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you, if they had not written Lucian under the picture. I heartily with the Doctor better luck.
• Luc. And there is some reason to hope it: for I hear he has taken pains about me, has studied my features well' before he fat down to trace them on the canvas, and done it, CON AMORE : if he brings out a grod resemblance, I shall excuse the want of grace and beauty in his piece. I assure you I am not without pleaGng expectation ; especially as my friend Sophocles, who, you know, fat to him fome time ago, tells me, though he is no Praxiteles, he does not take a bad likeness.---But I must be gone, for yonder come Swift and Rabelais, whom I have made a little party with this morning : so, my good Lord, fare you well.
Lord L. And I must meet my dear Lucy in the myrtle grove; so, honelt Lucian, good morrow to you.'
The copious extract with which we have taken the liberty to present the Reader, will give him a very favourable idea of the fpirit of this excellent work. Dr. Franklin had made himself fully master of his Author before he fat down to tranflate him. He generally renders the Greek by equivalent words and phrases in the English language ; he is never seized with the madness of embellishing his original ; and while he has proved himself, by the dialogue above inserted, worthy to emulate the fame of Lucian, he must be acknowledged fully equal to the humbler, though not less difficult task, of delineating the portrait, and copying the characteristic features of this admired writer. To juitify this commendation, we shall insert a short dialogue, cholen without any particular predilection as superior to the rest; for the whole is uniformly correct, easy, and natural.
• Ding. What! Alexander here! could he die like one of us ?
• Alex. It is even fo, as you fee, Diogenes; and where is the wonder that a mortal man should die?
Ding. Did Ammon lie, then, when he called you his fon; and are you really sprung from Philip?
Alex. From Philip most undoubtedly : for had I been the son of Ammon, I had not died.
• Diog. Something was whispered too about Olympias, that the kept company with a Dragon, who was seen in bed with her, that you were the fruit of their amours, and Philip deceived, who only imagined himself to be your father.
.Alex. I have heard of this as well as you ; and now I perceive, that neither my mother, nor the prophets of Ammon, spoke one word of truth.
• Diog. The tale, however, was not unserviceable to you in carsying on your affairs; for many, believing you to be a god, feared you as such: but pray, inform me, to whom you have left your empire ?
Alex. Indeed, Diogenes, I know not : my death was so sudden, that I had not cime to determine any thing concerning it, except that, when I was dying, I gave my ring to Perdiccas. What makes you Smilei
• Diog. I smile to think how the Grecians behaved when they gave you the empire, how they chose you their general against the Barbarians, flattered and adored you ; fome of them were for adding you to the twelve deities, building temples for, and worshipping you as the offspring of the Dragon. But, tell me, where did the Macedonians bury you?
• Alex. For these three days pat I have lain in Babylon; but Pio. lomæus, one of my officers, has promised, when affairs are a little quiet, and he is at leisure; to carry me to Egypt, and bury me there, that I may be made an Ægyptian god.
• Ding. Can I help laughing, Alexander, to see you ridiculous even after death, and hoping to be an Ofris or Anubis ? But, pray, my most divine friend, lay aside your hopes : no one who has ever parfed the lake, and defcended into the mouth of Tartarus, must ever think of returning : Æacus is not so careless, nor Cerberus ro contemptible. But I lhould be glad to know how you feel on the remembrance of past felicity, when you recollect your guards, your Satıaps, and your treasures, the people that adored you at Bactria, and at Babylon, your honours and dignities, when you shone so confpicuous, when you were carried by immense wild beasts, crowned with garlands, and clothed in purple; does not the remembrance of these things torment you ? --Ha! fcol, dost thou weep? Did not your wise Aristotle teach you to have no dependence on the gifts of For* tane?
• Alex, Call you him wise ? that basest of all flatterers ! I know him well, know how much he solicited, how much he wrote to me, he abused my love of science, and desire of knowledge; how he coma plimented and flattered me; sometimes on my beauty, as if that was a species of perfection ; sometimes on my actions, and sometimes on my riches, for thofe also he looked on as a real good, probably the better to excuse his own desire of them. Diogenes, he was an artful and designing man, and all the fruits I reap from his wisdom, is, to be tormented now about those enjoyments which you just now mentioned.
Diog. What is to be done then? Shall I point you out a remedy for this diseafe? As we have no hellebore growing here, take, as fait as you can, the waters of Lethe ; drink, and drink again ; Aristotle's good things will then no longer disgult you: but I fee Clytus and Calisthenes, and several more, who are ready to fall upon, and tear you in pieces, for the injuries they have received from you: therefore, go into another path, and remember what I told you ; drink away.'
The translation runs with the easy flow of an original; and it is with pleasure that we congratulate the public on a new acquisition from the Greek, equally entertaining and instructive. Though Lucian did not fourish in the illustrious
of Grecian eloquence and philosophy, yet he had constantly in his hands the works of Homer and Euripides, of Plato and Xenophon, of Demofthenes and Lyfias. Nourished by the cultivated fertility of those immortal authors, he acquired that manly fenfe, and that just and elegant expression, which distinguish him from the jejune and empty declaimers, as well as the ver, bose and pedantic philologists of his own times. He disdained
that measured fymmetry of periods, those glaring antitheses, and that tumid inanity of sound without sense, which mark the decay of true eloquence, against which our own age will be best preserved by studying the unaffected fimplicity, and copying the folid and manly graces, of the invaluable models of antiquity.
Dr. F. has translated all the works of Lucian, that could appear with decency in an English dress. There are several, however, of the writings ascribed to him, which the Doctor, neither as a clergyman, nor indeed as a man of virtue and character, could have been the instrument of communicating to the Public. What these are, we are informed in an advertisement, which leaves no room to regret the loss.
ART. IX. The History of the Heretics of the two first Centuries after
Chrift: Containing an Account of their Time, Opinions, and Testimonies to the Books of the New Testament. To which are prefixed general Observations concerning Heretics. Published from the Manuscript of the late reverend and learned Nathaniel Lardner, D.D. With large Additions by John Hogg. 4to. 185. Johnson. 1780. ROM the great service rendered to Christianity by the
laborious pursuits and learned compilations of Dr. Lard. ner, his name will ever be distinguishingly honoured in the History of the Christian Church. Dr. Priestley, when he speaks of this most learned and excellent man, generally calls him, the Prince of modern Divines ;' and we think this tribute to his illustrious merit not improperly paid. To the most elaborate and extenfive investigations of ecclefiaftical antiquity, he added all that knowledge of Greek and Roman literature which 'enabled him so thoroughly to discriminate the comparative worth and excellence of the facred and prophane writers. To the learning of the scholar he added also the veracity of the historian'; while the amiable candour and huinility of the Chrisa tian, gave a pleasing lustre and embellishment to his more emi. nent accomplishments.
The work now presented to the public, though it contains some curious accounts of people called Heretics, whose names had in general funk into total oblivion, is not of equal import-, ance with those which the Doctor published himself. To the generality it will appear to contain a very dry and uninteresting detail of persons and facts--the memory of which was scarcely worth preserving. This judgment will certainly be pafled on it, not by flimsy and superficial readers only, but by men of more enlarged understandings, and of deeper and more improved ftudies. To the cognofcenti in ecclefiaftics, who have patience to search into the very rubbish of worse than Gothic literature, Rev. Jan, 1781.
this posihumous work may afford abundant amusement; and be . ing pleased, they may fancy themselves improved too!--But leaving every man to gratify his own appetite, without pretending to decide on the relative merit of this or that species of taite, we proceed to give some account of the work before us.
The Editor informs us, that it was chiefly drawn up by the Doctor himself, and lay by him several years. Some parts of it were completely fitted for the press, having received his last corrections. In other parts only a few hints were written, which (says the Editor) I have endeavoured to follow with fidelity and exaciness. . . . I have published nothing concerning any Heretic, but where the learned Writer had either drawn up pari, or left tome hints or references. -Mr. Joseph Jennings, the nephew and executor of Dr. Lardner, committed to me, in the year 1:69, the papers relative to the present History, defiring me to peruse them, and to request the asistance of my late worthy and learned friend, the Rev. Samuel Merivale, in order to their being prepared for the pref. Mr. Merivale declined undertaking any thing further, than carefully examining the articles, after they were put in order and fitted for the press. Accordingly, as foon as each article was finished, the MS. was delivered to him, and, I have the satisfaction to say, met with his approbation.' The Editor makes an apology for the many imperfections attending this publication ;' and very justly observes, that these imperfections might • have been avoided, had the worthy Author lived to have completed the work himself.' Nevertheless, notwithstanding the great deficiencies of such a pofthumous work as this, and the inequalities that -muft necessarily strike every discerning eye, yet the Editor flatters himsel!, 'that even in its present form it deserves the attention of the public.'
The first book of this History contains some general observations on Heretics, and may rather be considered as a candid apology for their mistakes, than a zealous confutation of their errors. It opens with an explanation of the word Heresy, and observes, that, in its fimple and original mcaning, nothing more is intended by it, than an opinion voluntarily adopted. Thus, by Suidas and Diogenes Laertius, the various modes of philofophizing in the ancient Ethnic schools, were expressed by the term Heresy, without intending to convey any opprobrium by it. In this latitude it is also made use of in the New Testament in two or three places. In other parts, indeed, of the sacred writings, it is used in a bad sense; and is generally meant to convey an unfavourable idea of the principles of any person or feet to whom it is applied. • The reason of this (says Dr. Lardner) seems to lie in what Tertullian says with a view to the primary meaning of the word Heresy, viz. a cholen opinion or doctrine that there should be no herefies among Christians, and that a heretic forfeits the character of a Christian, forajonuch as there is nothing left to their invention. They ought all to adhere to the docrine taught by, and received from Christ and his Apoftles, who have delivered all the principles of true religion..... With regard to the prelumption
of those men who introduced new opinions, the same Father observes pleasantly, that invention is an heretical privilege, and that heretics, as well as poets and painters, have a certain licence allowed them. (Si fortè poetica et pictoria licentia et tertia jam hæretica.)'
But though the term be easily explained, yet nothing is more difficult than to give an exact definition of the thing. On this point each will have his own opinion; and there is no leitled standard to determine which is positively right. All Christians pretend to make the Bible the test of faith ; but few are agreed in the explanation of it. Here they may dispute--and dispute to eternity: and unless on plain and practical articles, there is no hope of bringing their debates to a decided iffue. Dr. Lardner observes, that heretics were generally understood, in the ancient church, to be persons who lepa. sared themselves from what was called the catholic or orthodox communion; or who were excluded from it by others. Austin and Tertullian call them strangers—without the church, &c. • But (says the learned Author) whether they were allowed by others to be Christians or not, they always called themselves Chriftians, and laid claim to that character. Salvian to this purpose remarks, that they believe what they profess to be true, and they think themselves to be orthodox. As they are heretics in our esteem, so are we in theirs." And as for those (continues our candid Author) of the two first centu. ries, who called themselves Christians, and professed faith in Jesus, what good reason can there be to dispute their veracity and integrity? The profession of the Christian name was not then the way to honour, profit, or pleasure.'
In Sect. 3d, which treats in general of the causes of herefy, the Doctor observes, that it hath been frequently ascribed to pride, love of pre-eminence, envy, revenge, disappointment, love of sensual pleasure, a desire to be wise and knowing above all others, and curiosity to search out the reason of all things; and to other fauloy causes and principles, which indeed may have contributed to the great variety of opinions which there has been amongst Christians. But that heretics may not have the load of blame thrown wholly on them, the Doctor equitably divicies a just share of it amongst the orthodox. • From those faulty principles and causes of heresy, those who are called catholics, and who have been generally esteemed orthodox, have not always been free.' The learned Author, however, grants, that an eager curiosity to pry into, and know every thing, might probably have no small effect in this affair. Too curious inquiries into the origin of evil seem to have misled many men. The question was difficult, and they went into several opinions, some of which were wrong and abfurd.'
The Doctor, in a former work, had attempted to apologize for the mistakes observed in the writings of the ancient Christians. With the fame impartiality he endeavours to maintain, in the present performance, an equal regard to all, without aggravating the supposed errors of those who have been defamed as heretics, or the mistakes, oversights, inaccuracies, and misrepresentations of those who have wrote their history, or who have argued against them.' The design is truly liberal; and the execution of it is in the main perfectly consistent with the imparciality of the plan.