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COMMUNICATIONS. page

page Improvement on steam engines 243 | On mathematical studies

284 Naval transactions in the Mediter My native land

286 ranean 245 || Terrific novels

288 Chinese gardening 249 | The use of riches

289 On longevity 253 | Volcanoes

290 The female sex 255 | American manners

291 On classical learning 256 | Government of Louisiana

293 The praise of philosophy 258 || Vanity

294 English public works 260 || Anecdote

ibid. Dr. Gall's system of craniology 261 Literary and philosophical intelliOn the condition of chimney

gence

295 sweepers 264 Duties of editors

301 Poplars 267 | Kotan husbandry

303 On alphabetic reformations ibid. || Anecdote

307 Statistical account of France 268 || London manners

ibid. English weather 269 | Medical advice

ibid. Madelina, a female portrait ibid. | Dean Swift

308 Adversaria, No. VII 272 || Use of astronomy

309 Objections to vaccination 275 | Serious parody

ibid. Young Roscius 277 | Criticism

310 • Portrait of a learned man

278

POETRY. Number of novels 280 Lucy's tear

316 Commercial reputation of the Alfred

ibid. United States

ibid. American literary intelligence 318 Shakespeare's similies 281 To correspondents

320

PUBLISHED BY jonN CONRAD & co. PHILADELPHIA; M. & J. CONRAD & co. BALTIMORE;

RAPIN, CONRAD, & co. WASHINGTON; SOMERVELL & CONRAD, PETERSBURG; AND BONSAL, CONRAD, & CO. NORFOLK.

FRINTED BY T. & G. PALMER, 116, VIGH STREET.

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THE engine of which an engraving fect, which enables us with small, is annexed is thus described by the in- simple, and cheap engines to proventor,Oliver Evans,of Philadelphia. duce effects equal to larger, more

My principle is to confine and re- complex, and expensive ones, heretain the steam, and, by that means, tofore used, with about one-third encrease the heat in the water, part of the fuel : which renders which encreases the elastic power them useful for a great variety of of the steam in a rapid ratio, to a purposes for which other engines great degree, by a very small en- would be unprofitable, as they can crease of the consumption of fuel : be constructed at half the expence namely, as the heat of the water is to produce equal power, and are increased in an arithmetical pro- from five to ten times as powerful, gression, the elastic power of the according to their size and weight steam increases in a geometrical The power can be doubled or tripled progression. Every addition of at pleasure, to meet extra resistanabout thirty degrees of heat to the ces, and may be kept in reserve unwater, by Fahrenheit's thermome- til wanted; which qualities render ter, be the temperature what it may, the engines applicable to and suita. doubles the elastic power of the ble for all the following purposes, steam, so that doubling the heat in the and profitable in each case, where water increases the elastic power of water-falls are not to be had, viz. the steam about a hundred times. Si- for grinding all kinds of grain, saw. milar ratios hold good in practice; ing of all kinds of timber, raising of every addition of a small quantity of water for draining of mines, water. fuel doubles the power and effect of ing of cities or lands, driving of suthe engine, so that doubling the fuel gar-mills, working of rolling and produces about sixteen times the ef- slitting-mills, forge hammers, or VOL. III. NO, XIX.

1

bellows for furnaces, chopping grain through the valve i. These four and pumping water for distilleries valves are wrought by two wheels, and breweries : where the steam, kl, with cams on their sides, which after it leaves the engine, may be strike against four levers, not shown applied to heat the water, and save in the plate, to which the stems of fuel ; to turn grinding stones, turn- the valves are attached, and which ing lathes to grind coffee, chocolate, open and shut them at the proper paints, bark, &c., to propel boats time. The motion of the piston g against a current, and waggons on gives motion to the lever m n, and turnpike roads; in short, for every the rod mo, connected to the crank, purpose for which power may be puts it in motion, and the fly wheel wanted, from the power of one man, q r keeps its motion regular, the to that of one hundred horses. spur wheels 8 t, of equal size, move

I am preparing for the press a the valve wheels l k; the lever mn small work, explaining the princi- works the supply pump c. Thus ples, and showing the reasons why the motion is continued, and the they produce such wonderful effects; cog wheel v of 66 cogs going inbut to do justice to this subject would to the tunnel u of 23 cogs, gives require a large and very expensive the stone w 100 revolutions per mivolume, which I had began, but nute, when the piston strikes 35 have relinquished, believing the strokes. This cog wheel may move sales would not defray the expense. any other work, or instead thereof

The Plate represents a plain ele a crank may move a pump or saw, vated section of the different parts as this engine may be made to strike of the engine, connected in the ope- from 10 to 100 strokes per minute, ration, but they are differently ar as the case may require ; and if the ranged in the construction,

working cylinder be 8 inches diame. ter, it will drive a pair of five feet millstones, or other work requiring

an equal power. a The end view of the boiler, The steam, after it leaves the consisting of two cylindrical tubes, engine, escapes up the pipe x x, the best form for holding a great through the roof of the house, or inpower, the lesser inside of the great to a condenser, if one be used, or

The fire is kindled in the in- through the supply boiler to heat the ner one, which serves as a furnace, water. v A safety valve, kept down the water being between them. The by a lever graduated like a steel. smoke passes to the other end, is yard, to weigh the power of the turned under the supply boiler, b, steam ; this valve will lift and let to heat the water for supplying the the steam escape, when its power is waste occasioned by working ; C

too great. the supply pump, which brings wa If the pipe of the safety valve be ter up, and forces it into the supply turned into the flue of the furnace, boiler, at every stroke of the en- then, by lifting the valve, the ashes gine.

may all be blown out of the flue. The steam ascends the pipe, and This engine is of a simple conif the throttle valve d be lifted to struction, easily executed by ordinalet the steam into the engine, and ry mechanics : the valve seats are valves e and f be opened, the steam formed by simple plates, with holes drives the piston g to the lower end in them, easily cast. of the cylinder, as it appears in the In working this engine to drive plate. The steam escaping before ten saws, we find, that if we put her the piston through the valve f, as in motion as soon as she has power soon as the piston is down the valves to drive one saw, and suffer her to ef shut and h i open, the steam en move briskly, she carries off the ters at h to drive the piston up heat from the boiler nearly as fast again, and escapes before the piston as it is generated, and fuel may be

EXPLANATION.

er.

consumed and time spent to little bow, with thirty-five men. They purpose ; but if we confine and re were officered and manned from the tain the steam in the boiler, until it squadron, except twelve Neapolitan lifts the safety valve with a power bombardiers, gunners, and sailors sufficient to drive ten saws, she will attached to each boat, who were start with that load, and carry it all shipped by permission of their goday, and consume but little more vernment. This step was found fuel.

necessary, as every vessel in the It takes up but little room in the squadron was considerably short of building. The draught is drawn her complement, from a scale of half an inch to a The gun boats are constructed for foot, except the millstones, and two the defence of harbours; they are wheels that move them. They are flat bottomed and heavy, and very a quarter of an inch to a foot. badly sail and row. They were

never intended to go to sea, and cannot be navigated with safety,

unless assisted by tow-ropes from For the Literary Magazine. larger and better sailing vessels ;'

nor even then, in very bad weather. NAVAL TRANSACTIONS IN THE However, as they were the best to MEDITERRANEAN.

be had, he thought proper to employ

them, particularly as the weather in THE most considerable naval July and August is generally setransactions in which the United rene, and without them his force States have been engaged, since the was too small to make any impresrevolution, are, undoubtedly, those sion on Tripoli. that have lately taken place in the On the 16th of July they arrived Mediterranean. They form, there. at Malta, where they were detainfore, the most important portion of ed by contrary gales till the 21st, our national history, in our relation when they left it, and arrived in to other states. The following ac- sight of Tripoli the 25th, and were count has a better chance of being a joined by the Siren, Argus, Vixen, circumstantial and authentic narra- and Scourge. The squadron now tive of these transactions than is consisted of the Constitution, three elsewhere to be met with. It is brigs, three schooners, two bombs, drawn up from the commodore's of- and six gun boats ; the whole numficial dispatch, and contains the ac- ber of men 1060. He proceeded to count of his proceedings during one make the necessary arrangements month, from the 10th of August to for an attack on Tripoli, a city well the 10th of September, 1804. walled, protected by batteries judi.

The commander was cletained by ciously constructed, mounting 115 bad weather in the harbour of Mes- pieces of heavy cannon, and defendsina, till the 9th of August, when he ed by 25,000 Arabs and Turks; the left it with two small bomb vessels harbour protected by 19 gun boats, under convoy, and arrived at Syra- two gallies, two schooners, of eight cuse, where he was necessarily de- guns each, and a brig mounting ten tained four days. On the 14th he guns, ranged in order of battle, sailed; the schooners Nautilus and forming a strong line of defence at Enterprize in company, with six secured moorings, within a long gun boats and two bomb vessels, range of rocks and shoals, extending placed under his command by the more than two miles eastward of king of Naples. The bomb vessels the town. This reef forms the har. were about thirty tons, carried a bour, and protects it from the northirteen inch brass sea mortar, and thern gales. It is hence impossible forty men. The gun boats were for a vessel of the Constitution's twenty-five tons; carried a long draft of water to approach near iron twenty-four pounder in the enough to destroy them, as they are

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