M. 1834.1, 1835.2; G. L. 1852.1; Fenner, C. W. 1835.1; *Herrick, C. L. 1891.1, 1892.1, Add. Franz, V. 1912.5; Fritsch, G. T. 1875.1, 1892.1; Malme, G. 0. 1892.1; Rabl1880.1; Hollard, H. L. 1866.2; Home, Rückhard, H. 1884.1, 1885.1, Add. 1885.1; E. 1824.1; Miklukho-Maklai, N. N. Ramon y Cajal, S. 1894.2; *Wallen1868.1; Philipeaux, J. M. & Vulpian, E. berg, A. 1907.1, 2. — Mormyrida. F. 1852.1, 1853.1; Rabl-Rückhard, H. Ecker, A. 1854.1; Erdl, M. P. 1846.1; 1894.1; Steiner, J. 1886.5; Wilder, B. G. *Franz, V. 1911.5; Marcusen, J. 1862.1, 1876.3.

1864.1; Oeffinger, H. 1867.2; Sanders, Comparative anatomy of brain structures A. 1882.1, 1883.1; Stendell, W. 1914.2. of fishes. Baudelot, E. 1870.1, 1873.1; - Cyclothone. Gierse, A. 1904.1. Bonaparte, C. L. 1842.4; Edinger, L. Salmo. Haller, B. 1898.2. -- Silurida. 1888.1; Miklukho-Maklai, N. N. 1870.1. Herrick, C. J. 1891.1; Neumayer, L. --- Ganoidei and Selachii. Busch, W. 1908.1. -- Carassius. Hirsch, J. 1912.1; 1848.1. - Amphiozus and Craniates. Savouré, P. 1911.2. - Cyprinidæ. *MayDelsman, H. C. 1913.1, Add. 1913.1. - ser, P. 1882.1. - Amblyopsis. Ramsey, Salmo and Scyllium. *Haller, B. 1898.2. E. E. 1909.1. - Tinca. Rusconi, M. -- Teleostei and Selachii. *Kappers, C. U. 1846.1. - Idus and Squalius. Savouré, 1904.1, 1906.1.

P. 1911.1; Leuciscus. 1911.1. --- Esor. Anatomy of brain in various fishes. Stieda, L. 1861.1. - Deep sea fishes Amphiosus. Huxley, T. H. 1875.1.

(Bassozetus, Mixonus, and Leucicorus). Cyclostomata. - Petromyzontidæ. *Ahl- Trojan, E. 1906.1. -- Triglida. Tiedeborn. C. G. 1882.1, 1883.1. -Ammo mann, D. F. 1816.2. - Orthagoriscus. cætes and Petromyzon. Dendy, A. 1902.1; Vignal, W. V. 1881.1. -Lophius. Wy*Johnston, J. B. 1902.3; Schilling, K. man, J. 1854.1; Cyclopterus. 1854.4. 1907.1; *Tretjakoff, D. 1909.2, 1910.1, Lurarus. Haller, B. Add. 1881.1. 1913.1; Wiedersheim, R. E. 1879.1, Commissures of the brain. Superior 1880.1; Wilder, B. G. 1876.3, 1877.4;

commissure, fore-brain. Cameron, J. Gage, S. P. Add. 1893.1. - Ichthyomyzon. 1904.1. - Commissural system, Teleosts. Herrick, C. J. & Obenchain, J. B. 1913.1. Gottsche, C. M. 1833.1; Herrick, C. L. - Myrine. Retzius, M. G. 1893.1: Wil

1891.1. - Commissura infima, hind-brain. der, B. G. 1876.3, 1877.4. Bdellostoma. Herrick, C. J. 1908.l. - Cerebral com*Worthington, J. 1905.2.

missures. Osborn, H. F. 1887.1. — ComDipnoi. - Neoceratodus. Beauregard,

missural fibers of prosencephalon, Selachii. H. 1883.1; Sanders, A. 1888.1, 1889.1;

Romano, A. 1897.1. Wilder, B. G. 1887.1. -- Protopterus. *Fulliquet, G. 1886.1; Serres, P. M.

Choroid plexus. - Derelopment in 1863.1.

Torpedo. Gentes, L. 1906.1, 1908.1. Elasmobranchii. Burckhardt, C. R. Secretory function. Pettit, A. & Girard, J. 1898.1; Duméril, A. M., Flourens, M. 1902.1,.2. J. & Duvernoy, G. L. 1854.1; Rohon, J. Development. Edinger, L. 1896.1; V. 1877.1; Wallenberg, A. 1907.1, 1907.2.

His, W. 1894.2; Hollard, H. L. 1866.1, - Isistius. Burckhardt, C. R. 1902.1.

1. 1866.3. - Ammodytes. Fullarton, J. H. - Scymnus. Burckhardt, C. R. 1907.1.

arat. : R. 1904.1. 1895.2. -- Clupea. Holt, E. W. 1891.3. -- Scylium. Haller, B. 1898.2. Galeo

- Acanthias. Meek, A. 1909.1. cerdo. Haswell, W. A. 1883.1. - Echi

Teleosts.
Tele

Rabl-Rückhard, H. 1882.1,.2.
norhinus. Jackson, W. H. & Clarke, W. Tinca. Weber. E. H. 1846.1. -- Selachii.
B. 1876.1. - Chimæra. Kappers, C. U. & Wilder, B. G. 1876.1.
Carpentier, F. W. 1911.1; Miklukho-
Maklai, N. N. & Gegenbaur, C. 1870.1;

Evolution and phylogeny. Bothe, Tanaka, S. 1877.1; Wilder, B. G. 1877.3,.7, A. 1899.1; Gaskell, W. H. 1898.1 (i); 1908.1. -- Dicerobatis. Panceri, P. & Goette, A. 1883.1; Locy, W. A. 1905.1; Sanctis, L. 1869.1. -- Acanthias. Sander, Smith, G. E. 1910.1. J. 1867.1; Wyman, J. 1848.1. - For segmentation in the formation of the Mustelus. Wilder, B. G. 1876.3, 1877.4; brain, see under Metamerism. Mitsukurina. 1905.1,.3; Chlamydo

Histology and histogenesis of brain. selachus and Scymnus. 1905.3; Cestra

For comprehensive treatises on the comcion and Pristiophorus. 1907.1.

. parative histology of the selachian and teleosRetia mirabilia in brain of Dicerobatis.

tean brain, see *Kappers, C. U. 1904.1, Sanctis, L. 1868.1.

1906.1. Brains of Plagiostomes figured. Garman, S. 1913.1.

Miscellaneous and general. Ayers, Ganoidei. Herrick, C. J. 1891.2. -- H. 1896.1; Baudelot, E. 1869.4,.5,.6; Amia. Gage, S. P. Add. 1893.1. - Poly- *Catois, E. H. 1899.1,.2, 1901.1, 1902.1;

Brain - Cont'd.
Fritsch, G. T. 1875.2, 1876.1, 1878.2;
Fusari, R. 1887.1,.3.

In various groups of fishes. - Cyclostomata. Jeleneff, A. 1879.1 (Petromyzon); Röthig, P. & Kappers, C. U. 1914.1 (Myrine). - Elasmobranchii. *Houser, G. L. 1897.1, 1901.1; Sauerbeck, E. 1896.1; Viault, F. 1876.1. — Ganoidei. Herrick . C. J. 1891.2. - Teleostei. Bellonci, G. 1879.1; Franz, V. 1913.1 (Mormyrus); Herrick, C. L. 1891.1, 1892.1,.2; Sanders, A. 1878.1; Savouré, P. 1912.2 (Cyprinids); Vignal, W. V. 1881.1 (Orthagoriscus).

Physiology, functions of the brain. Barbieri, C. 1905.1; Baudelot, E. 1863.1;

1: Harting. P. 1864.5; Lussana. F. & Le moigne, A. 1871.1; Traube-Mengarini, M. 1884.1; Treviranus, G. R. 1820.1.

DIVISIONS OF THE BRAIN

TELENCEPHALON

or Fore-brain For a recent extensive memoir on the comparative morphology of the fore-brain in fishes, see Nils Holmgren, Journ. Comp. Neurol., 1922, vol. 34, pp. 391-460.

Morphology. Burckhardt, C. R. 1894.4; *Johnston. J. B. 1909.3: Kappers. C. U. & Theunissen, W. F. 1907.1; RablRückhard, H. 1894.2; *Studnička, F. K.

FK 1894.1-1895.1, 1898.2.

Morphology in various groups of fishes. -- Elasmobranchii. Bottazzi, F. 1894.1, 1895.1; Crisafulli, E. 1901.1 (Scyllium); *Johnston, J. B. 1911.2. -- Cyclostomata and Ganoidei. Johnston, J. B. 1911.1, 1912.1. — Teleostei. Goldstein, K. 1905.1; *Johnston, J. B. 1911.1, 1912.2,.3. Dipnoi (Lepidosiren). Smith, G. E. 1908.1.

Histology, development, and function. - Histology of fore-brain. Edinger, L. 1894.1; Johnston, J. B. (Acipenser) 1898.2. -- Function of fore-brain in Petromyzon. Edinger, L. 1905.1. - Derelopment. Fuchs, F. 1908.1; Johnston, J. B. (Cerebral cortex) 1910.2.

Corpus striatum, the basal ganglionic portion of the walls of the Telencephalon. - Structure, function and phylogeny. Edinger, L. 1887.1, 1894.1; Kappers, C. U. 1905.2.

Cerebral hemispheres of fishes. Anatomy and morphology. Kappers, C. U. 1911.1; Kemna, A. 1904.3; Klaatsch, H. M. 1850.1; Wittzack, J. C. 1817.1. - Selachii. Bottazzi, F. 1894.1, 1895.1. --- Teleosts. Herrick, C. L. 1892.2; keller, 0. 1906.1; Rabl-Rückard, H. 1883.1; Steiner, J. 1886.6; Wilczewski, 1838.1 (Cyprinus).

Histology, derelopment and function. Histology. Bottazzi, F. 1893.1. Derelopment. Haller, B. 1908.1; Studnička, F. K. 1901.2. --- Persistence of voluntary movements after remoral. Vulpian, E. F. 1886.1..2.

Olfactory lobes, thickenings of dorsal, lateral, and frontal walls of fore-brain. - Anatomy and morphology. Bellonci, G.

1882.2; Eichholtz, I. H. 1841.1; Kamon, K. 1904.1; Wilder, B. G. Add. 1898.1. Teleosts. Bellonci, G. 1887.1. - Selachi?.. Rabl-Ruckhard, H: 1893.1...

Histology and histogenesis. Barbieri, C. 1905.2; Bellonci, G. 1887.1. -- Selachii. Bottazzi, F. 1894.1; Catois, E. H. 1897.1. — Acipenser. Johnston, J. B. 1898.2. - Cyprinidæ. Savouré, P. 1912.3. Analysis of olfactory tracts and centers. *Sheldon, R. E. 1908.1, 1912.1.

Paraphysis, a tube or sac in the roof of the fore-brain. -- Anatomy. Erchia, F. 1896.1; Kingsbury, B. F. 1897.1; Rohon, J. V. 1900.2; Studnička, F. K. 1895.4, 1900.2.

Development, Amia. Eycleshymer, A. C. & Davis, B. M. 1897.1.

DIENCEPHALON Inter-brain or Thalamencephalon Morphology and phylogeny. Burckhardt, C. R. 1894.2. - Optic thalamus, structure. Gottsche, C. M. 1833.2. Thalamus, phylogeny. Kappers, C. U. 1908.2. '

Anatomy in various groups of fishes. - Selachii. Edinger, L. 1895.1. - Teleostei. Franz, V. 1912.2; *Goldstein, K. 1905.1; Keller, 0. 1906.1.

Epiphysis cerebri. (Called also pinealis and pineal body or gland.)

For the most extensive treatises on the anatomy and histology of the epiphysis in fishes, see *Cattie, J. T. 1881.1-1883.1.

Anatomy and morphology. Dendy, A. 1907.2; Jaekel, 0. 1903.3; Julin, C. 1887.1; +Leydig, F. 1896.2; Minot, c. S. 1901.1.

Morphology of epiphysis in various groups of fishes. Cyclostomata (Geotria and Petromyzon). Dendy, A. 1907.3; Sterzi, G. 1905.1; Whitwell, J. R. 1888.1. - Dipnoi and Ganoidei (Protopterus, Polyodon, Amia). Burckhardt, C. R. 1891.2; Garman, H. 1896.1; Hill, C. 1894.1; Kingsbury, B. F. 1897.1. - Elasmobranchii. Cattie, J. T. 1881.1,.2, 1882.1; Ehlers, E. H. 1878.2; Purvis, G. C. (Lamna) 1892.1. - Teleostei. Hill, C. 1894.1; Klinckowström, A. (Callichthys) 1893.2; Terry, R. J. 1910.1.

Development of epiphysis. Julin, C. 1887.1. -- Amia. Davis, B. M. 1896.1; Eyeleshymer, A. C. & Davis, B. M. 1897.1. - Coregonus. Hill, C. 1891.1. - Acanthias. Minot, C. S. 1901.1.

Summary of literature concerning epiphysis. Davis, B. M. 1896.1.

Functions of epiphysis. Ahlborn, F. Add. 1884.1.

Pineal eye of Cyclostomata (called also l'arietal eye), an organ with a close resemblance to an eye, possessing a retina and in some cases a lens. In the adult lamprey, two vesicles, & dorsal “pineal” and a ventral " parapineal " overlie the roof of the thalamencephalon, ACcording to Studnička, these organs develop as evaginations of the brain roof, the parapineal anteriorly.

General discussions, Favaro, G. & Mozejko, B. 1913.1; Leydig, F. 1887.1,

1896.2; Studnička, F. K. 1893.1..3, the floor of the third ventricle. Morphology
1900.2, 1905.1.

and function. A receptive nervous organ,
Various papers on the morphology and not a gland. Boeke, J. & Dammerman, K.
development. Ayers, H. 1891.1; Beard, J. W. 1910.1. — A depth organ, morphology.
1887.1, 1888.6; Cope, E. D. 1888.2; *Dammerman, K. W. 1910.1. - De-
Dendy, A. 1899.1; Frisch, K. (Func- velopment. Lundborg, H. 1894.1.
tions) 1912.2; Locy, W. A. 1893.1;

MESENCEPHALON
Ovsyannikov, F. V. 1891.1; Rohon, J.

or Mid-brain
V. 1900.2; Carrière, J. Add. 1890.1.
Morphology in Geotria. *Dendy, A.

Anatomy, development, and physiology.
1907.1, 1907.2,.3. - Mordacia. Spencer,

Erchia, F. 1896.1. -- Teleosts. *Franz, V.
W. B. 1890.1. – Myxine. Studnička, F.

1912.2. Teleostei and Ganoidei. Mik-
K. 1899.6. - Petromyzon. Ovsyannikov,

lukho-Maklai, N. N. 1870.1. — Zoarces.
F. V. 1888.1, 1889.2; Retzius, M. G.

Pedaschenko, D. 1901.1, Development of
1895.4; Studnička, F. K. 1893.2, 1899.3;

mid-brain. 1901.2. - Mesencephalon as
*Tretjakoff, D. 1915.1.

center for sense of equilibrium. Reisinger,

L. 1915.1.
Hypophysis cerebri, or pituitary body.

Optic lobes, paired thickenings of the
An ectodermal diverticulum from the roof of

dorsal wall of the mid-brain.
the oral cavity; not properly a brain struc-

Anatomy.

Eichholtz, I. H. 1841.1; Manouélian, Y.
ture, but by common consent placed here.

1899.1. - Teleosts. Auerbach, L. 1888.1,
Anatomy and morphology. *Haller, B. 1889.1; Philipeaux, J. M. & Vulpian, E.
1898.1; Jaekel, 0. 1903.3; Müller, W.

F. 1865.1; *Radl, E. 1915.1. - Eyeless
Add. 1871.1 (ii); Stendell, W. Add.

cave-fish, Amblyopsis. Ramsey, E. E.
1913.1. - Lateral lobes. Gentes, L. (Tor 1901.1.
pedo) 1908.4; Rossi, U. (Selachii) 1903.1.

Histology. * Barbieri, C. 1905.2, 1906.1;
- Glandular lobe. Gentes, L. 1903.1. Bellonci. G. 1883.1: Ramon y Cajal, P.
- Posterior lobe. Joris, H. 1908.1.

1899.1.
Anatomy in various fishes. - Cala Functions of optic lobes. Gómez Ocaña,
moichthys. Bickford, E. 1895.1. — Cen J. 1908.1.
troscymnus. Pettit, A. 1906.1. - Myxine.
Retzius, M. G. 1895.5.

Tectum opticum, that portion of the

- Petromyzon.
Sterzi, G. 1904.2,.3. —- Chimæra. Aresu,

mid-brain which roofs over the optic vesicle.
M. Add. 1914.1.

Anatomy and histology. Aichel, 0. 1901.1;
Detelopment. Goette, A. 1883.1;

Bellonci, G. 1880.2, 1882.1.
*Müller, W. Add. 1871.1 (ii).

Torus longitudinalis, a grooved ridge
Development in various groups of fishes in the median portion of the roof of the
Cyclostomata (Petromyzon). Scott, W. B. mesencephalon. Morphology, phylogeny,
1883.1: Sterzi. G. 1904.3. - Elasmo- etc. Rabl-Rückhard, H. 1887.1; Sala, L.
branchii. Chiarugi, G. (Torpedo) 1898.1, 1895.1; *Sargent, P. E. 1903.2.
1905.1; Gentes, L. (lobes in Torpedo)

METENCEPHALON
1908.2-.5; Herring, P. T. 1911.1. - Ga-

or Cerebellum
noidei (Amia). Prather, J. M. 1900.1;
Reighard, J. E. 1900.2; Reighard, J. E.

Anatomy and morphology. Bel-
& Mast, S. 0. 1908.1; Smith, P. E. 1914.1.

lonci, G. 1879.2; Burckhardt, C. R.
- Teleostei. Boeke, J. (Murænidæ) 1903.1;

1879.1; Edinger, L. 1910.1; Falcone,
Lundborg, H. 1894.1.

C. 1893.1; Gurewitsch, M. J. 1905.1;
Histology. Studnička, F. K. 1901.1;

Schaper, A. 1899.3; Treviranus, G. R.
*Stendell, W. Add. 1913.1;

1831.1. -- Corpus restiforme, a structure
Tilney, F.

in the cerebellum. Gehuchten, A. 1904.1.
Add. 1911.1.

Of various fishes. - Petromyzon. Clark,
Phylogeny. Dohrn, F. A. (Petromyzon W. B. 1906.1. -- Scyllium. Edinger, L.
and Teleostei) 1882.1,.2 (ii & iii); Stendell, 1901.1. - Teleosts. Franz, V. 1911.4.
W. 1914.1; Ayres, H. Add. 1907.1.

- Acipenser. Johnston, J. B. 1898.1.
Varia. - Structure, Rathke's pocket. - Mormyrida. Stendell, W. 1914.4.
Albrecht, P. 1884.2. - Action of extracts

Histology and histogenesis.
oj hypophysis. Herring, P. T. 1908.1,.2.

- Tel-
- Relation of hypophysis to notochord, shark

costs. Baudelot, E. 1869.4; Ovsyannikov,

F. V. 1864.2; +Schaper, A. 1893.1, 1894.1,
embryos. Rabl-Rückhard, H. 1880.1.
Infundibulum, a funnel-shaped out-

Petromyzontidæ. 1899.2, Mustelus. 1898.1.
pushing of the floor of the diencephalon.

Functions. — Static function in larve.
Morphology and homology. Boeke, J.

Franz, V. 1912.3. - As center for sense of
(Amphiorus) 1902.3, 1908.1, 1914.1; Ge-

equilibrium. Reisinger, L. 1915.1.
melli, F. A. 1906.1; +Haller, B. 1898.1.

MYELENCEPHALON
Development. - Murænidæ. Boeke, J.

or Medulla oblongata
1901.1, 1902.1. -Torpedo. Gentes, L.

Anatomy. *Kingsbury, B. F. 1897.2;
1908.1. - Petromyzon. *Sterzi, G. Meckel, J. F. 1836.1. --Cyprinidæ. Sa-
1904.3.

vouré, P. 1912.1.
Lobi inferiores, or bilobed expansions Histology. Ovsyannikov, F. V. 1854.1.
of the ventral walls of the diencephalon. Petromyzon. David, J. 1892.1. --- Aci-
Morphology. Chatin, J. 1889.1. ---- Ga- penser. Johnston, J. B. 1898.1,.2. -
nords and Teleosts. *David, J. J. 1892.1. Myrine. Röthig, P. 1913.1. -- Lophius.

Saccus vasculosus, a vascular sac in Zuikov, V. P. 1898.1.

Brain - Cont'd.

For the occurrence of guanin in the Physiology. -- Gustatory center. Her- skins of fishes, see Argenteum under rick, C. J. 1905.1, 1906.1; Tactile center. Integument. 1906.1: Tactile center, Prionotus. 1907.3. Guanin in retinal epithelium. Cunning-General center for orientation. Poli- ham, J. T. & MacMunn, C. 1893.1: manti, O. 1915.1. - Effects of sectioning Kühne, W. & Sewall, H. 1880.1. upon orientation. Loeb, J. Add. 1891.1. Glycogen in various tissues, especially is

Generalia. -- Fasciculus communis the liver and muscles. Blanchard, R. 1882.1. system, Bdellostoma. Ayres, H. & Worth

Bottazzi, F. 1907.1; Gage, S. H. 1905.2; ington, J. 1908.1. - Entrance of cranial Schöndorff, B. & Wachholder, K. 1914.1: nerves. Amia. Droogleever Fortuyn. A. Bernard, C. Add. 1879.1;

Bernard, C. Add.

Brammertz, B. 1913.1. -- Entrance of motor nerres in W. Add. 1914.1. Amia. Fortuyn. A. B. 1912.1. --Funic- Chlorine, variations according to medium, ular nuclei. Herrick, C. J. 1906.2, 1907.2. in Cobitis. Calugareanu, D. 1910.1,.2. - Vagal lobes in Gadus. 1907.2. — Acces

lodine content of thyroide. Cameron, soru lobes. Orthagoriscus. Vignal, W. V. A. T. 1913.1, Add. 1914.1. 1886.1.

Absence of glycogen and sugar in clectriFor electric lobes, centers of the electric cal organs of Torpedo. Dubois, R. 1899.1. nerves in Torpedo, see under Electric fishes. Analysis of the urine in various fishes. INCERTR SEDIS

Buijtendijk, F. J. 1909.1; Davy, d.

1857.2; Dekhuyzen, M. C. 1904?; Various unclassifiable items. - Nerve Denis, W. 1912.1, Add. 1913.1; Heincenter connected with posterior bundle, roth, O. 1895.2; Jones, J. 1856.1; Chalcommissure of Haller in Gasterosteus. dini, G. 1871.1. Baudelot, E. 1869.2. - Degeneration of Composition of pathological calculi, chicks brain, Scyllium, (experimental researches). intestinal. Delachanel, B. & Mermet, Fornario, G. 1894.1. - Eversion and in- A. 1874.1; Fourcroy, A. & Vauquelin, L. version of parts. Kappers, C. U. 1908.1. 1807.1; Harting, P. 1875.2. - Biliary - Weight of brain in relation to size of calculi in squeteague. Tower, R. W. 1902.1. eye. Lapicque, L. 1908.1; Lapicque, L. & Ichthylepidin in fish scales. Green, E. Laugier, H. 1908.1.

H. & Tower, R. W. 1902.1,.2; Mörner, Nomenclature of cavities. Parker, T. J. C. T. 1898.1, 1902.1. 1889.1. - Significance of parts. Stieda. Red color of salmon flesh due to lipochrome L. 1873.2,.5. — Arrangement motor roots pigment related to tetron or zoonerythrin. and nuclei, Acipenser and Lepidosteus. Newbigin, M. I. 1900.1. – Review of this. Theunissen, F. 1914.1.

Prince, E. E. 1916.2. Review of brain casts of various fossil Bile of fishes, composition. Otto, R. fishes. Moodie, R. L. 1915.2. - Brain 1867.1; Scherer, J. 1857.1; Schlossberger, casts of Eocene Siluroids. Neumayer, L. J. 1858.1; Zanetti, C. U. 1902.1. 1913.1. - Brain structures of various Crystalline lens, com position. Payen, A. fossil fishes. Eastman, C. R. Add. 1913.1. 1857.1; Valenciennes, A. & Fremy, E.

1854.3. CHEMISTRY (BIOLOGICAL AND Mucous secretions of the skin of the hug. PHYSIOLOGICAL)

fish Myrine, composition. Reid, E. W.

1893.1, 1894.1. The great majority of the experiments and

Percentage of water in brain of dogfish. researches of the biological chemists have been performed with subjects other than fishes. The

Scott, G. G. 1912.1, 1914.1. following titles represent the subjects, in so far Nitrogen distribution in lirer of Acipenser. as they are known to us, wherein their investi Wakeman, A. J. 1905.1. gations have touched upon the subject of Scyllite from spleen of sharks. Müller, fishes.

J. Add. 1907.1. Reference may advantageously be made to the standard text books of physiological chem

Composition of cartilage in sharks and istry, such as Mandel's translation of Ham

rays. Bunge, G. 1899.1; Chevreul, M. E. mersten and Hedin.

1811.1,.2; Harting, P. 1873.2; Lönnberg,

J. 1884.1; Marchand, R. F. 1836.1; For topics primarily physiological, such Soxleth, F. & Petersen, P. 1873.1. as anabolism, katabolism, and urea for- Composition of subdermal connectire mation; for effects upon fishes of acids,

tissue of Mola. Green, E. H. 1901.1.

täserce alkaloids, salts in solution, and other foreign substances, see under Physiology.

Fat or adipose tissue. Metabolism, etc. For the nature of the gaseous content Studies on the fat and fat-cells of fisher: of the air bladder, see under Air bladder. composition, histology, etc. Giles, A. E. For the nature of pigments, see under

1890.1; Mottram, V. H. 1912.1; NemiColoration.

off, A. 1906.1; Rosenfeld, G. 19121; For the composition of fish guano and Weill, J. 1914.1; Zdarek, E. 1902.1; cod-liver oil, see Fertilizer, and Oils below Zuntz, N. 1903.1; Leeuwenhoek, A. Pre Economic products under Fisheries.

Linn. 1724.1. For albumen, basic proteins, nucleic Fat-storage in muscles of the salmon. acid, etc., in ova; composition of egg-cases metabolism, absorption during migrations, of sharks, etc., see under Ova and ovum. etc. Greene, C. W. 1912.1-.6; Mahals

For histones and protamines, see Chem- nobis, S. C. 1898.1. ical composition under Spermatozoa.

Fat content of Selachian liver: its role

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