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to promote or discountenance their cause. Hence it happened, that almost at the same time when he was issuing injunctions to his clergy to purify the belief of the people, and correct their fùperititious notions, lie was burning the Sacramentaries, or thote who denied the corporal presence of Christ in the Eucharist; and whilst he granted permillion to all his subjects to read the new translation of the Bible without controul, and ordained that a copy of it should be set up publickly in every church in England for the perufal of the laity, he almoit at the fame moment palied that dreadful act against the Reformation, which from its feverity has been well denominated the Bloody Statute, or the IVhip with fix things. This actdenounced the punishınent of burning, without abjuration, with forfeiture of all real and perfonal ettate to the king, against any who thould speak, preach, or write adversely to the first of the lix articles afferted in the act; and death without benefit of clergy to anywho should preach or obstinately dispute against the other five. The articles were these:
1. “ That in the facrament of the altar, after the confecration, there remains no substance of bread and wine, but under thefe fornis the natural body and blood of Christ is present.
2. " That communion in both kinds is not necessary to falvation to all perfons by the law of God, but that both the flesh and blood of Christ are together in each of the kinds. 3. “ That priests may not marry by the law of God. “ That vows of chastity ought to be obterved by the law of God.
That private masses ought to be continued, which as it is agreeable to God's law, fo men receive great benefit by them.
6. “ That auricular confellion is expedient and necessary, and ought to be retained in the church.”
By an act, also, which he passed in the thirty-fifth year of his reign, he almost led the people back again into the darkest ages and wildelt iuperftitions of Popery. It enacts that “recourse must be had to the Catholick and Apoftolick Church for the decision of controversies; and therefore all books of the Old and New Testament in English, being of Tyndal's false translation, or comprising any matter of Chritian religion, articles of faith, or holy scripture, contrary to the doctrine set forth by the King (in the fix articles) 1540, or to be fet forth by the King, Thall be abolished. No person Mall sing or rhyme contrary to the faid do&trine. No person ihall retain any English books or writings against the holy and blessed facrament of the altar, or other books abolished by the King's proclamation. There Thall be no annotations or preambles in Bibles or New Testaments in English. The Bible shall not be read in English in uny church. No women, or artificers, apprentices, journeymien, ferringmen, hubandmeni
, or labourers, Jbull read the New Tejtament in Englijh. Nothing thall be taught or maintained contrary to the King's instructions. If any fpiritual person thall be convicted of preaching or maintaining any thing contrary to the King's instructions already made, or hereafter to be made, he thall for the dirt offence recant, for the second bear a fagot, and for the third be burnt."'*
But notwithftanding these unexpected checks to the progrefs of the Reformation, which thus arose from the tickleness and impetuolity of the king, and the bigotry and malice of the Popish party; yet it must be allowed, that great advances towards its establishment were made during this reign, and that much of the good which had been effected in the early part semained atits close; the word of God was in the hands of the people;t and
* Neale's Hist, Purit. vol. i. p. 36. + "It was wonderful,” says Strype, " to see with what joy this book of God was recerved, not only among the more learned, and those who were noted lovers of the Refor. mation, but generally all over England, among all the common people; and with what gree.
the King's Primers;* the Forms of Proceffion; and the Necessary Doc. trine and Erudition &c. contained comparatively reasonable and purified forms of religious services, in the vulgar tongue of the country, and consequently calculated for the use of all ranks and degrees of the community,
The providence of God having raised Edward VIth to the throne, (a prince who, though only nine years and four months old, was the wonder of his age for piety and learning, for fagacity and application to bufiness) and spared the venerable Cranmer from the capricious fury of Henry VIII., the work of religious reformation went happily forward. The perfecution upon the six articles was stopped; the prisoners for the cause of religion were liberated; the exiles for conscience-lake were recalled; foul-masses and obits were decried; and images were preached against and pulled down. For the use and information of the clergy, (few of whom were capable of composing a sermon) the archbishop, allifted by other divines, drew up a book of homilies, a copy of which was left with every parish priest, together with a printed string of Injunctions from the king, conlifting of the following articles:
The first enjoins the abolition and extirpation of the Bishop of Rome's usurped power in this kingdom; and the doing away the idea that images, relics, &c. can profit towards salvation.
2. That all deans, archdeacons, parsons, vicars, &c. shall preach a ser. mon at least every quarter of a year, wherein they shall “purely and fincerely declare the word of God;” and reprobate all the practices of Romilh superstiti n.
3. That they shall pull down all images in their parishes. 4. That every
holiday they shall recite in the pulpit the Pater nofter, Crecd, and the Ten Commandments.
5. That they shall charge masters and parents to instruct their children. 6. That they shall take care the facraments be duly adminiftered:
7. That they shall provide a great English Bible within three months, and the Paraphrafe of Erasmus in English, to be set up in their churches.
8. That they shall not haunt or refort to taverns, &c. nor play at dice, cards, &c.
9. That they shall in confessions every Lent examine every person that comes to them, in the Pater nofter, &c. 10. That they fhall admit no man to preach, unlefs he be licensed.
11. That they shall openly recant all they had spoken in praise of pilgrimages, 'relics, &c.
12. That they shall present every man who is a letter of the word of God, or a supporter of the bishop of Rome. 13. That they shall keep a regiiter for weddings, chriftenings, & burials.
14. That they shall (those who are not residents upon their benefices, and hive 2ol. per annum, or more) distribute a fortieth part of their annual income to their poor parishioners. diners God's word was read, and what resort there was to the places appointed for reading it. Every one that could bought the book, and busily read it, or heard it read; and many elderly learnt to read on purpole." We are lorry to add, however, that the clergy in general did not fecond or encourage the pious ardour of the people' They were very cold in the matter, and read the word of God so contusedly as not to be understood; exhorting their parish opers at the fame time, notwithstanding the injunctions, “ to do as they did in times past, and to live as their fathers; the old fashion being best." --Johnson's Hift. Eng. Trana, &c.
Primers continued to be printed and circulated both in English and Latin to the close of Henry's reign. In the lait year was one with this title: "The Primer, set forth by the kin;'s Majelty and his Clergy, to be taught, learned, and read; and none other to be uted throughout his dominions. Imprinted at London, &c. by Richard Grafton, the Ich day . Auguti 1546 Repuued without any alteration." The "Bill affigned,” at the end of the volume, gives the exclusive privilege and licence of printing the same to R!! Aton and Edward Whatchurch,
15. That they shall (provided they have preferment to the amount of tool. per annum) give an exhibition to one icholar at the university, and anothei exhibition for every additional 100l. per annum.
16. That they shall bestow a fifth part of their income to repair their decayed mai. Gions and chancels.
17. That they shall every quarter of a year read these injunctions to their parishioners.
18. That all persons shall duly pay their tithes.
19. That no person shall change the fafting-days, nor alter divine fervice, till it be otherwise ordered by the king's authority.
20. That every parfon, &c. shall have and itudy, within three months, the New Testament in Latin and English, with the Paraphrale of Erasinus.
21. That in the time of high mals, the epistle and gospel shall be read in English, and not in Lain; and that on every Sunday and holiday the minutter shall read a chapter of the New Testament in Englith, at matins, “immediately after the lessons;” and at evenfong after Magnificat, one chapter of the Old Tettament.
22. That in order to counteract despair in fick penitents, the parish priests Thall“ have always in readiness luch comfortable places and fentences of scripture as do let forth the mercy &c. of Almighty God.”
23. That to prevent all further dispute about precedeace in procedion, and for more quietly hearing the prayers, &c. they fhall not hencefortli use any procession about the church or church-yard, or other place, but immediately before high mass the priests with others of the choir Thall kneel in the midst of the church, and sing or say plainly, and distinctly, the litany, which is set forth in English, with all the futfrages following." And in the time of the litany, of the high mats, &c. no person, without an urgent cause, fhall depart out of the church; and that there shall be no knolling of bells during the time, except onc bell before the fermon. N. B. To understand this injunction, it is neceflary to recollect that the
litany used formerly to be recited by the priett and people in procellion; that is, during a folemn and orderly walk round the church, altars, or church-yard; and hence, in Henry's Primers, the litany is called
“the Common Prayer of Proceflion.” 24. That the fabbath should be kept holy by all people; yet notwith! ftanding that all partons, &c. Thall teach their parishioners, that during the time of harvest they might labour upon “the holy and festival days, and fave that thing which God hath sent."
25. That minifters Thall prevent coming to the facrament all such perfons as were out of charity with their neighbours.
26. That every dean, archdeacon, &c. should preach twice a year at least within his jurisdiction.
27. That all ministers shall see the ceremonies of the church are not violated, nor superstitious practices carried on in their parishes.
28. That they fall destroy all thrines, &c. and provide a pulpit. 29. That they shall provide an alms-cheft.
30. That they shall not be obliged to go to women in child-bed, except in dangerous fickness; nor to fetch any corpse, unless it be brought to the church-door.
31. That they shall avoid and prevent the fin of Simony.
32. That they shall read in their churches every Sunday one of the Homilies.
33. That no man shall despise the minister for lack of learning.
34. “ That all manner of persons which understand not the Latin tongue, shall pray upon none other Primer but upon that which was lately let forth in Engliih by authority of King Henry VIIIth; and thole unders Atanding the Latin, to use his Latin Primer.
35. That all chantry priests teach youth to read, write, &c.
36. That “when any fermon or homily 1hall be had, the prime and boirs shall be omitted.”—N. B. These were parts of the morning liturgy.
In addition to these services in the cause of the Reformation, Cranmer composed and published a catechism also for the instruction of children and voung people; and wrote a discourse on the facrament of the Lord's Supper. The Paraphrase of Erasmus on the Gospels and Acts of the Apottles was likewile translated into English;* and parliament enacted, that the holy conimunion should be received by the laity in both kinds, and that “a new office" should be prepared, accommodated to this rational ordinance. This was forthwith drawn up by a committee of prelates, (nominated for the purpose) and copies of it were transmitted to the bishops on the 13th of March 1547, to be circulated through their respective dioceies, in order that they might be publickly adopted in all the congregations of reformed christians at the following Easter. A greater work however remained to be executed; that of preparing a national liturgy, or form of public prayer for the general use of the English church. We bare teen above, that fone iteps had already been taken for providing the people with intelligible religious services, by the publication of the King's Primer, the form of Proceision, and the Necessary Doctrine and Erudition for any Chrijti.mn Olun; but these did not amount to the establishment of a general and uniform liturgy, nor were they attended with any compalfory injunction to ensure their exclusive use. Much had hitherto been left to the discretion of the oficiating clergy, who, in the performance of pubhic worship, feem either to have continued the use of the Popish fervices, without making any alteration in them, or to have adopted only partially the new ones prepared by the reformers.† A committee therefore was appointed to draw up in English a book of services for the general use of the church; which consisted of Archbishop Cranmer; Thomas Goodrich, bihop of Ely; Henry Holbach, alias Randes, bishop of Lincoln; George Day, bifhop of Chichetter; John Skip, bishop of Hereford; Thomas Thirlby, bifhop of Weitminster; Nicholas Ridley, bishop of Rochefter; Dr. William May, dean of St. Paul's, London; Dr. John Taylor, dean (afterwards bithop) of Lincoln; Dr. Simon Heynes, dean of Exeter; Dr. John Redmayne, master of Trinity college in Cambridge; Dr. Richard Cox, dean of Christchurch in Oxford; and Mr. Thomas Robertson, archdeacon of Leicester. Thcfe divines entered with such ardour upon this bulincis, f and continued it with such perseverance, that in a few months
Immediately on the acrefiron of Edward VIth, the king issued an injunction that not only it a whole Engiith Bibe thould be placed in churches, but allo that the Paraphrate of Erafmus, to the end of the four evangelists, in Englith, should accompany it. It was also ordered, that the epifte and gospel of the mass should be read in Engliih, and that on every Sunday and holiday one chapter of ihe New Teftament in English thould be plainly and ditincilvrend at matins, and one chapter of the Old Testament at evening. Afterwards, when the Book of Common Prayer was printed, (at the beginning of the year 1549) a praca rice was enjoined that nearly resembles the present one; viz. that after reading the plalms to or ler at morning and evening praver, two letions, the first from the Old Testament, ani tie fecond from the New, should be read loudly and distinctly. During this short reign, which included only feven years and about tive months, no less than eleven impressions of He whole English Bible; fix of the New Testament; and one of the whole New Tefta. nient paraphrafed by Erasmus, and translated into English, were published ; so earneitly and cur pious Reformers labour in the godlike work in which they had engaged.
+ This arcfe from the circumstance of most of the incumbents being either ci-derant Tonks or friars, with whom Henry hu fupplied the benefices as fait as they became VCt; in order to make them fome amends for having turned them out of their monal. series. It cannot be wondered at that paitors of this defcription should have thrown every obtiacle in the way of the Reformation.
† The commissioners assembled in the month of May 1548, and came immediately to the unanimous refolution, that feiting atide all prejudice, they would reject nothing as
they had prepared for public use all the offices for morning and evening prarer, for Sundays and holidays; as well as the forms for baptifm, confirmation, matrimony, burial of the dead, &c. &c. The book being compleated, it was by Cranmer presented to the young king, who received it with every mark of delight. Parliament immediately (viz. at the close of the year 1548) confirmed its authority, and enjoined its general use, under the title of the Book of Common Praver, and Administration of the Sacraments, and other Rites und Ceremonies of the Church; after the Use of the Curch of England. It is obvious, that the commislioners appointed for the above-mentioned purpose, had been entrusted with a butinefs of much dilhculty and much delicacy. They had to reconcile the prejudices, and to fusfy the withes of parties whole sentiments were the most discordant, and whófe views were the most contradictory. They had to gratify the Protestants, and to soothe, and by these means gain over, the Catholics; and to accommodate the forms and fervices of the new liturgy to these wile, charitable, and praise-worthy ends. It is not therefore to be won. dered at, that their liturgy, compiled under thele circumstances, should have been deemed liable to exceptions by some of the more rigid friends of reformation, as favouring too much of the old luperftitions. This we find to have been the case; objections were made, and Cranmer, in order to remove them, proposed a review of the work, and a correction of its errors, deficiencies, or fuperfluities. * Two learned divines were accordingly appointed to this buliness; Martin Bucer, and Peter Martyr, both natives of Germany, who by the archbishop's interest had been invited to England, and placed in situations of dignity and trust; Bucer in the divi, nity chair at Cambridge, and Murtyr in the similar profefforship at Oxford. in the early part of the year 1551, these divines entered upon their work, and performed it much to the iatisfaction of the archbishop; under whose fanction the alterations they had made were for the most part adopted in the new edition of the liturgy, which was published in the month of April 1552, under the name of the Noru Service, and appointed by parliament to be every where made use of, from the ensuing festivalof All Saints. The alterations of most importance adopted in this new edition were as follow. The appointment of the sentences, exhortation, confeffion, and abfolution, to be read at the beginning of the morning and evening services, which in the 'first Common Prayer Book began with the Lord's Prayer; the rejection of prayers for fouls departed, both in the communion office, and in that for
what was already done to their hand, merely through love of change; but only endeavour to reitore the public ritual to the simplicity of the lervice of the primitive church, by aboWithin the fuperftitious errors and ceremonies with which Popery had ercumbered the wonip of God. See the discourse “Of Ceremonies, why some be abolithed, and some retained;" prefixed to the Book or Common Prayer. The commissioners, therefore, entered upon an examination of the Previaries, Millals, and Rituals, in general use, as vell as the book of offices; and scrupuloully comparing them with ancient liturgies, and the ntal compotitions of the early fathers, they adopted whatever had the authority of fcripiure, and the fan&tion of pure ecclesiastical antiquity on its fide, and rejected whatever was contrary thereto; or which was in itself tritling, idle, or superstitious. Dr. Bennet has made a curious calculation of that proportion of our present offices which has been borrowed from Popish liturgies, and states it as not exceeding one fourteenth part.
* It will be worth remembering, that Gilbertus, a German, many vears since, in a book of his, propounds our book of prayer for a sample of the forms of the ancient church; and for the purity of it, and thorough reformation, Cranmer procured King Edward's Common Prayer Book to be translated into Latin, and sent it to Bucer, and required liis judgment of it; who answered, that there was nothing in it but what was taken out of the Word of God, or which was not against it, cominode acceptum, í being taken in a good fenfe.) Some things, indeed, (faith he) quæ nisi quis &c. (unless they be interpreted with candour, may seem not so agreeable to the word of God, and which unquiet ine may wreit unto matter of contention) as may be seen at large in Bucer's Scripca Anglicana, Upon this occafion that Book of Edward's was again surveyed, &c."-A View of the New Directory, &c. zu edit. Oxford, 1646, p. 16.