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some enquiries about the history and ed out without his hawk on his nature of that once fashionable hand; which, in old paintings, is the amusement. The following parti.. criterion of nobility. Harold, afterculars on that subject may, perhaps, ward king of England, when he afford some amusement to your went on a most important embassy readers, who have the same curi. into Normandy, is painted embarkosity.

ing with a bird on his fist, and a dog There are only two countries in under his armo; and, in an ancient the world where we have any evi- picture of the nuptials of Henry IV, dence that hawking, or the exer a nobleman is represented in much cise of taking wild fowls by the the same manner : for, in those means of hawks, was very anciently days, “ it was thought sufficient for

These are Thrace and noblemen to winde their horn, and Britain. In the former, it was pure to carry their hawk fair, and leave sued merely as the diversion of a study and learning to the children of particular district, if we may believe mean people." Pliny, whose account is rendered ob This diversion was, among the scure by the darkness of his own old English, the pride of the rich, ideas of the matter. The primæval and the privilege of the poor ; no Britons, with a fondness for the ex- rank of men seems to have been ercise of hunting, had also a taste for excluded the amusement: we learn that of hawking; and every chief from the book of St. Alban's, that among them maintained a conside- every degree had its peculiar hawk, rable number of birds for that sport. from the emperor down to the holyIt appears also from a curious pas- water clerk. Vast was the expence sage in the poems of Ossian, that the that sometimes attended this sport. same diversion was fashionable at a In the reign of James I, sir Tho. very early period in Scotland. The mas Monson is said to have given poet tells us, that a peace was en- 10001. for a cast of hawks: we are deavoured to be gained by the prof- not then to wonder at the rigour of fer of a hundred managed steeds, the laws that tended to preserve a a hundred foreign captives, and pleasure that was carried to such “ a hundred hawks with fluttering an extravagant pitch. In the 34th wings, that fly across the sky." of Edward III, it was made felony To the Romans this diversion was to steal a hawk; to take its eggs, scarce known in the days of Vespa- even in a person's own ground, was sian; yet it was introduced imme- punishable with imprisonment for a diately afterward. Most probably year and a day, besides a fine at the they adopted it from the Britons; king's pleasure : in queen Elizabut we certainly know that they beth's reign, the imprisonment was greatly improved it by the intro reduced to three months ; but the duction of spaniels into the island. offender was to find security for his In this state it appears among the good behaviour for seven years, or Roman Britons in the sixth century. lie in prison till he did. Gildas, in a remarkable passage in Such was the enviable state of the his first epistle, speaks of Maglo- times of old England : during the cunus, on his relinquishing the whole day, the gentry were given sphere of ambition, and taking re to the fowls of the air and the beasts fuge in a monastery ; and prover- of the field; in the evening, they bially compares him to a dove, that celebrated their exploits with the hastens away at the noisy approach most abandoned and brutish sottishof the dogs, and with various turns ness; at the same time, the inferior and windings takes her flight from rank of people, by the most unjust the talons of the hawk.

and arbitrary laws, were liable to In after times, hawking was the capital punishments, to fines, and principal amusement of the Eng- loss of liberty, for destroying the lish : a person of rank scarce stirr. most noxious of the feathered tribe. VOL. III. NO. XXI.



This amusement seems to have company in town. Let me endeavour spread itself over all Europe, and, to give you some notion of a rout. like all other things governed by A rout is an assemblage of people fashion, it has since entirely disap- of fashion at the private house of peared. In Great Britain, it is, at one of them. The manner of makleast, a century since hawks have ing a rout is this : gone entirely into disuse. This Lady A, or lady B, or lady C, or change was wholly or nearly effect- any other capital in the alphabet of ed before the settlement of any part fashion, chooses a distant night, of North America, so that probably which may not interfere with any hawking has been always entirely other rout, but which, if possible, unknown on this side of the ocean. may clash with some public amuse

ment, and make a noise in the world. She issues cards, intimating,

that on the night specified, “ she For the Literary Magazine. sees company." These cards are

sent to several hundred people ; not because they are relations, or

friends, or acquaintance, but because From a Traveller's Correspondence. she has seen them, or because their

presence will give an eclat to the THE general mediocrity of your thing: circumstances prevents a native of Before eleven o'clock at night, Boston or New York from forming which is high tide, the house is any adequate conception of the Eng- crowded, with a company of both lish style of entertainment. Here, sexes and of all ranks. Card tain England, many people have no bles are placed in every room in more difficult object of study than to the house ; and as many in each spend the year's revenue within the room as will barely leave interstices year. When this revenue amounts for the players to sit or move about. to ten, fifteen, or twenty thousand Coffee, tea, and lemonade are handpounds, those who have never been ed about. acccustomed to the command or dis Confusion is the very essence of bursement of more than one tenth a rout, and every lady who gives a of the sum may naturally enough be rout takes measurement of the fapuzzled to discover by what expedi- shion, and not of her house. Many ents the possessors can get rid of more persons are invited than the such a sum.

place can hold, and she enjoys the One very obvious and adequate inconvenience, the fatigue, the heat, means of doing this, indeed, is by and other circumstances peculiar to betting, either at card-tables or the a rout, with as much heart-felt horse course. In this way, a hun- pleasure as a player who hears the dred thousand pounds may be gotten screams and noise of an immense rid of in the same time, and with as crowd flocking to his benefit. The much facility, as sixpence; but this blunders of servants, the missing of is an extraordinary mode. The articles of dress, or the tearing customary methods are these four: them, the repeated exclamations of equipage, servants, dress, and, “ Good G-! how hot it is ! Bless above all, company. As to equipage me! Lady Betty, I am ready to and servants, you may easily con- faint ! Dear me!'o la !” &c. these ceive in what way, and to what ex- afford exquisite satisfaction to the tent, money may be lavished upon lady of the house ; whose happiness these ; but it is only by being on the may be deemed perfect, if she hear spot, and a partaker of the scene, that the street has been in an upthat you would be able to form any roar, that some of the nobility's sernotion of a rout, which is the usual vants have been fighting, some of form in which the rich entertain the carriages broke, or some of the

company robbed by the pickpockets the writer's genuine powers ? Eveat the door.

ry poet must begin, whenever he Pharo-tables are indispensable at begins, with writing badly. He routs; and these, as well as the cannot start up from his cradle a cards, and other implements of gam- Pope or a Milton. A progress that ing, are provided by a set of gen. terminates in excellence must yet tlemen in the other end of the town, begin with very rude and jejune atwho make a comfortable livelihood tempts; and this beginning must be by lending out their furniture per equally, unpromising, whether it night.

take place at the age of ten, or At a rout, it is not necessary to twenty, or thirty. take much notice of the lady of the

Dean Swift affords a striking exhouse, either at entrance or exit; ample of the uncertainty of these but you must provide a seat at some indications. This great man made table, win, if you can, but at all his entrance in the literary world events lose something. Very consi- by one of the wretchedest odes derable losses exalt a rout much, which ever disgraced Grub-street. and if you have the credit of a young Stiff, uncouth, awkward as to sense, heir being done over at your rout, it and, as to measure, even allowing establishes the credit of your house for the alcaic irregularity, insufferfor ever.

able. Such is a rout; and of such routs The following extracts will prove it is not uncommon to hear that this. there are no less than six on one night : a circumstance extremely “ The first of plants after the thunder, encouraging to those who, upon the

storm, and rain, faith of people of fashion, embark And thence with joyful, nimble wing, their property in the establishment Flew dutifully back again. of operas or theatres.

Who by that, vainly talks of baffling

death, And hopes to lessen life, by a transfu

sion of breath.

And seem almost transform'd to water, For the Literary Magazine.

fiame, and air,

So well you answer all phænomenas SYMPTOMS OF GENIUS.


EXPERIENCE does not seem to If any thing could add to the dishave settled the tokens and symp- grace of writing such a poem, it toms by which we may infallibly the folly of having addressed it, judge of human genius or capacity. with a very silly introductory letter, . At what age, for example, may a to the writers of the Athenian Ora. man's productions in poetry afford cle, a set of people, whose conceit us a criterion by which to judge of in offering to answer all questions, his ultimate attainments ? It is ignorance in giving solutions, and true, if an old fellow of fifty begins credulity, in listening to the grosse to scribble verses which have no est falsehoods, are at a perpetual thing but the rhyme or numbers, or strife, which shall be most noticed. not even these to recommend them, Swift must have been, by the date of we may safely admonish him to for- his ode, 24 years of age, when he bear, for that Nature never designed produced this choice morsel. him for a poet; but if some acci. What critic, however wary and dent awaken and direct to poetry andid, would have hesitated to youthful ambition, by what means pronounce the writer of such lines shall we ascertain how far the first incapable of any future excellence ? attempt, supposing the first attempt One would naturally suppose, that, to be unsuccessful, is a sample of at twenty-four years of age, the man

would have fully unveiled himself, which having never been glazed, and the latent genius have broken the shutters had long since dropped from its sleep.

down. N. There was something particularly

melancholy to the mind of the beholder in these restiges of ancient

grandeur. They called to vivid For the Literary Magazine. remembrance the disastrous scenes

of the revolution, to which the anOLD CASTLES.

cient possessor of the adjacent lands

was an early victim. From a Traveller's Correspondence. As we proceeded onward, the

woods opened into what could only I HAVE had as yet but little op- be called a plain, when compared portunity of gratifying my own cu. with the surrounding hills, for the riosity or your's, on the subject of ground was rugged and uneven, old castles, of which we, in our scattered over with masses of ruinyouth, have read so much. In my ed buildings, that had formerly been journey hither (Boulogne) from Bis- part of the outward fortifications, cay, I had no leisure to turn aside but of which some were fallen into from the beaten track. I did, how- the fosse, and others overgrown ever, steal an hour or two, one day, with alder, ash, and arbeal. to pay a visit to the Chateau de The gate of the castle, and all beMortville, in the Pyrenees.

yond the moat, however, was yet One of my companions had busi. entire, as were the walls within its ness with the owner of this mansion, circumference, bearing every where and, on his invitation, the rest of our the marks of great antiquity, but of company agreed to make a pause of such ponderous strength, as time a day in our journey, and attend him alone had not been able to destroy. to the place.

Where breaches had been made by We were descending the French cannon, the walls had been repairside of this mountain, when, taking ed; but this work being of less duan oblique road through a grove of rability than the original structure, pines, we reached the domain of the had gone to decay ; and the deprechateau, in which, the first object dations of war were still very visithat struck my sight, in a spot which ble. The whole was composed of had once been cleared of trees, but grey stone ; the towers, at each end, where the underwood, and a smal. rose, in frowning grandeur, above ler growth of wood again, almost the rest of the building; and havconcealed it, was a pavilion, which ing only loops, and no windows, imhad once been magnificent, but was pressed ideas of darkness and imnow in ruins. It was built of vari- prisonment, while the moss and ous-coloured marbles, found in the wall-flowers filled the interstices of Pyrenees; was of Grecian archi. the broken stones; and an infinite tecture, and seemed to have been a number of birds made their nests work of taste. The pillars of the among the shattered cornices, and portico, though broken, yet sup- half-fallen battlements, filling the ported its roof; and behind it were air with their shrill cries. three apartments, that had once Over the moat, which was broad been richly furnished: one as a ban- and deep, but now only half-full of queting room ; the other two as water, which was almost hidden by rooms for the siesta, which is usu. aquatic plants, sheltering several ally taken here as Spain. The sorts of water-fowls, that now lived canopies, of yellow damask, were there unmolested, a draw-bridge, fallen, and the hangings of the rooms with massive chains, led to the gate devoured by the moths, and decay- of the first court, under a high arched by the damps from the windows, ed gateway, defended by a double

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portcullis: this court was where and that some of the stories of enthe castle guard were used to pa. chanted castles, and wandering adrade. It was spacious, and the build- venturers, which you and I used to ings that surrounded it were gloom- con over with so much curiosity, ily magnificent ; but now, no war were realized. However, I mean like footsteps wore away the grass hereafter to visit some of the celewhich grew over the pavement; no brated and most entire edifices of martial music echoed among the this kind in Guienne or Gascony, arches and colonades.

and give you a much more particu-, Being introduced to the presentlar account of them than my short occupant of this mansion, who is a stay enables me to give you of Morte sort of agent to the new proprietor, ville. a colonel in the army, who was formerly a barber's journeyman, and who purchased this domain with his share of the plunder in Masse For the Literary Magazine. na's campaigns, we were led into an iminense hall, barbarously magnificent; it was roofed with beams of oak, and the sides covered with standards, and trophies of armour, IN reading the accounts which the perishable parts of which were have been published of the success. dropping to pieces. The narrow ful efforts of Sicard in teaching the gothic windows were filled, not with deafly dumb, we cannot avoid reglass that admitted the light, but flecting on the wonders that might with glass painted with the achieve. be wrought, by the same pains and ments of the family, mingled with assiduity, in instructing those who the heads of saints and martyrs, are in full possession of their senses. whose names were now nowhere to What science or accomplishment be found.

could not be communicated with less We took up our lodging for the difficulty to the active and sound night in this mansion, and our bed. body and mind, than the art of chamber was a long room on the reading and writing to the deaf and north side of the building, and look. dumb ? ed over the moat to a wood of fir How, indeed, is the latter task and cypress, fringing the abrupt performed at all? Sicard himself, ascent of the mountain, which rose as well as his admirers, have endeaalınost perpendicularly from the voured to acquaint us with the plain. As this acclivity commanded means he makes use of. The fol. the castle, two strong redoubts were lowing is a sketch of his process : built on it, where, in hostile times, He first of all places before his parties were stationed to keep the pupil several simple articles well enemy from possessing posts, whence known in common life, as a key, a the castle might be annoyed. In the knife, a watch, a pencil : he exhiport-holes of these fortresses, now bits the various uses of these instru. fast approaching to decay, the can ments before him ; and when he is non yet remained, though rusty and well acquainted with their uses by useless, and the strong butresses, the exercise of his vision, he graduand circular towers, mantled with ally informs him that he has occaivy, were seen to aspire above the sion for them, by representing the dark trees, on every side encom action they produce. From this passing them.

simple sign of the fingers alone he As I marched gravely up a broad advances to drawing, and delineates stone stair-case, winding in a turret, these different instruments on paper, and through a narrow gallery, tó The object and the sign of the obthis apartment, I could not help ject hereby inutually represent each fancying myself a knight of romance, other : by touching the object he

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