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derived from a celestial origin the temporal power and poffeffions which they had acquired. These venerable institutions had gradually affimilated themselves to the manners and government of their respective countries; but the opposition or contempt of the civil power served to cement the discipline of the primitive church. The Christians had been obliged to elect their own magistrates, to raise and distribute a peculiar revenue, and to regulate the internal policy of their republic by a code of laws, which were ratified by the consens of the people, and the practice of three hundred years. When Conftantine embraced the faith of the Christians, he seemed to contract a perpetual alliance with a distinct and independent society; and the privileges granted or confirmed by that Emperor, or by his fucceffors, were accepted, not as the precarious favours of the court, but as the just and unalienable rights of the ecclesiastical order.'

The Catholic church we are told, was administered by the spiritual and legal jurisdiction of eighteen hundred Bishops; of whom one thousand were seated in the Greek, and eight hundred in the Latin provinces, of the empire. While the civil and military profeffions were separated by the policy of Conftantine, a new and perpetual order of ecclefiaftical ministers, always respectable, sometimes dangerous, was established in the church and state. The review of their station and attributes


be distributed, our Author says, under the following heads : 1. Popular election ; 2. Ordination of the clergy; 3. Property; 4. Civil jurisdiction; 5. Spiritual censures ; 6. Exercise of public oratory; 7. Privilege of legislative assemblies.---We refer our Readers to the work itself for what is said under each of these heads.

The persecution of heresy, the schism of the Donatists, the Arian controversy, the character and adventures of Athanafius, the distracted state of the church and empire under Constantine and his Sons, and the toleration of Paganism, are the subjects treated of in the twenty-first chapter, and the Reader will no where find them discuiled with so much accuracy and ability, within so narrow a compass.

From the age of Conftantine to that of Clovis and Theodoric, the temporal interests both of the Romans and Barbarians were deeply involved in the theological disputes of Arianifm. The historian, therefore, Mr. Gibbon says, may be permitted respectfully to withdraw the veil of the sanctuary; and to deduce the progress of reason and faith, of error and paffion, from the school of Plato to the decline and fall of the empire, This is a curious subject, and what is advanced upon it will afford ample materials for reflection to every philofophical reader. But we fhall conclude this Article with observing, that Mr. Gibbon, in the beginning of this chapter, has used the word submitted in a fenfe, wherein, we apprehend, it is never used, -• The complaints and mutual accusations which affailed the throne of


Constantine, as soon as the death of Maxentius had submitted Africa to his victorious arms,' &c. - As Mr. Gibbon stands in the first class of modern writers, he will certainly be often quoted as an authority ; it is proper, therefore, to endeavour to prevent the ill effects of so powerful an example.

(To be continued.]

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Art. VI. Dr. Moore's View of Society and Manners in Italy, con,

cluded. See Review for February. E have given our Readers some idea of the contents of

che first volume of the publication now before us; and we now come to

V. OL. II. This volume opens with an account of busts,, ftatues, Heathen deities, ' &c. on which the Author descants in his usual strain of vivacity and pleasant 'humour. We have then a very agreeable sketch of the late Pope Ganganelli; avith an exceeding good story of a Scotch Presbyterian parson, who took a journey to Rome, to convert the Pope. The story ends in a way much to the credit of his Holiness: as doth, likewise, the account here given of the ceremony which took place on the D. of H. and our Author being presented to the Sovereign Pon, tiff. The forgoing particulars are the subjects of Letters XLVI, XLVII, XLVIII, and XLIX.

In Letter L. the modern Romans are discussed; the ladies are compared with those of England; and we have some very pertinent observations on portrait-painting.

Letter LI. entertains us with the carnival, the masquerades, the horse-races, the amusements of the theatres at Rome, &c. &c.

In Letter LII. we accompany this agreeable traveller in his journey from Rome to Naples; and in the fixteen following letters, we have the Doctor's account of whatever be deemed worthy of his particular notice at the court, and in the dominions, of his Neapolitan Majesty. From these particulars we shall extract his character of the noblefle :

• The hereditary jurisdiction of the nobles over their vaffals fub. fifts, both in the kingdom of Naples and Sicily, in the full rigour of the feudal government. The peasants therefore are poor; and it de pends entirely on the personal character of the masters, whether their poverty is not the least of their grievances. If the land was ' leafed out to free farmers, whose property was perfectly secure,' and the leases of a sufficient length to allow the tenant to reap the fruits of his own improvements, there is no manner of doubt that the estates' of the nobility would produce much more. The landlord might have a higher rent paid in money, instead of being collected in kind; which subjects him to the salaries and impofitions of a numerous train


of flewards; and the tenants, on their parts, would be enabled to live much more comfortably, and to lay up, every year, a fmall pittance for their families. But the love of domineering is so predomi. pant in the breails of men, who have been accustomed to it from their infancy, that, if the alternative were in their choice, many of them would rather submit to be themselves slaves to the caprices of an abfolute prince, than become perfectly independent, on the condition of giving independence to their vassals. There is reason to beliele that this ungenerous fpirit prevails pretty. univerfally among the nobility all over Europe. The German Barons are more ihocked at the idea of their peasants becoming perfeâly free, like the farmers of Great Britain, than they are solicitous to limit the power of their princes; and, from the sentiments I have heard -expressed by the French, I very much doubt, whether their high nobility would ac cept of the privileges of English peers, at the expence of that insolent superiority, and those licentious freedoms, with which they may, though no English peer can, treat with impunity the citizens and people of inferior rank. We need be the less furprised at this, when we consider that, in some parts of the British empire, where the equable and generous laws of England prevail, those who set the highest value on freedom, who submit to every hardship, and encounter every danger, to secure it to themselves, never have thewn a disposition of extending its blessings, or even alleviating the bone dage of that part of the human species, which a sordid and unjutti.. fiable barter has brought into their power. 26. The Court of Naples has not yet ventured, by one open act of authority, to abolith the immoderate power of the lords over their tenants. But it is believed that the Minister secretly wishes for its destruction; and in cases of flagrant oppreslion, when complaints are brought before the legal courts, or directly to the King himself, by the peasants against their lord, it is generally remarked that the Minister favours the complainant. Notwithftanding this, the matters have so many opportunities of oppreffing, and foch various methods of teasing their vassals, that they generally chuse to bear their wrongs in filence; and perceiving ibat those who hold their lands immediately from the Crown, are in a much easier fituation thani themselves, without raising their hopes to perfect freedom, the height of their wishes is to be sheltered, from the vexations of liccle ty: ants, under the unlimited power of one common master. The objects of royal attention, they fondly imagine, are too sublime, and the minds of Kings too generous, to stoop to, or even to countenance in their fervants, the minute and unreasonable exertions, which are wsung a5 present from the hard hands of the exhausted labourer.

Though the Neapolitan nobility still retain the ancient feudal authority over the peasants, yet their personal importance de pends, in a great measure, on the favour of the King; who, under pretext of, any offence, can confine them to their own eitates, or imprison them at pleasure; and who, without any alleged offence, and without going to such extremes, can inflict a punishment, highly sensible to them, by not inviting them to the amusements of the Court, or not receiving them with smiles when they attend on any ordinary occafion. Unless this Prince were


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fo very impolitic as to disgust all the nobility at once, and so unite the whole body against him, he has little to fear from their resentment. Even in case of such an union, as the nobles have lost the affection and attachment of their peasants, what could they do in opposition to a standing army of thirty thousand men, entirely devoted. to the Crown? The establishment of standing armies has universally given stability to the power of the prince, and ruined that of the great lords. No nobility in Europe can now be said to inherit political importance, or to ad independent of, or in opposition co, che influence of the Crown ; except the temporal peers of that part of Great Britain called England.

• As men of high birth are seldom, in this country, called to the management of public affairs, or placed in those situations where great political knowledge is required ; and as his Majelty relies on his own talents and experience in war for the direction of the army ; neither the civil nor military establishments open any very tempting

field for the ambition of the nobles, whose education is usually - adapted to the parts in life which they have a probability of acting.

Their fortunes and titles descend to them, independent of any efforc of their own. All the literary distinctions are beneath their regard; it is therefore not thought expedient to cloud the playful innocence of their childhood, or the amiable gaiety of their youth, with severe ftudy. In some other countries, where a very small porcion of lite. rary education is thought becoming for young men of rank, and where even this small portion has been neglected, they sometimes catch a little knowledge of history and mythology, and some useful moral sentiments, from the excellent dramatic pieces that are reprefented on their theatres. They also sometimes pick up fome notion of the different governments in Europe, and a few political ideas, in the course of their travels. But the nobility of this country very seldom travel; and the only dramatic pieces represented here, are operas; in which music, not sentiment, is the principal thing attended to.

In the other cheatrical entertainments, Punchinello is the shining character. To this disregard of literature among the nobles, it is owing, that in their body are to be found few tiresome, scholartic pedants, and none of those perturbed spirits, who ruffle the serenity of nations by political alarms, who clog the wheels of government by oppofition, who pry into the conduct of minifters, or in any way diturb that total indifference with regard to the public, which prevails all over this kingdom. We are told by a great modern hisa torian *, that “ force of mind, a sense of personal dignicy, gallantry in enterprise, invincible perseverance in execution, contempt of dan-' ger and of death, are the characteristic virtues of uncivilised nations."! But as the nobles of this country have long been fufficiently civilised, these qualities may in them be supposed to have given place to the arts which embellish a polished age; to gaming, gallantry, music, the parade of equipage, the refinements of dress, and other nameless refinements.'

From Naples we are conducted to Tivoli, Frescati, and Albano; and thence to Florence, where we meet with much to

* Vide Dr. Robertson's History of the Emperor Charles V. Sect. I. Rev. May 1781.



engage the attention of a curious traveller. We next proceed to Milan, Turin, Besançon; and so to Paris : and the volume concludes with some excellent observations on · foreign travel.'

We must now take leave of thefe entertaining volumes, with the fincere tender of our hearty thanks to the ingenious Author, for the information and pleasure which the perasal of his Travels hath afforded us. -To this let us add our hope, if the Doctor goes abroad again, that the favourable reception which his publications have met with, will encourage him to continue his very agreeable communications.

Since this article was finished, a letter has been received from a Correspondent, who ugns R. D. complaining of Dr. Moore's levity, in his account of Mr. Wortley Montagu's perfuming his beard *. We heartily wish that our old facetious friend, Sterne, were alive, to assist us in a serious invelligation of this grave and momentous business; but Sterne is gone, and has nos left a man behind him, qualified, as he was, to touch a hair of Montagu's beard.

Bur it is not the liberty taken by Dr. Moore with the beard of Mr. Montagu, that ha:h offended Ms. R. D.-it is the Doctor's profane allusion to the precious ointment of Aaron's beard, which appears to have hurt the piety of our Correspondent. • There çan be little doubt,' says he, ' that the anointing alluded to in the Psalms, is the Consecration of Aaron, a divine inftitution, and ought for that reason to have been omitted, or treated with more re{pect by the Doctor.'

Nor is it with Dr. M. only, thai R. D. is offended. He seems to be angry, also, with us, for having transcribed the impious pasfage from the Doctor's book. -- Intlead,' fays he, of inserting this impertinent, if not impious, digreffion, in the middle of an entertaining narrative, you ought to have cenfused him for doing so;- for I am perfuaded, that there is not one of his numerous Readers, nor of yours, but bad rather go on with the narrative, than have it intersupied by this unconscionable digression.'

Perhaps our Correspondent may be somewhat in the right, with respect to what he terms the impertinence' of the Author's digreslive remarks on the precious ointment, and on the old versions of the Psalms; but really the impiety of the Doctor's merriment did not Itrike us. We were in such good humour with the account, taken altngecher, of Mr. Montagu, his reverend beard, and his delightful perfumes, that we never thought of mutilating any part of the flory, but eagerly swallowed the whole, digression and all!

But though our Correspondent is difpleased with Dr. M. he is not so far exasperated againit him as to with him fu severe a chaitisement as was inflicted on some people who used indecene freedoms with the beards of some of David's . friends;' but, says he, when the Doctor returns to Edinburgh, if ever he do return, may some wench, from the highest wird w of the highest house, pour ber richest

* Rev. February, p. 139.


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