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requisition; but Lubec stood out a

fortnight, and was finally released

on granting only a part of the contribution. In fine, Bremen paid 250,000, and Lubec 160,000 dollars. But the burdens of the Hanoverians, oppressive as they were on the public at large, were not confined to exorbitant taxes collected every week or month. Each individual had his peculiar burdens, which fell with unequal weight on his own particular family. The first and greatest of these was the quartering of the soldiers; from which, in the beginning, no occupier of a house, however poor, was exempt, while the richer classes were obliged to take in, and liberally provide for, six and even eight men at a time. It is true the soldiers were to be provided with bread, meat, &c. at the public cost; yet had this been regularly attended to, which was by no means the case, it would have served but little in the place of better food. No Hanoverian would have ventured to place a dish from the public supply only before his French epicure, who insisted on sharing with him in every delicacy of his own table. According to a moderate computation, the board of every soldier cost thirty grotes (30 cents) a day, that of a captain and subaltern from three to four hundred dollars a year, and that of a superior officer five or ten times that sum. Another burden, no less oppressive than the former, was the marching of troops backward and for. ward, with numberless waggons and heir drivers. This concourse of

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proved, however,"but a small relief, as the tax instead of quartering was raised accordingly, no class being exempted from the general calamity. All towns and villages were therefore occupied by troops, except Göttingen, on account of its university, and Thé Harz, on account of its poverty; but the French, disliking the waste and cheerless flats of Westphalia, and other parts, flocked as much as possible to the larger places, which of course endured the severest hardships, from being occupied by the greater number of soldiers. The remoter parts of the country were, however, not without their share of distress. Contributions in kind were introduced in lieu of those in money. Every peasant was obliged to furnish the magazines with corn and forage; the proportion of his supplies being regulated by the extent of his land. The provision was then duly rated, and the peasant received for the value bonds at five per cent. And, however good the interest might be, the poor peasant was thus deprived of corn, hay, and money, the want of which he could not replace except at a treble COSt. Besides, the peasants were obliged, in their turn, to furnish their quota of waggons, horses, and carters, in part for the endless conveyances before-mentioned. Without calculating the wear and tear, consider only the loss of time and the interruption of his farming business; especially when, in addition to extraordinary calls, he was liable to be taken from his work in any season, and compelled to drive a few French. officers to a ball. Had the soldiery, who are generally liberal with their money, been allowed to spend their pay in the country, the poor inhabitants would have experienced some benefit; but the government of France took the most effectual measures to prevent this, by keeping back their pay eight or ten months, and, in fact, till they had passed the Hanoverian frontiers, Besides, the French com- 9.


missaries and generals, who amassed the greatest sums, sent all they could spåre to France, by which Hanover was, in fact, drained of all its wealth. * The effects of these measures were too quickly visible. Men of property were obliged to consume their capitals, and those in inferior circumstances to borrow at extravagant interest, as long as money was to be borrowed at any rate; but this resource at length failing to numbers who could not give ample security, they had no alternative but beggary or emigration. Every one retrenched his expences, which was only an aggravation of the universal misery. Those who had lived by the luxuries of the great experienced first the hardships of poverty, from the want of employment and increase of expentes. Of course, those towns in which luxury was most prevalent were the first victims of the extortions of the enemy; but the evil at length reached every class, from the lowest to the highest. Yet perhaps, of this latter class, none were more to be pitied than the civil officers of the state ; who, accustomed, from their rank and education, to a commodious way of living, were exposed to greater sacrifices than other people in lower conditions. A cruel retrenchment was made in their salaries, and the remaining allowanees were irregularly paid, and frequently altogether neglected. Redress, in such cases, was chimerical, for lawsuits would only have increased the evil. Those, therefore, who could not emigrate to England, Russia, or some other place, were compelled to submit to their misfortunes. In consequence of the glaring distress, frequent petitions were addressed to Bonaparte for relief from part of the burden; to which he answered, in his usual cant, “ I do not wish the Hanoverian fiedfile to be ruined ; and I wish the French name to be honoured among them.” And on another occasion he declared, “he would do whatever he could to spare the land, the situation cf

which he sincerely lamented.” But, ...

notwithstanding these assurances, it was not till the end of 1803 that any diminution took place in the number of troops stationed in Hanover, when seven of the thirty thousand were ordered to France; and another removal took place in the summer of 1805, leaving 20,000 in the country, which were finally reduced to 5000 when the late unfortunate contest demaanded their services in another part of Germany. Barbou remained in Hanover with this small body of French, till the approach of the Prussians rendered it necessary for them to retire to Hamel. Previous to his departure, he tried to extort from the government another million of dollars, by declaring, that in case of refusal he would set fire to the town ; but while

the ministers were deliberating

about their answer, the Prussians made such hasty advances, as rendered it necessary for the French to march without delay. As soon as they reached Hamel, they laid waste the suburbs, by destroving the gardens, and pulling down the houses, the wood of which they converted into firing. In the fortress itself they took possession of every thing they wanted for their own use, turning the poor people out of their beds or the cottages, as they found occasion for either. Even the graves of the dead were not exempt from plunder, and they took up several coffins for the sake of the wood and the nails. From one of them, which they were informed contained the remains of an Englishman, they tore out the body, and threw it inte the streets, treating it with every indignity. Hin the neighbourhood round Hamel they laid the people under contributions, perpetually carrying away their provender and cattle by force. It was the fate of Hanover to suffer every way by its accidental connection with England. The mischief intended to the English trade, by the blockade of the Elbe and Weser, fell ultimately upon them, and the two cities of Hamburgh and Bremen.

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“Fheir transit trade on the Elbe was thus almost totally ruined. The little province of Osnaburg, whose principal occupation and subsistence lay in the manufacture and exportation of linen, which it sent to Spain and America, received a check from the stoppage of the regular navigation. The produce of this trade to the province, in which almost every peasant had his loom, was above a million of dollars yearly before the blockade. Though the navigation to Hamburgh was kept up in part by the way of Tonningen, and that to Bremen by the Jahde, yet the delays, losses, and charges arising from this circuitous mode of conveyance were very injurious to the merchant: not to insation that every article passing through Hanover was obliged to have a certificate to specify that it had notpaid English customs, which was another circumstance that enhanced the price of all commodities to the purchaser. Meantime England was carrying on an unmolested trade, by the river Ems, in Emden, Leer, Meppen, and other places. The French attempted, indeed, to molest the progress of English goods from Meppen to Frankfort, and other parts of Germany, and profited by the supposed arrival of some fire-arms on English account, to occupy the town with soldiers. The fire-arms were, of course, not discovered; but, for the forevention of such an importation, they thought proper to continue there till the king of Prussia, who was then not so complaisant to the French as he afterwards was, positively insisted on the perfect freedom of the Ems navigation, and on the evacuation of Meppen. The French generals who had the command in Hanover were men of as good character, and of as much humanity, as could be expected from persons in the service of Bonaparte. {They kept the strictest discipline in the army to prevent every irregularity, and softened the rigour of the commands they were obliged to issue as much as lay in their power.

Mortier being recalled at the end of five months, in consequence of his elevation to the rank of marshal, Dessolles supplied his place till the arrival of Bernadotte. Under the administration of the latter, the country was greatly relieved by the system of economy he introduced into the whole army. The maintenance of the generals in Hanover was reduced one half, by their being obliged to have their food from the royal kitchen, and that of the generals in the provinces one-third. The officers were enjoined, on their honour, to have their meals at their own expense, for which they received additional pay every month. The privates were, in like manner, restricted to their allowance, and not permitted to demand any thing but Vegetables...and the preparation of their food. He also kept a strict eye over the commissaries, and lowered their salaries. In all these regulations he appeared to be guided by a consideration for the people’s distress; and, in justice to his character, it ought to be stated, that he was friendly to, the poor, and performed many acts of charity from his own private purse. -

For the Literary Magazine, guiacum.

MR. BRANDE has laid before the Royal Society of London some original experiments made on guiacum, from which he infers, that it is a substance very different from those which are denominated resins, and that it is also different from all those which are enumerated amongst balsams, gum-resins, gums, and extracts. Most probably, Mr. Brande says, it is a substance distinct in its nature from any of those above enumerated, in consequence of certain peculiarities in the proportions and chemical combination of its constituent elementary principles. At any rate he regards guiacum as composed of a resin modified by the vege

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table extractive principle, and, as such, it may be denominated an extracto resin without impropriety. Mr. Brande’llas, been led to these conclusions from observing the action of different solvents on guiacum, whence it appeared, that, although this substance possesses many properties in common with resinous bodies, it nevertheless differs from them in the following particulars: 1. By affording a portion of vegetable extract. 2. By the curious alterations which it undergoes when subjected to the action of bodies which readily communicate oxygen, suchas nitric and oxy-muriatic acids; and the rapidity with which it dissolves in the former. 3. By being converted into a more perfect resin; in which respect guiacum bears some resemblance to the fo. which constitutes the colouring matters of the leaves of trees. 4. By yielding oxalic acid. 5. By the quantity of charcoal and lime which are obtained from it when subjected to destructive distillation.

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change of the position of the germi.

nating seed, and that it might be . .

counteracted by the agency of centrifugal force. In a strong rill of . water he constructed a wheel similar to those used for grinding corn, and to this he adapted another wheel eleven inches in diameter, round the circumference of which he attached numerous seeds of the garden bean. The radicles of othese seeds were made to point in every direction, Some towards the centre of the . wheel, and others in an opposite. direction. The whole was inclosed in a box, and secured by a lock, and a wire grate was placed to prevent the ingress of any body capa

ble of impeding the motion of the

wheels one-water being admitted,

the wheels performed something more than 150 revolutions in a mi

nute ; and the position of the seeds relative to the earth was, of course,

as often perfectly inverted, within

the same period of time, by which it was imagined the influence of gravitation must have been wholly Suspended. In a few days the seeds began to germinate : the radicles; in whatever direction they were protruded from the position of the seed, turned their points outwards from the circumference of the wheel, and receded nearly at right angles from its axis. The germens, on the contrary, took the opposite direction, and in a few days their points ali met in the centre of the wheel. Three of these plants were suffered to remain on the wheel, and the stems soon extended beyond the centre of the wheel, but their points returned and met again at its centre. Mr. Knight then instituted another experiment, and from them both concludes, that the radicles of germinating seeds are made to descend, and their germens to ascend, by some external cause, and not by any power inherent in vegetable life'. and doubts not that gravitation is the principal, if not the only agent employed, in this case, by nature. He next endeavours to point out the means by which the same agent may

produce effects so diametrically opposite to each other. The radicle of a germinating seed is increased in length only by new parts successively added to its apex, and not by any general extension of parts already formed: and the new matter which is thus successively added descends in a fluid state from the cotyledons. On this fluid, and on the vegetable fibres and vessels whilst soft and flexible, and whilst the matter which composes them is changing from a fluid to a solid state, gravitation would operate sufficiently to give an inclination downwards to the point of the radicle. As the radicle length only by parts successively added to its point, the germen, on the contrary, elongates by a general extension of its parts previously organized; and its vessels and fibres appear to extend themselves in proportion to the quantity of nutriment they receive. If the motion and consequent distribution of the true sap be influenced by gravitation, it follows, that when the germen, at its first emission, or subsequently, deviates from a perpendicular direction, the sap must accumulate on its under side ; and, in a great variety of experiments on, the seeds of a horse chesnut, the bean, and other plants, when vegetating at rest, the vessels and fibres on the under side of the germen invariably elongate much more rapidly than those on its upper side : and thence it follows that the point of the germen must always turn upwards. And it has been proved that a similar increase of growth takes place on the external side of the germen when the sap is impelled there by centrifugal force, as it is attracted by gravitation to its under side when the seed germinates at rest. This increased elongation of the fibres and vessels of the under side is not confined to the germens, nor even to the annual shoots of trees, but occurs and produces the most extensive effects in the subsequent growth of their trunks and branches. of he immediate effect of gravitation

is increased in

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level when the branches above it. are removed; and the young tree,

by the same means, becomes mor upright in direct opposition to th immediate action of gravitation : . nature, as usual, executing the most important operations by the most simple means, *~ To this doctrine the most important objection is, that few branches rise perpendicularly upwards, and that roots always spread horizontally: to this it may be answered, that the luxuriant shoots of trees which abound in sap, in whatever direction they are first obtruded, almost uniformly turn upwards, and endeavour to acquire a particular direction: and to this their points will immediately return, if they are bent downwards during any period of their growth; their curvature upwards being occasioned by an increased extension of the fibres and vessels of their under sides, as in elongated germens of seeds. The more feeble and slender shoots of the same trees will, on the contrary, grow in almost every direction, probably because their fibres, being more dry, and their vessels less amply supplied with sap, they are less affected by gravitation. Their points, however, generally show an inclination to turn upwards, but the operation of light, in this case, has been proved to be very considerable. - . The radicle tapers rapidly as it descends into the earth, and its lower part is much compressed by the greater solidity of the mould into

which it penetrates. The true sap

also continues to descend from the

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