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together in holy Matrimony, ye are to declare it: This is the first [ Second, or third time of asking. Widows not to marry again till after twelve months after their husband's derta. Womcn not to marry in the absence of their husbands, till they bcre certified of their death. Guardians not to marry orphans in their minory, till their guardianship was ended. That no marriages should be celebried in Lent; a prohibition which was extended A. D. 5023 to the following feafons-from Advent to the octaves of Epiphany; the fourteen days before the feast of St. John Baptist ; all fealt-days; and the vigils of the fuleipn festivals. Vide Selden Conc. Salegunstad. Can. 3.

It wul throw light upon our fervice to offer a few more remarks on the Rite of Marriage in the ancient church. It confifted then of two parts, Sponfolia, et poulals or betrothing; and the Nuptialia, or ceremonies of marriage; the former being an obligation or contract to the act, and the other the act ittelf. The particulars of the efpoufals were these :-The free confint of the parties being first ascertained, the contrall of cfpoufals was teftiiied by gifts called Arræ, or Donationes Spontiala, Elutually preiented and accepted by the man and the woman; which were then entered into public acts, and registered or put upon record. Together with these espousal gifts, it was usual for the man to give the woman a ring as an additional token and testimony of the contract; and to kiss her in a folemn maner, in further confirmation thereof. He also at the fame time settled a dozvry upon the woman, to which she should be entitled after his death. All these particulars were performed publickly, before a competent rumber of chofen witnefles, consisting of the friends of each party. The contract of the future marriage being thus settled by ofperdals, it was not lawful for either party to join in marriage with any oder under very fevere penalties, unlets the time of marriage was fraudukutły protracted beyond two yeirs, which was the time limited for the dumtion of the efportals. The day of marriage being arrived, the cereIlony was performed by a minister of religion ; who, after reading appropriate prayers, and pronouncing a folemn benediction on the parties, jorded their hands together; at the same time the woman was veiled with the confecrated or facerdotal veil. When the sacred office of veiling and benediction was over, and the married couple ready to depart, it was ufual to crown them with crowns or garlands, as the lymbols of victory over lacufid plear fire. The ceremony concluded, by the conducting of the woman to the bridegroom's houfe with much professional pomp, the attendants finging the cpithalamium, or nuptial fong, &c.

First the B.11ns] This rubric was worded nearly thus in all the Prayer-Books till the last review, (1662), when the words immediately before the fentence for the offertory," were inserted. But lince that time, by the Ad to prevent clandestine marriages, (26 Geo. II.) it is orduined that all banns of marriage shall be published upon three Sundays preceding the folemnization of marriage, immediately after the fecond leifun. The form of publication was also inserted at the last review: but the two rubrics fucceeding it were inserted in King Edward Vlth's tott prayer-book 1549, with the exception mentioned in the next note. The publication of hanns, which fignines public proclamation, was founded upon the notice given to the church by the contracting parties amongs, the ancient Christians; and especially enjoined by several conftitutions of our own church before the reformation. Marriages may be solemnized si any time of the year within the canonical hours ; for, not withstanding be prohibition of particular days, feasts, &c. in Popith times, at the RC.

And if the Persons that are to be married, dwell in divers Parishes, the Banns must be asked in both Parisies; and the Curate of the one Parish shall not solennize Matrimony betwixt them, wiihout a Certificate of the Banns being thrice asked, from the Curate of the other Parijh. Altbe day and time appointed for Solemnization of Matrimony, the Persons to be married shall come into the body of the Church with their friends and neighbours : and there standing together, the Man on the right

band, and the Il’oman on the left, the Priest shall say, D

EARLY beloved, we are gathered together here

in the fight of God, and in the face of this congregation, to join together this Man and this Woman in holy Matrimony; which is an honourable estate, instituted of God in the time of man's innocency, lignifying unto us the mystical union that is betwixt Christ and his Church : which holy estate Christ adorned and formation all this was brushed away, nor is there any canon or custom of the realm, which prevents the parties from being joined together in holy matrimony on any one day of the year, provided they obferve the legal regulations in that cafe made. It is a false notion also, that marriages mult be folemnized in the church of the parish to which the woman belongs. This arose from an usage of the ecclesiastical court, which allowed a fee to the curate of the woman's parih, whether she was married there or not; which was reserved in the words of the licence; but these words have been omitted in the licences granted since Act of 26th Geo. II. which makes no mention of the woman's parish, and leaves the parties at liberty to marry in which parijl

, they please. The Archbishop of Canterbury has the privilege (of great antiquity, in virtue of the ancient leg.tine power) of granting licences, called special licences, for persons to be married quia libet loco aut tempore bonejlo; i. e. in any decent time or place, which is expressly reserved to him by statute 26th Geo. II.-N. B. Most of the rubrics in the marriage service were adopted, with certain alterations, from the Manual in ufum Sar.

And then standing, &c.] This part of the rubric was inserted in 1662, and taken from the Manuale Sarisburienfi. “In primis ftantur vir et mulier ante oftium ecclefiæ, coram Deo, facerdote, et populo, vir a dextris mulieris ct mulier a finiftris viri.” Maa. Sar, fol. xlvii. edit. 1554. These respective situations of the man and woman are alligned by the ancient church, to signify that the husband is the head of the wife.-Euch. Græc. Offic. Sponfal. 380.

Dearly beloved, &c.] This first paragraph is translated nearly verbatim from the exhortation in the Popish Manual in ufum Sar. as we concluding paragraph, " therefore,” &c. the remainder of it was com. posed at the Reformation, and inserted in Edw. Vith's first book.

as the

beautified with his presence, and first miracle that he wrought, in Cana of Galilee ; and is commended of Saint Paul to be honourable among all men : and therefore is not by any to be enterprized, nor taken in hand unadvilediy, lightly, or wantonly, to satisfy men's carnal lusts and appetites, like brute beasts that have no understanding; but reverently, discreetly, advisedly, soberly, and in the fear of God; duly considering the causes for which Matrimony was ordained.

Frit, it was ordained for the procreation of children, to be brought up in the fear and nurture of the Lord, and to the praite of his holy Name.

Secondly, it was ordained for a remedy against fin, and to aroid fornication ; that such persons as have not the gift of continency, miglı marry, and keep themselves on s'ed members of Chrill's body.

Thirdly, it was ordained for the mutual society, help, and comfort, that the one ought to have of the other, hih in prosperity and adversity.

1:10 which holy estate these iwo persons present come New to be joined. Therefore, if any man can thew any just Gul, why they may not lawfully be joined together, let him now speak, or else hereafter for ever hold his peace. ind also, Speaking unto the perforis that firall be married,

be mall say, I

Require and charge you both, (as ye will answer at

the dreadful day of judgment, when the secrets of all hearts shall be disclosed) that if either of you know any impediment, why ye may not be lawfully joined rogether in Matrimony, ye do now confess it. For be ye well aflured, that so many as are coupled together otherwise than God's Word Joth allow, are not joined together by God neither is their Matrimony lawful.

At which Day of Marriage, if any Man do allege and declare any impediment, why they may not be coupled toge

And also, &c.). This rubric and the charge are nearly verbatim in FJw. Vith's first book. The latter occurred in the form of a rubric in the Manual in ufum Sar.

eft which day, &c.] This rubric is found nearly verbatim in Edw.Vlth's fandt book.

iber in Matriniony, by God's Law, or the Laws of this Realm ; and will be bound, and fufficient sureties with him, to the parties ; or else put in a Caution (to the full value of such charges as the persons to be married do thercby Sustain) to prove his allegation ; then the folemnization must be diferred, until such time as the truth be tried. If no impediment be alleged, then all the Curate fiy

unto the Man, M. ILT thou have this Woman to thy wedded

wise, to live together after God's ordinance in the holy estate of Matrimony? . Wilt thou love her, comfort her, honour, and keep her in fickness and in health ; and forsaking all other, keep thee only unto her, so long as ye both shall live?

| The Man fiall answer, I will.
Then shall the Pricht say unto the Woman,

LT thou have this Man to thy wedded

Husband, to live together after God's ordidance in the holy estate of Matrimony ? Wilt thou obey him, and serve him, love, honour, and keep him in fickness and in health ; and forsaking all other, keep thee only unto him, so long as ye both fall live?

1 The Woman fall answer, I will.

9 Then shall the Minister say, Who giveth this Woman to be married to this Man? Then shall they give their troih to each other in this

manner : | The Minister, receiving the Ilcman at her Father's or

Friend's hands, shall cause the Man with his right If no impediment, &c.] This rubric, the questions, and answers, are all found in the firit book of Edw. VI. and are nearly literally translated from the forms in Manual Sar. Then fall they, c.) This rubric was added at the last review.

Her father's, &c.] The father (or a friend, his representative) giving the daughter to wife was practifed from great antiquity both in the

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Land to take the Woman by her right band, and to say after him as foil with: M. take thee N. to my wedled Wife, to hare and to

holl, fro'n this day forward, for better for worse, for richer for poorer, in fickness and in health, to love and to cherish, till death us do pari, according to God's holy ordinance; and thereto I plight thee my troth.

Then shall they loose their hands; and the Iloman, with her right hand taking the Man by his right hand, sball

likewise say after the Minister, I

N. take thee M. to my wedded Husband, to have and

to hold, from this day forward, for better for worse, for richer for poorer, in sickness and in health, to love, cherish, and to obey, till death us do part, according to God's holy ordinance; and thereto I give thee my troch.

Then shall they again loose their hands, and the Man

shall give unto the Woman a Ring, laying the same upon Jewish espousals, in the Heathen forms of marriage, and in the Chriftian church; Gen. xxix. 19. Cic. Orat.pro. Flac. Auguft. de Gen. ad lit. l. ii. C: 41. tom. ill. p. 1. col. 295. And the joining of hands has been used, in like manner, by Heathens, Jews, and Christians, in all ages, as a solemn emblem of contracting a firm friendship, and making an indissoluble covenant, 2 Kings X. 15; Prov. xi. 21; Alex. ab Alex. Gen.; Dier. I. 2. C. 19. Tobit vii. 13. The Romih rubric directed that if the female were a virgin, she should have her hånd uncovered ; if a widow, it thould be covered.

I M. take thee, &c.] This and the subsequent form of stipulation were used in the Romish form of marriage before the Reformation, with some verbal alterations; and it is remarkable that, although all the other. forms of the service were in Latin, (save the declaration about the ring) those were in English. In the Salisbury Manual the first form runs like ours till the word health, (or Heale, as it there is) and then goes on, death us do part, if holy church it well ordain, and think &c.” In Edw. VIth's first book, the words “to love and to cherish” were introduced, and the other words omitted. In the woman's stipulation, the form in the Sar. Manual runs thus after the word health, “ to be bonere & buxum (i. e. mcek and obedient) in bed and at bord, till death, &c. if holy church, &c.”

A ring, &c.] In the first book of Edw. VI. after this word come the following, " and other tokens of fpoufage as gold or silver ;" which were omitted in the fecond book. The words gold and silver occurred in the ancient Romish rubric, and were the remains of that moft ancient cuftoni, of purchasing a wife, by laying down a certain sum of money, or else performing certain conditions to the father in lieu thereof. Gen. xxxiv. 12. Gen. xxix. 18, 27, 30. From the Jews the custom descended to the

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