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deliver us from evil: For thine is the kingdom, the power, and the glory, for ever and ever. Amen.

Then likewise he shall say, O Lord, open thou our lips;

Answ. And our mouth shall shew forth thy praise. to Tertullian;) and that previously to the Reformation, some parts of the Liturgy were repeated by the priest to himtelf, in a low voice; and some parts were said privately both by minister and congregation. The former deficiency was fupplied afterwards, by prefixing the Sentences, &c.; and the latter defect was rectihed, by the Rubric directing a loud pronunciation of the Lord's prayer, both by minister and people. Till the la? review, however, the Rubric fimply directed the minister to begin the Lord'sprayer with a loud voice; and after the first paragraph, (as is the case at the present Englith Roman Catholic chapels) he dropped his voice, and continued to mutter the prayer to himself till he came to the sentence, " but deliver us from evil. Amen,” which he and the people pronounced with a loud voice together.-With respect to the prevailing fupplication before us, we may observe that it contains every thing fit for us to ask, or our heavenly Father to give; and that it is equally admirable, from its comprehensive concitenets, beautiful fimplicity, and profound devotion. Our blessed Lord, in wife conformity to the judicious practice of the Jewish teachers, of presenting forms of prayer to their scholars, vouchfafed to comply with the request of his disciples,“ to teach them how to pray;" and selected from the various precatory forms, which at that time were well known amongst the Jews, the different phrases and sentences that compose this divine prayer. The sources from whence they were adopted will be pointed out under the evening service.

O Lord open, &c.). These four versicles are found in most of the ancient Liturgies, particularly in those of St. James and St. Chryfoftom. They are here introduced to connect the preceding penitential fervice to which they properly belong, with the fucceeding prailes, thankfgivings, and glorifying part of the Liturgy. This alternate recitation of fentences by minister and people was a practice of the ancient Jews, and adopted from them by the primitive Christians. In Henry's Primers all the different services commenced with the above versicles. The names and order of these services are here subjoined for the information and entertainment of the reader. The firit service was Matins, performed at three o'clock in the morning. It commenced with the above versicles; Ave Maria followed; then the Jubilate; and afterwards this hymn:

“ Now the cheerful day doth spring,
Unto God pray we and fing,
That in all works of the day,
He preserve and keep us aye.
That our tongue he may refrain
From all ftrite and wordes vain,
Keep our eyes in coverture
From all ill and vain pleasure.
That our hearts be voided quite
From phantasy and fond delight,
Thin diet of drink and meat,
Of the filesh to cool the heat:

Priest. O God, make speed to save us.
Anfw. O Lord make haste to help us.

That when the day hence doth wend,
And the course the night doth send,
By forbcaring things worldly,
Our God we may glority.

Amen.” After this hymn followed portions of psalms vii. xviii. xxi; the an. them; the Lord's prayer; the blessing; the first lesson, Isaiah xi.; the bleliug; the second leifon, Luke i.; the blelling; the third lesson, Luke i.; Te Dcum baiedamus; the verficle; “ Pray for us, holy Mother of God;" the answer, " that we be made worthy to attain the promises of Civitt.".. To this service succeeded the Laudes, consisting of Palm Ixvi, Panic! iii. Pfalm cxlviii.; the anthem; the chapter; * Virgin Mary, rejoice always, which haft born Christ, the maker of heaven and earth: for out of thy womb thou hast brought forth the Saviour of the world: Thanks be to God.” The hymn, Lukei.; the anthem; verficle, and antwer; prayer. The Matins concluded with the Colleets; a series of prayers and ejaculations by the priest, in the name of the assembly. At fix o'clock in the morning, the service called the Prime took place, and commenced with the verticles, “O God, make speed to fave us," and the fucceeding one. Then followed this fpirited and beautiful “ hymn;"

“ Fellow of thy Father's light,
Light of light, and day most bright,
Christ, that chaseth away night,
Aid us for to pray aright.
Drive out darkness from our minds,
Drive away the flock of liends;
Drousiness take from our eyes,
That from Noth we may arise.
Chrift, vouchsafe mercy to give,
To us all that do believe;
Let it profit us that pray,

*All that we do fing or fay. Amen." Pfilm cxvii. fucceeded this hvinn; then the anthein; verficle; anfwer; and prayer for meekness of spirit, and contrition for fin.—The third bour, or nine o'clock, fervice began with the fame verficles, which were lucceeded by this elegant“ hymn:

Mighty Ruler! God most true,
Which doft all in order due,
Morn with light illumining,
Noontide with heat garniting:
Quench the flames of our debate,
Foul and noisome heat abate;
Grant unto our body health,
To our hearts true peace and wealth.
Let tongue and heart, let strength and sense,
Commend thy magnificence;
Ixt thy spirit of charity
Sur us all to worship thee, Amen."

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Here all standing up, the Priest shall say, Glory be to the Father, and to the Son: and to the Holy Ghost;

Answ. As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever fhall be: world without end. Amen. Priest. Praise


the Lord. Answ. The Lord's Name be praised. s Then shall be said or sung this Psalm following: except on

Easter-Day, upon which another Anthem is appointed; and on the Nineteenth Day of every Month it is not to be read here, but in the ordinary course of the Psalms.

Venite, exultemus Domino. Palm xcv. O Come, let us fing unto the Lord a let us heartily re

in the our salvation. Then followed part of pfalm cxix; the anthem; verficle; answer, and prayer. The Jixth hour, or twelve o'clock prayer commenced as above; hymn; palm xxii.; anthem; versicle; answer; and prayer for compassion towards our fellow-creatures. The ninth hour, or three o'clock service began as before: hymn ; psalm xiv.; anthem; versicle; answer; and prayer

under persecutions. Glory be to the Father, &c.] This short hymn (called the Gloria Patri, and lejjer doxology, to distinguish it from the greater doxology, beginning "Glory be to God on high,” &c.) is of great, but uncertain

antiquity. In the primitive ages, the fathers of the church seem to have used doxologies, or fimilar formularies, of their own compofition, differing as their different fancies dictated. But when the heresy of the Arians obliged the church to vindicate its doctrine of the Trinity, it was then judged expedient to adopt one general and uniform doxology, which was drawn up in these words: “ Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost, now and ever, world without end." This form the Greek church Mill retains in its services; though the Western church soon after the adoption of it added, “ As it was in the beginning;” in order to oppose that doctrine of Arianism which held a beginning of time antecedent to the exiltence of Jesus Christ.

Praise ye, &c.] A literal translation of the Hebrew Hallelujah. In the forit Book of Edward VIth, the untranslated compound word Alleluya is appointed to be used“ from Easter to Trinity Sunday.” These fifty days were, in the primitive church, dedicated to holy rejoicing, in commemoration of our Lord's resurrection; and during this season, and only then, the original Hebrew phrafe Hallelujah was chaunted in the daily service. It is this practice which probably occafioned the rubric in Edward Ift's book.

The Lord's Name, &c.) This response was introduced into our Liturgy at the last review, A.D. 1662.

The Psalm following) “ This,” says Sparrow,“ is an invitatory psalm; for berein we do mutually invite and call upon one another, being come before his presence, to sing to the Lord,” &c. St. Ambrose informs us


for grace

Let us come before his presence with thanksgiving: and Thew ourselves glad in him with psalms.

For the Lord is a great God: and a great King above all gods.

In his hand are all the corners of the earth: and the strength of the hills is his also.

The sea is his, and he made it: and his hands prepared the dry land.

O come, let us worship, and fall down: and kneel before the Lord our Maker.

For he is the Lord our God: and we are the people of his pasture, and the sheep of his hand.

To day if ye will hear his voice, harden not your hearts: as in the provocation, and as in the day of temptation in the wilderness;

When your fathers tempted me: proved me, and faw

my works.

Forty years long was I grieved with this generation, and said: It is a people that do err in their hearts, for they have not known my ways.

Unto whom I swear in my wrath: that they should not enter into my rest.

Glory be to the Father, &c.

As it was in the beginning, &c. that in his time the service of the church commenced with this pfalm; it being sung in a loud manner, in order to inform the people who were waiting around the church, that the public devotions were begun. Hence its name of Invitatory Pfalm. This portion of the service, however, was different from the Invitatory itself, which was of old, and still is in the Roman Catholic church, some seleet passage or text of scripture, introduced and reiterated in most of the offices: But it being considered by our Reformers as a “ fond thing, and vaidly invented,” it was partially proHibited in the first Book of Common Prayer, and entirely done away by the above rubric; the latter part of which was introduced at the review, A. D. 1662. As it is the laudable practice at many churches for the congregation to commence their devotions with singing a psalm, it may be Worth while to repeat, that this custom is fanctioned, as we have seen above, by the highest authority—that of the primitive Christian church.

Psalm xcv.] This divine composition was used in the public service of the Jews, on the Feast of Tabernacles, according to Grotius; or, on the Sabbath-day, according to Calvin. We find it also adopted into the Liturgies of the early Christian church, both of the East and of the Weft. It calls upon us to praise God, to pray to him, and to hear his holy words and is therefore a proper introduction to the succeeding parts of the fervice, which are composed of acts of adoration, petition, and listening to the word or exhortation.

Then shall follow the Psalms in order as they are appointed: And at the end of every Psalm throughout the Year, and likewise at the end of Benedicite, Benedi&tus, Magnificat, and Nunc dimitris, shall be repeated,

Glory be to the Father, and to the Son: and to the Holy Ghoft.

Answ. As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be: world without end. Amen, [ Then shall be read disinętly with an audible voice the

First Lefon, taken out of the Old Testament, as is appointed in the Calendar (except there be proper Lessons assigned for that day:) he that readeth, so standing, and turning

The Psalms in the order, &c.] We learn from the original preface to the Book of Prayer, that before the Reformation the psalms were divided into seven portions, of which each was called a Nocturn (a night, or very early service.). Of late times, (continues the preface) a few of the psalms have been used daily, and the rest utterly omitted. To supply this omifLion, the church established, in 1662, the present rubric. Various modes, in different ages of the church, have been adopted in reciting the psalms. In the carly times, the psalms were often sung by one person alone; alone; the rest listening with devout attention: the common custom in the Egyptian monasteries. Sometimes they were sung by the whole affenibly joining together; this was the most ancient and general practice. Sometimes they were lung in alternation by the congregation; one part repeating one verse, and the other part reciting the next. Sometimes one perfon repeated the first part of the verse, and the rest joined altogether at the clofe; a practice called by the Greeks



υπακοειν, and by the Latins succinere; and which was the origin of the office of Precentors in cathedrals.-Bingham's Ant. Chrifi. Church, book xiv. c. I.

The extract from St. Chryfoftom, which, for the sake of convenience, I have introduced under the rubric refpecting the psalms in the Evening Service, will manifest the high estimation in which they were held by the early Christians, and the general use to which they were applied in the fervice of God.

The Voluntary before the First Lesson.) This practice, common in all churches which have an organ, seenis to have been derived from a custom oblerved in the Jewish fynagogues. In them it was formerly, and is, as I am informed, at present usual, for the music to play previously to reading a portion of the law, (to which our first lesson corresponds) during the interval whilit the minister (urneemn, fee Luke iv. 20) is taking the roll of the law from the altar, where it is kept, and carrying it to the reader, and the reader is unrolling it (xrce to lubis to B.62.00) to find out the portion intended to be read.

He that readeth, fostanding, &c.] In the early times of the Reformation, the minister read the lessons, and performed other of the offices, in the choir, chancel, or near the altar; which, in large or incommodious churches, occafioned the people much difficulty in hearing him; and hence

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