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HE object of a text-book on Vergil should be twofold: to present the form as possible; and to afford stimulus and material for the study of the poet from a literary point of view. For, on the one hand, the average student of Vergil is still in the formative period of his Latin study, and must devote himself to the most careful grammatical work; while, on the other hand, he is sufficiently advanced to appreciate the beauty of the thoughts and style of such a poet as Vergil, whose every page furnishes ample material for literary study.
The present edition of Vergil is designed to meet this twofold object. In the General Introduction there is a series of studies that develop all the important principles of Syntax which are met with in the first six books of the Aeneid. The Introduction also includes a new presentation of the Vergilian verse and principles of quantity. The plan of the studies is inductive throughout, following, as closely as possible, the plan of the earlier books of this series. Although references to the best Grammars of the day are given in the Inductive Studies for purposes of verification, the chief grammatical study on the text is conducted by means of references to these studies themselves. This plan gives the student his grammar, notes, and lexicon all in one volume.
Material for the literary study of Vergil is supplied by the following special features:
1. A bibliography. This does not claim to be a life of Vergil, but aims, by presenting the salient facts, to lead the student to further investigation by means of the numerous references to the different writers which are supplied him.
2. A list of topics for investigation. It is suggested that, at the beginning of the course, each member of the class be assigned one of these topics, upon which, as the reading advances, to collect material to be presented in the form of an essay at the end of the course.
3. An account of the Royal House of Troy. This account, as presented in the second study, with a complete genealogical table so far as Vergil's mention is concerned, will be found helpful to the student.
4. Rhetorical Studies. All figures of speech which are used in the first six books of the Aeneid (with the exception of concealed metaphors) are presented in the twelfth study, and will be of assistance in the rhetorical study of Vergil.
5. Notes. The most important help to the literary study of Vergil will be found in the first set of notes beneath the text on each page. These notes may be classified as follows:
(a) Notes of explanation, intended to present such facts as may enable the reader to obtain a complete understanding of all mythological, archæological, and historical references in the text.
(b) Notes for the study of especial themes as developed by Vergil himself, by means of cross references to different parts of the text, to which are often added references to other writers. Examples of these groupings are the studies of the consecrations of arms (I. 248), the effect of climate upon character (I. 568), the comparative size of men and gods (II. 773), the relation of guest-friendship (III. 15), etc.
(c) Notes for the interpretation of special passages; the purpose being to throw sufficient light upon the words to make their meaning clear without literal translation. For the benefit of younger students there is added as a supplement a list of the more difficult passages with their translation.
(d) Notes giving copious quotations from Greek, Latin, Italian, and English authors who have any intimate relation to Vergil's Aeneid, either as being the model for his own imitation (as notably Homer, Ennius, Lucretius, Catullus, and others), or as obtaining from Vergil models for direct and wholesale imitation (as Ariosto, Tasso, and Spenser, and to a less extent, Milton and Falconer); from some, of whom he was the confessed source of inspiration (as Dante and Dryden); and from others who have more or less unconsciously imitated him. These quotations, covering a wide range of literature, are given in full in connection with the Vergilian passage to which they are in any way related. A careful study of these cannot fail to give the student not only a more thorough understanding and appreciation of Vergil's text, but also an introduction to much that is best in the world's classical literature. In these quotations, translations of all foreign languages except Latin have been employed, and the references by book and line are to these translations. The translators of the more frequently quoted authors are Bryant (Homer), Longfellow (Dante), Rose (Ariosto), and Wiffen (Tasso).
The text has been made up by a careful comparison of the editions of Conington and other commentators; much reliance has also been placed upon Brambach's decisions as to the best spelling of Latin words.
A carefully constructed map presents all the places mentioned by Vergil, and shows by a clearly defined line the course of Aeneas from Troy to his final landing in Italy.
An entirely new feature in school text-books is furnished by the twelve full-page illustrations, reproduced from carefully selected photographs of famous paintings and statues. It is hoped that this feature will add much to the artistic and æsthetic value of the book, serving both to illustrate the text and to rest and relieve the mind. These illustrations are supplemented by numerous woodcuts gathered from various sources.
Especial pains has been expended upon the Vocabulary, in order that it might be the most efficient tool possible in the translation of Vergil. It contains in most cases the first meaning of the words, whether so used in Vergil or not, and all shades of meaning found in the six books of the Aeneid, together with a reference to the place in the text where each such use first occurs. The Vocabulary thus becomes a partial concordance, which will be of value in finding many desired passages. Following the Vocabulary is a list of all words which occur ten times or more in these books of the Aeneid. For the benefit of those who need some assistance in translation, a list of the more difficult passages of the Latin, translated into English, will be found properly separated from the body of the book.
Thanks are due to Prof. Charles Chandler, of the University of Chicago, for his critical reading of the work in MS., and for his many valuable suggestions; also to Prof. F. F. Abbott, of the University of Chicago, and to Dr. Herbert C. Tolman, of the University of Wisconsin, for valuable assistance in the work of proof-reading.
WILLIAM R. HARPER.
PREFACE TO THE BUCOLICS.
N adding the Eclogues to this volume, the authors have had regard to the
request of a large number of teachers who desire to give their classes more of Vergil than the six books of the Aeneid. The work has been made to accord with the matter and method of the first edition, embodying numerous new illustrations and references. The following new features have been added: (1.) The quantity of all long vowels in the text has been indicated. This is in line with the growing desire of the most advanced teachers of Latin that the student become acquainted from the beginning with the quantities of vowels. This text, as marked, will serve as an excellent drillground for rhythmical reading before the student has mastered the principles of quantity; and will in the course of such drill fix in his mind, through familiarity with the words, many quantities, even before he turns to the more exact study of the principles of quantity. (2.) Two facsimile representations of old manuscripts have been introduced, which will give the student some idea of the difficulties to be encountered in the field of text edition, and will in part explain the possibility of large variations in different texts. (3.) The Vocabulary has been enlarged by the addition of all words found in the Eclogues and not in the Aeneid. At the same time the whole Vocabulary has been carefully revised, and all long vowels, including hidden quantities. have been marked.
W. R. H.
F. J. M.