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of 4038 feet was 32 degrees; the prince, was informed, by the midtemperature of the atmosphere (and wife, that her majesty was still in probably that of the water at the labour. This intelligence alarmed surface of the sea) being at the same him greatly, and he ordered the time at 594 degrees.
chancellor of France, the first alThis is likewise attested by the moner, the queen's confessor, and difference subsisting between the myself to remain in her apartment temperature of the sea at the surface till she was delivered, as he wished and at great depth, at the tropic, us to be witnesses of the steps which though the temperature of the at. he meant to take, if she gave birth mosphere there is so constant, that to another dauphin ; for it had been the greatest annual changes seldom foretold, by some shepherds, that exceed five or six degrees; yet the the queen was pregnant with two difference between the heat of the sons; they also reported that they water at the surface of the sea, and had obtained the knowledge by dithat of the depth of 3600 feet is not vine inspiration. This report was less than 31 degrees; the tempera- soon circulated through Paris, and ture at the surface being 84 degrees, the people, alarmed by it, loudly and at the given depth below no asserted that, if this prediction was more than 53 degrees.
verified, it would cause the total ruin of the state. The archbishop of Paris was soon informed of these
transactions, and, after conversing For the Literary Magazine. with the shepherds, ordered them
to be closely confined in the prison THE IRON MASK.
of Lazarus ; for the serious effect
their prophecy had produced in the THERE are few readers who minds of the people had given the have not heard of the man in the king some uneasiness, because it iron mask, and who have not felt made him reflect on the disturbantheir curiosity deeply interested in ces he had to fear in this kingdom. the solution of that famous mystery. He informed the cardinal of this The best account of this extraordi. prediction, who, in his answer, said nary personage has been published that the birth of two dauphins was by Soulavie, in his memoirs of Riche- not impossible, and that, if the pealieu. The solution he gives is wor- sant's prophecy should be realized, thy, in its importance and dignity, the last born must be concealed with of the mystery to which it relates the greatest care, as he might, when
According to this historian, the he grew up, conceive that he had a following authentic paper was writ. right to the crown, and cause anoten by the governor of this prisoner, ther league in the kingdom. a short time before his death :
During the queen's second labour, The unfortunate prince whom I which lasted several hours, the king have brought up, and taken care of was tormented by his apprehentill the close of my life, was born sions, for he felt a strong presenti. September 5th, 1638, at half past ment that he should soon be the facight. His brother, the present so. ther of two dauphins. He desired vereign, Louis XIV, was born in the bishop of Meaux not to leave the morning of the same day, about the queen till she was delivered, and twelve o'clock. But the births of afterward, turning to us all, said, these princes presented a striking sufficiently loud to be heard by the contrast, for the eldest's was as queen, that, if another dauphin splendid and brilliant as the young- should be born, and any of us should est's was melancholy and private. divulge the secret, our heads should
The king, soon after the queen answer for it: for, added he, his was safely delivered of the first birth must be a secret of state, to
VOL. III. NO. XXI.
prevent the misfortunes which would purposed, in that case, to put the infollow the disclosure, as the salic fant in possession of his rights. law has been silent concerning the During the infancy of the young inheritance of a kingdom on the prince, M. Peronnette, the midwife, birth of male twins.
treated him as if he were her own The event which had been fore. son, but, from her great care and told soon after arrived, for the manner of living, every one suspect. queen, while the king was at sup- ed that he was the illegitimate son per, gave birth to a second son, much of some rich nobleman. smaller and handsomer than the As soon as the prince's infancy first; and the poor infant, by his in- was over, cardinal Mazarin, on cessant cries, seemed to lament his whom his education had devolved, entrance into a world where so consigned him to my care, with ormuch misery was in store for hiin. ders to educate him in a manner The chancellor then drew up a cer- suitable to the dignity of his birth, tificate of this extraordinary event, but in private. M. Peronnette conbut the king not approving it, it was tinued to attend him in my house in burnt in our presence, and it was Burgundy till her death, and they not till after he had written a great were warmly attached to each other. many that his majesty was satisfied. I had frequent conversations with The first almoner endeavoured to the queen during the subsequent dispersuade the king that he ought not turbances in this kingdom ; and her to conceal the birth of a prince; to majesty has often said to me, that if which his majesty replied, that rea. the prince's birth should be discosons of state absolutely required the vered during the life of the young most inviolable secrecy.
king, his brother, the male-contents, The king soon after dictated the would, she feared, take advantage oath of secrecy, which he desired us of it to raise a revolt among the all to sign. When this important people ; for, she added, that it was business was concluded, he sealed the opinion of many able physicians, the oath to the certificate, and took that the last born of twins was the possession of it. The royal infant first conceived, and of course the was then given to the midwife; but, eldest. This fear did not, however, to deter her from revealing the se- prevent the queen from preserving, cret of its birth, she was menaced with the greatest care, the written with death if ever she gave the testimonies of the prince's birth; least hint of it; we were all, like. for she intended, if any accident had wise, strictly charged not even to befallen his brother, to have recog. converse with each other on the nised him, though she had another subject.
son. His majesty dreaded nothing so The young prince received as much as a civil war, and he thought good an education as I could have that the dissentions which would wished to have received myself, and certainly occur between the two a better one than was bestowed on brothers, if they were brought up as the acknowledged princes. such, would certainly occasion one; When he was about nineteen, his the cardinal, also, when he was in- desire to know who he was increasvested with the superintendancy of ed to a great degree, and he torthe prince's education, did everymented me with continual solicitathing in his power to keep this ap- tions to make him acquainted with prehension alive.
the author of his existence; the The king ordered us to examine more earnest he was, the more recarefully the poor child's body, to solute were my refusals; and when see if he had any marks by which he saw that his entreaties did not he might hereafter be known, if his avail, he endeavoured to persuade brother should die ; for he always me that he thought he was my son. Often, when he called me by the the court, that was then kept at St. tender name of father, did I tell him Jean-de-Las, to see and compare that he deceived himself; but, at himself with his brother. length, seeing that he persevered in The young prince was then exthis opinion, I ceased to contradict tremely beautiful, and he inspired him, and gave him reason to believe such an affection in the breast of a that he was really my son. He ap- young chambermaid, that, in defipeared to credit this, with a view, ance of the strict orders which all no doubt, of forcing me, by this the domestics had received, not to means, to reveal the truth to him; give the prince any thing he requiras I afterwards learned that he was ed without my permission, she proat that very time doing all in his cured him the king's portrait. power to discover who he was. As soon as the unhappy prince
Two years elapsed in this man glanced his eve on it, he was forci. ner, when an imprudent action, for bly struck by its resemblance to which I shall ever reproach myself, himself; and well he might, for one revealed to him the important se. portrait would have served for them cret of his birth. He knew that I both. This sight confirmed all his had received, at that time, many doubts, and made him furious. He expresses from the king; and this instantly flew to me, exclaiming, in circumstance, probably, raised some the most violent passion, « This is doubts in his mind, which he sought the king! and I am his brother! to clear up by opening my scrutoire, here is an undeniable proof of it.” in which I had imprudently left He then showed me a letter from many letters from the queen and cardinal Mazarin that he had stolen the cardinal. He read them, and out of my scrutoire, in which his their contents, aided by his natural birth was mentioned. penetration, discovered the whole I now feared that he would consecret to him.
trive means to escape to the court I observed, about this time, that during the celebration of his bro. his manners were quite changed, ther's nuptials; and to prevent this for, instead of treating me with that meeting, which I greatly dreaded, affection and respect which I was I soon after sent a messenger to the accustomed to receive from him, he king, to inform him of the prince's became surly and reserved. This having broken open my scrutoire, alteration at first surprised me, but by which means he had discovered I too soon learnt the cause.
the secret of his birth. I also inMy suspicion was first roused by formed him of the effect this discohis asking me, with great earnest. very had produced in his mind. On ness, to procure him the portraits the receipt of this letter his majesty of the late and present king. I told instantly ordered us both to be imhim, in answer, that there was no prisoned. The cardinal was charggood resemblances of either, and ed with this order; and, at the that I would wait till some eminent same time, acquainted the prince painter should execute their pic- that his improper conduct was the tures.
cause of our common misfortune. This reply, which he appeared I have continued from that time extremely dissatisfied with, was fol. till this moment a fellow-prisoner lowed by a request to go to Dijon with the prince; and now, feeling The extreme disappointment he ex- that the awful sentence to depart pressed on being refused alarmed this life has been pronounced by my me, and from that moment I watch- heavenly judge, I can no longer reed his motions more closely. I af- fuse to calm both my own mind and terward learnt that his motive for my pupil's, by a candid declaration wishing to visit Dijon was to see of this important fact, which may the king's picture ; he had an in- enable him to extricate himself from tention also of going from thence to his present ignominious state if the king should die without issue. what chiefly teaches your horse the Ought I to be obliged, by a forced vicious habit against which we are oath, to keep a secret inviolably, here warning. On the other hand, with which posterity ought to be a constant practice of mounting in acquainted ?
the proper manner, is all that is necessary to prevent a horse's going on till the rider is quite adjusted in
the saddle. For the Literary Magazine. The next thing is, that the rider
mount properly. The common me. LESSONS TO BAD HORSEMEN. thod is to stand near the croup or
hinder part of the horse, with the THE following instructions are bridle held very long in the right worthy of general attention, on ma- hand. By this manner of holding ny accounts. In the first place, there the bridle before you mount, you is scarcely a man or woman, in any are liable to be kicked ; and when class of society, who does not, in you are mounted, your horse may some degree, stand in need of them, go on some time, or play what gamand to whom they may not be high- bols he pleases, before the rein is ly serviceable : in the second place, short enough in your hand to prethey are eminently conducive to vent him. It is common likewise the ease and safety of the reader: for an awkward rider, as soon as and, thirdly, they are calculated to his foot is in the stirrup, to throw preserve that noble and deserving himself with all his force to gain animal, the horse, from a great his seat: which he cannot do, till deal of unnecessary suffering. These he has first overbalanced himself on lessons are divested of all technical one side or the other : he will then refinement and obscurity, and can be wriggle into it by degrees. The throughly understood by almost eve- way to mount with ease and safety ry reader.
is, to stand rather before than beEvery horse should stand still hind the stirrup. In this posture when he is mounted. This will be take the bridle short, and the mane readily granted ; yet we see how together in your left hand, helping much the contrary is practised. yourself to the stirrup with your When a gentleman mounts at a li. right, so that your toe may not very-stable, the groom takes the touch the horse in mounting. When horse by the bit, which he bends your left foot is in the stirrup, move tight round his under jaw : the on your right till you face the side horse striving to go on, is forced of the horse looking across over the back; advancing again, he frets, as saddle. Then with your right hand he is again stopped short, and hurt grasp the hinder part of the saddle;. by the manner of holding him. The and with that and your left, which rider, meantime, mounting without holds the mane and bridle, lift your. the bridle, or at least holding it but self upright on your left foot, Remain slightly, is helped to it by the groom, thus a mere instant on your stirrup, who being thoroughly employed by so as to divide the action into two the horse's fluttering, has at the motions. While in this posture, same time both bridle and stirrup to you have a sure hold with both give. This confusion would be pre- hands, and are at liberty either to vented, if every horse was taught get safely down, or to throw your to stand still when mounted. For, leg over and gain your seat. By bid your groom, therefore, when he this deliberate motion likewise, you rides your horse to water, to throw avoid, what every good horseman himself over him from a horse. would endeavour to avoid, putting block, and kick him with his leg, your horse into a flutter. even before he is fairly upon him. When you dismount, hold the This wrong manner of mounting is bridle and mane together in your
left hand, as when you mounted; put jaw, till the reins of the bridle are your right hand on the pommel of moderately pulled. the saddle, to raise yourself; throw If your horse is used to stand still your leg back over the horse, grasp when mounted, there will be no octhe hinder part of the saddle with casion for one to hold him : but if your right hand, remain a moment he does, suffer him not to touch the on your stirrup, and in every re- reins, but that part of the bridle spect dismount as you mounted; which comes down the cheek of thre only what was your first motion horse. He cannot then interfere then becomes the last now. Re- with the management of the reins, member not to bend your right knee which belongs to the rider only ; in dismounting, lest your spur should and holding a horse by the curb rub against the horse.
(which is ever painful to him) is Hold your bridle at a convenient evidently improper when he is to length. Sit square, and let not the stand still.. purchase of the bridle pull forward Do not ride with your arms and your shoulder ; but keep your body elbows as high as your shoulders ; even, as if each hand held a rein. nor let them shake up and down Hold your reins with the whole with the motion of the horse. The grasp, dividing them with your lit. posture is unbecoming, and the tle finger. Let your hand be per- weight of the arms and of the body pendicular; your thumb will then too, if the rider does not sit still, acts be uppermost, and placed on the in continual jerks on the jaw of the bridle. Bend your wrist a little horse, which must give him pain, outward ; and when you pull the and make him unquiet, if he has a bridle, raise your hand toward your tender mouth or any spirit. breast, and the lower part of the Bad riders wonder why horses palm rather more than the upper. are gentle as soon as they are Let the bridle be at such length in mounted by skilful ones, though your hand, as, if the horse should their skill seems unemployed : the stumble, you may be able to raise reason is, the horse goes at his ease, his head, and support it by the yet finds all his motions watched; strength of your arms, and the which he has sagacity enough to weight of your body thrown back- discover. Such a rider hides his ward. If you hold the rein too long, whip, if he finds his horse is afraid you are subject to fall backward as of it, and keeps his legs from his your horse rises.
sides, if he finds he dreads the spur. If, knowing your horse, you think Never let your legs shake against a tight rein unnecessary, advance the sides of the horse ; and neither your arm a little, but not your keep your arms and elbows high, shoulder, toward the horse's head, and in motion, nor rivet them to and keep your usual length of rein. your sides, but let them fall easy. By this means, you have a check One may, at a distance, distinguish upon your horse, while you indulge a genteel horseman from an awk.
ward one : the first sits still, and If you ride with a curb, make it appears of a piece with his horse ; a rule to hook on the chain yourself; the latter seems flying off at all the most quiet horse may bring his points. rider into danger, should the curb To have a good seat is to sit on hurt him. If, in fixing the curb, that part of the horse, which, as he you turn the chain to the right, the springs, is the centre of motion ; links will unfold themselves, and and from which, of course, any then oppose a farther turning. Pat weight would be with most difficulty on the chain loose enough to hang shaken. As in the rising and fall. down on the horse's under lip, so ing of a board placed in æquilibrio, that it may not rise and press his the centre will be always most at