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at his hands; to set forth his most worthy praise; to hear his most holy Word; and to ask those things which are requisite and necessary, as well for the body as the soul. Wherefore I pray and beseech you, as many as are here present, to accompany me with a pure heart and humble voice, unto the throne of the heavenly grace, saying after ime:

[ A general Confession to be said of the whole Congregation

after the Minister, all kneeling. Almighty and moft merciful Father, we have erred

and strayed from thy ways like loft sheep. We have followed 100 much the devices and desires of our own hearts. We have offended against thy holy laws. We have left undone those things which we ought to have done; and we have done those things which we ought not to have done; and there is no health in us. But thou, O Lord, have mercy upon us, miserable offenders. Spare thou them, O God, which confess their faults. Restore thou them that are penitent; according to thy promises declared unto mankind in Christ Jesu our Lord. And grant, O most merciful Father, for his fake, that we may here

A general confesion] This is, properly, the commencement of the services of the congregation. Hitherto they had only listened in folenin filence to the minister; they now unite with him, a fellow finner in the light of God, in confeiling and deploring their tranfgrellions; in petitioning for pardon for the pait, and for grace to allilt them in future obedience. Public worship in the primitive church commenced with confellion, as St. Balil has informed us; “ All together, as if with one voice,” says he, " and one heart, lift up the psalm of confeflion unto the Lord; each man, “ in his own words, exprelling his own repentance.”

By the Priest alone] On these words of the Rubric, a question has arisen, which for a long time was agitated with great warmth; whether or not, the word alone excluded all persons from pronouncing the abfolution, save those who had taken priests' orders. The arguments, however, for the affirmative are so strong, that little doubt seems now to remain of the impropriety of either laymen, deacons, or any person under the order of a priest, pronouncing this part of the Liturgy.--The absolution consists of two parts; ist, a declaration of “ pardon and forgiveness of fins," made by the minister of God to “ all those who truly repent, and unfeignedly believe the gospel;” and 2dly, an exhortation, directing how absolution may be obtained, and pointing out the unspeakable benefits of it, even that of our becoming partakers of God's "eternal joy, through Jesus Christ our Lord.”

after live a godly, righteous, and sober lite, to the glory of thy holy Name. Amen.

The Abfolution or Remission of sins, to be pronounced by the Priest alone, standing; the People still kneeling. Lmighty God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Chrift,

who desireth not the death of a finner, but rather that he may turn from his wickedness, and live; and hath given power and commandment to his Ministers to declare and pronounce to his people, being penitent, the absolution and remission of their fins; he pardoneth and absolveth them that truly repent, and unfeignedly believe his holy Gospel. Wherefore let us befeech him to grant us true Tepentance, and his Holy Spirit; that those things may please him, which we do at this present, and that the rest of our life hereafter may be pure and holy; so that at the last we may come to his eternal joy, thro' Jesus Christ our Lord.

The People shall answer here, and at the end of all other

Prayers, Amen. ( Then the Minister shall kneel, and say the Lord's Prayer

with an audible voice; the People also kneeling, and repeating it with him, both here, and si heresoever else it is used in Divine Service.

UR Father which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy

Name; Thy kingdom come; Thy will be done i earth, as it is in heaven: Give us this day our daily bread; And forgive us our trefpasses, as we forgive them that trespass against us; And lead us not into temptation, But

Aner This is an Hebrew word, fignifying truth, fidelity, and certainty. Our Catechilin explains it “ to be it." When pronounced at the end of a prayer it is addrefled to God, and means, " Verily, O Lord, confirm and establish to us all the bletlings for which we have petitioned.” When pronounced at the end of exhortations, ahfolutions, and creeds, it is addrested to the priest, and means “ so be it: we entirely assent to and approve what has jutt been delivered.” The Apoftolical Christians faid * Amen at the blesling, and giving of thanks;”. I Cor. xiv. 16: a practice they adopted from the Jews, (vide Dett. xxvii. 15) who attributed great efficacy to the loud and folemn pronunciation of this word; their proverb fays, that “the garden of Eden is opened to him who answers Amers with all his power.”

The Lord's Prayer with an audible voice] We have observed before, chat in the first book of King Edward Vith, the Liturgy began with the Lord's-prayer; (as was the practice in the primitive churches, according deliver us from evil: For thine is the kingdom, the power, and the glory, for ever and ever. Amen.

Then likewise he ball say, O Lord, open thou our lips;

Answ. And our mouth shall thew forth thy praise. to Tertullian;) and that previously to the Reformation, some parts of the Liturgy were repeated by the priest to himself, in a low voice; and some parts were faid privately both by minister and congregation. The former deficiency was fupplied afterwards, by prefixing the Sentences, &c.; and the latter defect was rectified, by the Rubric directing a loud pronunciation of the Lord's prayer, both by minister and people. Till the las review, however, the Rubric fimply directed the minister to begin the Lord'sprayer with a loud voice; and after the first paragraph, (as is the case at the present English Roman Catholic chapels) he dropped his voice, and continued to mutter the prayer to himfelf till he came to the sentence, " but deliver us from evil. Amen," which he and the people pronounced with a loud voice together.-With respect to the prevailing supplication before us, we may observe that it contains every thing fit for us to ask, or our heavenly Father to give; and that it is equally admirable, from its comprehenfive concileness, beautiful fimplicity, and profound devotion. Our blessed Lord, in wife conformity to the judicious practice of the Jewish teachers, of presenting forms of prayer to their scholars, vouchsafed to comply with the request of his disciples, “ to teach them how to pray;" and selected from the various precatory forms, which at that time were well known amongst the Jews, the different phrases and sentences that compose this divine prayer. The sources from whence they were adopted will be pointed out under the evening service.

O Lord open, &c.]. These four verficles are found in most of the ancient Liturgies, particularly in those of St. James and St. Chryfoftom. They are here introduced to connect the preceding penitential fervice to which they properly belong, with the fucceeding praises, thanksgivings, and glorifying part of the Liturgy. This alternate recitation of sentences by minister and people was a practice of the ancient Jews, and adopted from them by the primitive Christians. In Henry's Primers all the different services commenced with the above verlicles. The names and order of these services are here subjoined for the information and entertainment of the reader. The first service was Matins, performed at three o'clock in the morning. It commenced with the above versicles; Ave Maria fol. lowed; then the Jubilate; and afterwards this hymn:

“Now the cheerful day doth spring,
Unto God pray we and fing,
That in all works of the day,
He preserve and keep us aye.
That our tongue he may refrain
From all strife and wordes vain,
Keep our eyes in coverture
From all ill and vain pleasure.
That our hearts be voided quite
From phantasy and fond delight,
Thin diet of drink and meat,
Of the flesh to cool the heat:

Priest. O God, make speed to save us.
Anfw. O Lord make haste to help us.

That when the day hence doth wend,
And the course the night doth send,
By forbcaring things worldly,
Our God we may glority.

Amen.” After this hymn followed portions of psalms vii. xviii. xxi; the an. them; the Lord's prayer; the blessing; the first lesson, Isaiah xi.; the bleliug; the second leifon, Luke i.; the blelling; the third lesson, Luke i.; Te Dcum baiedamus; the verficle; “ Pray for us, holy Mother of God;" the answer, " that we be made worthy to attain the promises of Civitt.".. To this service succeeded the Laudes, consisting of Palm Ixvi, Panic! iii. Pfalm cxlviii.; the anthem; the chapter; * Virgin Mary, rejoice always, which haft born Christ, the maker of heaven and earth: for out of thy womb thou hast brought forth the Saviour of the world: Thanks be to God.” The hymn, Lukei.; the anthem; verficle, and antwer; prayer. The Matins concluded with the Colleets; a series of prayers and ejaculations by the priest, in the name of the assembly. At fix o'clock in the morning, the service called the Prime took place, and commenced with the verticles, “O God, make speed to fave us," and the fucceeding one. Then followed this fpirited and beautiful “ hymn;"

“ Fellow of thy Father's light,
Light of light, and day most bright,
Christ, that chaseth away night,
Aid us for to pray aright.
Drive out darkness from our minds,
Drive away the flock of liends;
Drousiness take from our eyes,
That from Noth we may arise.
Chrift, vouchsafe mercy to give,
To us all that do believe;
Let it profit us that pray,

*All that we do fing or fay. Amen." Pfilm cxvii. fucceeded this hvinn; then the anthein; verficle; anfwer; and prayer for meekness of spirit, and contrition for fin.—The third bour, or nine o'clock, fervice began with the fame verficles, which were lucceeded by this elegant“ hymn:

Mighty Ruler! God most true,
Which doft all in order due,
Morn with light illumining,
Noontide with heat garniting:
Quench the flames of our debate,
Foul and noisome heat abate;
Grant unto our body health,
To our hearts true peace and wealth.
Let tongue and heart, let strength and sense,
Commend thy magnificence;
Ixt thy spirit of charity
Sur us all to worship thee, Amen."

Here all standing up, the Priest shall say, Glory be to the Father, and to the Son: and to the Holy Ghost;

Answ. As it, was in the beginning, is now, and ever fhall be: world without end. Amen.

Priest. Praise ye the Lord. Answ. The Lord's Name be praised. Then shall be said or sung this Psalm following: except on Eafter-Day, upon which another Anthem is appointed; and on the Nineteenth Day of every Month it is not to be read here, but in the ordinary course of the Psalms.

Venite, exultemus Domino. Pfalm xcv. O Come, let us fing unto the Lorda let us heartily re

the . Then followed part of psalm cxix; the anthem; verficle; answer, and prayer. The sixth hour, or twelve o'clock prayer commenced as above; hymn; plalm xxii.; anthem; verficle; answer; and prayer for compassion towards our fellow-creatures. The ninth hour, or three o'clock fervice began as before: hymn; pfalm xiv.; anthem; yersicle; answer;


grace under persecutions. Glry be to the Father, &c.] This short hymn (called the Gloria Patri, and lejjer dexology, to distinguish it from the greater doxology, beginning "Glory be to God on high," &c.) is of great, but uncertain

antiquity. In the primitive ages, the fathers of the church seem to have used doxologies, or similar formularies, of their own composition, differing as their different fancies dictated. But when the heresy of the Arians obliged the church to vindicate its doctrine of the Trinity, it was then judged expedient to adopt one general and uniform doxology, which was drawn up in these words: “ Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost, now and ever, world without end." This form the Greek church still retains in its services; though the Western church soon after the adoption of it added, “ As it was in the beginning;” in order to oppose that doctrine of Arianism which held a beginning of time antecedent to the existence of Jesus Christ.

Praise ye, &c.] A literal translation of the Hebrew Hallelujah. In the firit Book of Edward VIth, the untranslated compound word Alleluya is appointed to be used “from Easter to Trinity Sunday.” These fifty days were, in the primitive church, dedicated to holy rejoicing, in commemoration of our Lord's resurrection; and during this season, and only then, the original Hebrew phrase Hallelujah was chaunted in the daily service. It is this practice which probably occafioned the rubric in Edward Ist's book.

The Lord's Name, &c.] This response was introduced into our Liturgy at the last review, A.D. 1662.

The Psalm following] “ This,” says Sparrow,“ is an invitatory psalm; for herein we do mutually invite and call upon one another, being come before his presence, to ling to the Lord,” &c. St. Ambrose informs us


and prayer

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